3 (figure of Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E

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Ruby's choice (5pc in bag) - Natural Horse treats - For the Horse Horses-store.com 3 (figure of Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E

Cope, E.D. 1874.

Report on the vertebrate paleontology of northern Colorado, Ann.

Rept.

U.S.

Geol.

And Geogr.

Surv.

Terr.

Embr.

Colorado (1873), p. 496 (Anchitherium exoletum); p. 12, no fig. (Hippotherium paniense); p. 13, no fig. (Protohippus labrosus); p. 15, no fig. (Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E.D. 1875.

On some new fossil Ungulata, Proc.

Acad.

Nat.

Sci.

Phila. 27:259‑260, no fig. (Hippotherium calamarium). Cope, E.D. 1878.

On some of the characters of the Miocene fauna of Oregon, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc., 18(1878‑1880), p. 73, no fig. (Anchitherium equiceps); 74‑5, no fig (A.

Brachylophum); 75, no fig. (A.

Longicristis); p. 76, no fig. (Stylonus seversus) Cope, E.D. 1879.

A new Anchitherium, Amer.

Natur. 13(7):462‑3, no fig. (Anchitherium praestans). Cope, E.D. 1880.

A new Hippidium, Amer.

Nat. 14(3):223, no fig. (H.

Spectans). Cope, E.D. 1881.

On the origin of the foot structure of the ungulates, Amer.

Nat. 15(4):271, fig. 3 (figure of Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E.D. 1885a.

Report on the coal deposits near Lacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 23(1886):150‑151, fig. 2 (Protohippus castilli) Cope, E.D. 1885b.

Pliocene horses of southwestern Texas, Amer.

Nat. 19(12):1208‑09, pl.

“vii, fig. 6 (more on Protohippus castilli)p. 1208‑9, no description, pl. 37, fig. 5 (Hippotherium peninsulatum) Cope, E.D. 1886a.

On two new species of three‑toed horses from the Upper Miocene, with notes on the fauna of the Ticholeptus beds, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc., 23(1886):359, no fig. (Hippotherium seversum); p. 360‑361, no fig. (Hippotherium rectidens); p. 357‑358, no fig. (Anchitherium ultimum) Cope, E.D. 1886b.

Report on the coal deposits near Lacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 23:150, fig. 1 (description of Hipparion peninsulatum) Cope, E.D. 1887.

The Perissodactyla, Amer.

Natur. 21(12):1069, fig. 36. Cope, E.D. 1889a.

An intermediate Pliocene fauna, Amer.

Nat. 23(268):253‑4, no fig. (Hippotherium relictum). Cope, E.D. 1889b.

A review of the North American species of Hippotherium, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 26(1889):449, figs. 19, 19a, 20 (more on H.

Relictum); more on Stylonus seversus; p. 449, no fig. (Hippotherium sphenodus); p. 446, figs. 7, 7a, 8 (Hippotherium retrusum); p. 446‑7, no fig. (P.

Or H.

Profectus); p. 434‑435, figs. 2, 2a (descr.

And figs.

Of Hippotherium sinclairi Wortman) — 20.

Left superior cheek dentitions of grazing equids of the hipparionine clade, occlusal view.

These forms (all but F) usually possess highly plicated enamel and disconnected protocones.

All are drawn to approximately equal anteroposterior length to facilitate proportional comparisons.

Black indicates exposed surface of enamel, stipple indicates dentine.

Cementum is present on these teeth, and is shown in white surrounding the exterior enamel and filling or partially filling the fossettes (fo).

A, Hipparion after Osborn (this specimen called “Merychippus” by him).

B, European Hipparion after MacFadden.

C, Nannippus after Osborn.

D, Cormohipparion after Skinner and MacFadden.

E, Pseudhipparion after Webb and Hulbert.

F, Astrohippus after Matthew and Stirton.

G, Neohipparion after Bennett.

Note the deep hypoconal groove (hcg) and strong style development of most forms.

Protocone may connect “backwards” (to metaloph) in Pseudhipparion. 21.

Left inferior cheek dentitions of a condylarth and scansorial and chalicomorph browsing equids, occlusal view.

All are drawn to approximately equal anteroposterior length to facilitate proportional comparisons.

Black indicates worn surface of enamel, stipple indicates dentine.

A, Phenacodus, a condylarth, after Simpson.

B, Hyracotherium after Simpson.

C, Mesohippus after Osborn.

D, Miohippus after Prothero and Shubin.

E, Kalobatippus after Osborn.

F, Megahippus after Osborn.

Note bunodont structure in A, buno‑lophodont structure in B, lophodont structure in C‑F.

In scansorial browsers (B‑D), metaconid (mcd) and metastylid (msd) are tiny and little separated.

In chalicomorph browsers, these two cusps are larter but still little differentiated.

The ectoflexid penetrates deeply in all these forms. 22.

Left inferior cheek dentitions of grazing equids, occlusal view.

All are drawn to approximately equal anteroposterior length to facilitate proportional comparisons.

Black indicates surface of enamel, stipple indicates dentine.

Cementum (white) surrounds the external enamel in these forms.

A‑E show grazers belonging to the protohippine clade.

A, Parahippus, after Osborn.

B, Protohippus after Osborn (called by him “Merychippus”).

C, Pliohippus after Osborn.

D, Onohippidion after Hoffstetter.

E, Dinohippus after Osborn.

F, Equus after Hoffstetter.

G, Hipparion after MacFadden, for comparison.

In all except E, F, and G, the metaconid and metastylid remain relatively small and undifferentiated.

The entoconid is likewise simple; plications are at a minimum, there is no pli caballinid, and the ectoflexid penetrates nearly to the external border of the tooth.

