Western – Black polyester or poly-blend western pants with gold braid between ½ – ¾ inch wide (standard issue) down both outside seams.
The bottom of the Western pants shall include a black elastic strap securing the pants (to the bottom of the boot). Footgear: English – Black, knee-high English riding boots. Western – Black western boots. Jacket: (Optional) Black nylon, full zipper front, button cuffs, standard collar.
Jackets worn at official CA Rangers’ functions will be zipped one-quarter closed. Distinctive Insignia: Triangular Shoulder Patch – The standard issue California Rangers patch shall be worn one inch below the shoulder seam in the center of the left sleeve by all ranks above Remount. Service Stripes (Hash Marks) – One for each year of honorable service.
To be worn one inch above the center of the cuff of the left sleeve (slanted upward from back to front).
A star represents five years of honorable service and is to be worn in the same fashion (ie, one inch above the left sleeve, centered) with additional service stripes being located one inch above the star. Grade Insignias – (Trooper’s, TFC’s, LC’s, Corporal’s, Sergeants) – Appropriate California Ranger chevrons to be worn one inch beneath the Trooper Patch on the left sleeve and the equivalent on the right sleeve. Crossed sabers: NCO’s and Cadets: one Crossed Saber Disk in front center of hat/helmet and one centered on each point of the shirt collar. Cadet Officers: one Crossed Sabers (no disk) on front center of hat/helmet and left collar point.
Appropriate insignia of rank on right collar point. Name Identification Tag: The name tag shall be 3” by 1” with the name written in Arial font.
Last name and Troop insignia on a black background (with gold print) shall be worn above the right pocket. JUNIOR AND SENIOR OFFICERS Uniform items are the same as cadets, with the exception of the following: Senior Officers: Black shirt, gold tie, metallic hat cord, gold citation cord and yellow name tag with black riding (absent troop designation). Junior Grade Officers: None. Junior Grade Members: JGMs wear crossed sabers on collar (as compared to rank insignia worn by JGOs on right collar lapel.) SPECIAL DRESS On Special dress occasions (shows, parades, etc.) the following shall be added to the above required dress uniform: Citation Cord – — Assemble (Recovery Command for Line of Half Squad Columns) As Forgers Assemble (Recovery Command for As Forgers) Directional Change by Column(s) Right or Left Turn by Unit(s) Right or Left About by Unit(s) Right or Left Circle by Unit(s) Right or Left Oblique Forward (Recovery Command for Right or Left Oblique) DRILL PENALTIES A.
Time Limit: There is a maximum time limited allowed of eight (8) minutes for a drill.
A one minute warning is given by the announcer at the end of seven minutes of performing a drill.
Five points will be deducted for each 30 seconds a drill team exceeds the maximum allowable time limit.
There is no penalty deduction for fractions of 30 second intervals.
Time outs may be approved by the judge should a hazardous situation or condition occur. B.
Formations & Maneuvers: Each Troop is responsible for knowing the required drill commands/executions as set forth in the previous page. 15 points will be deducted for each required drill formation and/or maneuver not executed. 10 points will be deducted for each formation or maneuver not properly executed. C.commands: 10 points will be deducted for each command improperly issued. D.
Gaits: With the exception of Remounts, all drill members are expected to demonstrate his/her ability to ride a horse at the walk, trot and canter/lope. 50 points shall be deducted for each gait not executed during the drill.
A total of 25 points will be deducted from a drill team’s score for failure to execute a canter/lope for the entire circumference of the arena. E.
Uniforms: Each trooper shall be responsible to ensure that his/her equipment/uniform is properly and securely fitted. 5 points shall be deducted for any equipment or uniform failure occurring (eg loose helmet, long chin straps, un-tucked shirt) during execution of the drill. F.
Flag Carriage: 5 points shall be deducted for the improper carriage of the Troop flag by the Guide-on.
The flag shaft shall be perpendicular to the ground unless required to be moved in case of obstruction.
The right forearm should be parallel to the ground and elbow kept to the side. G.
Shortage of Riders: 50 points shall be deducted for each unfilled position in drill including the Guide-on and Stable Sergeant positions. 40 points shall be deducted for each rider riding in a position below his/her rank. 25 points shall be deducted for each borrowed rider (borrowed riders must ride the position of their rank or 40 points will be deducted). THE DRILL SQUAD The Drill Squad consists of eight (8) riders and normally includes a Corporal, a Lance Corporal, and six other riders (only two Lance Corporals are allowed).
