3 Coupling to an improved SVAT model : MECBETH

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS ix 6.3.2 Soil hydrology improvements for isotopic catchment studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6.3.3 Coupling to an improved SVAT model : MECBETH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A SLP computation 135 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 B REMO over Canada 143 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 C IPIPLS forcing fields 153 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 x TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Past and future evolution of mean global temperatures, a state-of-the-art synthesis by the IPCC . . . . . .

Map of the ice-core drilling sites and mean seasonal streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rotated grids of REMO study domains: Europe, South America, Australia, Canada . . . . . . . . . . . .

Vertical cross section of pressure levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Partial flow diagram of REMOiso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Relaxation factor of the lateral boundary assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .community logo of the REMO suite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

REMO orography over Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Yearly mean δ18 O by REMOiso nested in ECHAMiso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . δ18 O and temperature for ECMWF/ECHAM nested REMO and GNIP . . . .

Correlation of mean annual 4 8 17 18 19 21 27 35 38 39 40 43 44 45 46 48 49 54 55 56 57 67 tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 Mean δ18 O for ECMWF/ECHAM nested REMO, compared to GNIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Altitude effect simulated by REMOiso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Seasonal amplitude of δ18 O for ECMWF/ECHAM nested REMOiso and GNIP stations . . . . . . . . . . δ18 O at Cuxhaven and Graz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annual cycle of precipitation and Seasonal correlation of δ18 O with temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annual and seasonal continental gradient by REMOiso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . δ18 O at the GSF stations Nordeney, Arkona and Hohenpeissenberg. . . . . . . . .

Between ECHAM3 and observations in Heidelberg . . . . . . . . . . . .

Vapour observations in Saclay with the nudged REMOiso . . . . . . . . . δ18 O — tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 Figure 3.14: Horizontal wind field over Europe on February 10, 1983.

Arrows represent the wind field, and shadings indicate the orography. 58 Chapter 3.

Validation over Europe Bibliography O.

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Nature, 285:314, — tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 6.3.2 Soil hydrology improvements for isotopic catchment studies At present, the SWI diagnostics are imbedded in the REMO 5.0 version, which is characterised by a rough parameterisation of soil processes.

Later REMO versions (currently v5.1) incorporate an improved representation of fractional sea-ice distribution, snow-melt and runoff collection scheme [Semmler, 2002, Semmler and Jacob, 2004, Kotlarski and Hagemann, 2003].

Ongoing projects include several improvements of the soil module in REMO, eg interactive vegetation parameterisation [Rechid, personnal communication], dynamical glacier scheme [Kotlarski, personal communication].

As demonstrated in chapter 4, the surface processes impose a significant feedback on the atmospheric SWI cycle.

Hence upgrading the SWI diagnostics from REMO v5.0 to v5.1 or later would improve the representation of both the hydrological cycle and its isotopic component.

As a consequence, catchment-wide SWI balance studies could be performed with REMOiso , eg as a validation tool for human-induced climate change in the Amazon basin [Henderson-Sellers et al., 2002]. 6.3.3 Coupling to an improved SVAT model : MECBETH REMOiso provides the forcing fields the SWI enabled land-surface scheme (LSS) intercomparison experiment IPILPS (cf.

Appendix C, Henderson-Sellers et al., 1996, Henderson-Sellers and McGuffie, 2003).

It takes part in the inter-comparison as bucket-type on-line LSS.

MECBETH [Cuntz, personal communication] is another participating model, with a detailed treatment of soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) parameterisation [Cuntz et al., 2003b,a].

Its particularity is to include fractionation processes of the carbon isotopes along with oxygen isotopes.

Hence both transpiration and photosynthesis processes are traced with this module.

MECBETH was implemented in the ECHAM iso GCM, which permits the identification of the Earth’s Dole effect [Hoffmann et al., 2004].

Taking profit of the similarity between the ECHAM and REMO physical schemes, it was suggested to implement MECBETH in REMOiso as well.

A further, long-term step would be to introduce Carbon isotope tracers in REMO, based 6.3.

Suggested development of REMO’s stable water isotope module 131 on the CO2 transport module readily available in REMO [Chevillard et al., 2002].

Consequently, REMO2 iso would feature both the 13C, 18 O and 2 H tracers in the water and carbon cycle. tel-00010157, version 1 – 16 Sep 2005 132 Chapter 6.

Conclusion and perspectives

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