Inferior cheek teeth of E and F are comparable to those of hipparionines (G). 23.

Left inferior cheek dentitions of grazing equids, occlusal view.

All are drawn to approximately equal anteroposterior length to facilitate proportional comparisons.

Black indicates surface of enamel, stipple indicates dentine.

Cementum (white) surrounds the external enamel in these forms.

This figure shows grazers belonging to the hipparionine clade.

A, Hipparion after MacFadden.

B, Nannippus after MacFadden.

C, Cormohipparion after Skinner and MacFadden.

D, Pseudhipparion after Webb and Hulbert.

E, Astrohippus after Matthew and Stirton.

F, Neohipparion after Bennett.

Anteroposterior attenuation and “squaring up” of the corners of the teeth is characteristic of this clade.

The metaconid and metastylid are large and well‑differentiated, the entoconid is bipartate and plicated, a protostylid is characteristic as are plications of the enamel. 24.

Manus (forefoot) of a condylarth and equids.

All are drawn to approximately equal height to facilitate comparisons.

A, Phenacodus, a condylarth, after Simpson.

B, Hyracotherium after Gregory.

C, Miohippus after Osborn.

D, Kalobatippus after Osborn.

E, Parahippus after Osborn.

F, “Merychippus” (Protohippus?) after Osborn.

G, Dinohippus after Matthew and Stirton.

H., Equus after Sisson and Grossman. 25.

Pes (hind foot) of a condylarth and equids.

All are drawn to approximately equal height to facilitate comparisons.

A, Phenacodus, a condylarth, after Simpson.

B, Hyracotherium after Gregory.

C, Mesohippus after Osborn.

D, Kalobatippus after Osborn.

E, Parahippus after Osborn.

F, “Merychippus” (Protohippus?) after Osborn.

G, Dinohippus after Matthew and Stirton.

H., Equus after Sisson and Gr FIGURE 10.

Logic diagram (cladogram) showing the evolutionary diversity or “bushiness” of the Family Equidae.

Characters: 1.

Basicranial structure (see text and Fig. 5). 2.

Metaloph connected to ectoloph. 3.

Enlarged hypostyle; posterior fossette present. 4.Lengthened forelimb, lengthened neck, withers; deep facial fossa present. 5.

Retraction of the nasal notch; broad, bulbous teeth. 6.

Cementum present on teeth; postorbital bar present; crochette enlarged and confluent with protoloph, forming anterior fossa; both anterior and posterior fossae present on cheek teeth. 7.Protocone connected to protoloph; facial fossa excludes facial foramen. — Cope, E.D. 1874.

Report on the vertebrate paleontology of northern Colorado, Ann.

Rept.

U.S.

Geol.

And Geogr.

Surv.

Terr.

Embr.

Colorado (1873), p. 496 (Anchitherium exoletum); p. 12, no fig. (Hippotherium paniense); p. 13, no fig. (Protohippus labrosus); p. 15, no fig. (Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E.D. 1875.

On some new fossil Ungulata, Proc.

Acad.

Nat.

Sci.

Phila. 27:259‑260, no fig. (Hippotherium calamarium). Cope, E.D. 1878.

On some of the characters of the Miocene fauna of Oregon, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc., 18(1878‑1880), p. 73, no fig. (Anchitherium equiceps); 74‑5, no fig (A.

Brachylophum); 75, no fig. (A.

Longicristis); p. 76, no fig. (Stylonus seversus) Cope, E.D. 1879.

A new Anchitherium, Amer.

Natur. 13(7):462‑3, no fig. (Anchitherium praestans). Cope, E.D. 1880.

A new Hippidium, Amer.

Nat. 14(3):223, no fig. (H.

Spectans). Cope, E.D. 1881.

On the origin of the foot structure of the ungulates, Amer.

Nat. 15(4):271, fig. 3 (figure of Protohippus sejunctus) Cope, E.D. 1885a.

Report on the coal deposits near Lacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 23(1886):150‑151, fig. 2 (Protohippus castilli) Cope, E.D. 1885b.

Pliocene horses of southwestern Texas, Amer.

Nat. 19(12):1208‑09, pl.

“vii, fig. 6 (more on Protohippus castilli)p. 1208‑9, no description, pl. 37, fig. 5 (Hippotherium peninsulatum) Cope, E.D. 1886a.

On two new species of three‑toed horses from the Upper Miocene, with notes on the fauna of the Ticholeptus beds, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc., 23(1886):359, no fig. (Hippotherium seversum); p. 360‑361, no fig. (Hippotherium rectidens); p. 357‑358, no fig. (Anchitherium ultimum) Cope, E.D. 1886b.

Report on the coal deposits near Lacualtipan, in the State of Hidalgo, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 23:150, fig. 1 (description of Hipparion peninsulatum) Cope, E.D. 1887.

The Perissodactyla, Amer.

Natur. 21(12):1069, fig. 36. Cope, E.D. 1889a.

An intermediate Pliocene fauna, Amer.

Nat. 23(268):253‑4, no fig. (Hippotherium relictum). Cope, E.D. 1889b.

A review of the North American species of Hippotherium, Proc.

Amer.

Philos.

Soc. 26(1889):449, figs. 19, 19a, 20 (more on H.

Relictum); more on Stylonus seversus; p. 449, no fig. (Hippotherium sphenodus); p. 446, figs. 7, 7a, 8 (Hippotherium retrusum); p. 446‑7, no fig. (P.

Or H.

Profectus); p. 434‑435, figs. 2, 2a (descr.

And figs.

Of Hippotherium sinclairi Wortman)

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