The highest ranking Cadet in the Troop, the Cadet Commander, is responsible for writing and commanding (calling) the drill.
The second highest ranking individual in the drill is the Guide-on.
A Stable Sergeant shall ride behind the Squad to watch for tack failures and/or hazardous situations during the performance of the drill.
The Corporal or the Squad Leader is responsible for ensuring that the Squad is in correct formation and that its members are attentive to the Cadet Commander.
The Lance Corporal assists the Corporal by taking charge of the three riders to his/her left (commonly called the Lance Corporal’s set).
Both the Corporal and Lance Corporal are responsible for ensuring that their respective sets are properly aligned during the performance of the drill. — HORSE TYING TECHNIQUES To be safe, a horse should always be tied to a solid object by way of a halter and rope.
Never tie a horse by the reins of a bridle.
Specialized knots which release quickly (such as the clove hitch knot) should be used at all times.
This knot allows for the easy pull release should a horse pull back suddenly against the rope restraint.
A broken neck or strained back can result if the horse is not immediately calmed and/or released.
If in an emergency and you do not have a halter, a rope secured comfortably about the horse’s neck by a bowline knot can be used.
A bowline knot will not tighten and strangle the horse if it tries to pull away.
When untying the horse, always untie the rope secured to the solid object before removing the horse’s halter NUTRITION The amount and type of feed a horse requires varies according to its weight, what it is being used for and how it is managed.
A successful feeding regimen provides the basic requirements for body maintenance, growth and reproduction. Of most importance is the requirement for body maintenance.
Younger animals need more protein than older animals because they are growing. (Remember that proteins are the body’s building blocks.) Mature animals require less energy (food) unless pregnancy, lactation (milk production), or added exercise increases their nutritional demands/requirements. Nutrients are described as being the chemical components needed by a horse to live.
Some nutrients are needed in larger doses than others on a daily basis.
There are five main types of nutrients needed for horses on a daily basis and in differing amounts depending on their individual requirements: 1) energy (carbohydrates/fats), 2) proteins, 3) vitamins, 4) minerals, and (5) water. Energy nutrients are the body’s fuel.
After the nutrients are digested, the chemical components in a supplied nutrient are taken by the blood to all the cells of the body where they are used to fuel operations at the cell level.
The end result of using these chemicals is carbon dioxide (CO2) and heat.
In herbivores (plant eaters), the main energy nutrient is carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are easy to digest and have a high “feeding value” because most of the chemical components in carbohydrates are digested, absorbed and used.
Grains are examples of carbohydrates which are consumed by horses that have a high feeding value.
Cellulose is a more complex carbohydrate (grass has a lot of cellulose) and is hard to digest (and therefore rarely used) by horses.
Cellulose has a low feeding value.
Another group of energy nutrients is fats/oils.
Fats and oils are the same thing except that fats are solid at normal body temperature and oils are liquid.
Fats are very concentrated energy nutrients – there is 2¼ times more energy in fats than in carbohydrates. While fats and carbohydrates supply the body with energy nutrients, proteins supply the body’s building materials.
Proteins are made up of nitrogen-containing compounds called amino acids.
During the digestion of proteins, the amino acids are broken down into their respective units and absorbed in the gut where they are used to build new body components (eg, muscle, internal organs, bone, blood, skin, hair, hooves).
If too much protein is consumed, the nitrogen part of the compound is separated and excreted by the kidneys and the other protein parts are converted into energy. Vitamins are required just as much as protein or energy nutrients but in much smaller amounts.
Horses must be supplemented with the following vitamins: A, C, D, E, K, and assorted B vitamins.
All but Vitamins A & D are manufactured by the horse.
Vitamin A is needed for the health of the eye, nasal passage tissues and the digestion system.
Green pasture (grass) and quality hay are the best source of vitamin A.
Vitamin D is required for strength and development of bone and for mineral balance.
In most mammals, Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin by the action of the sun’s rays.
Sun cured hays also contain sufficient quantities of Vitamin D. Like vitamins, minerals are very important for normal physiologic function but are required in relatively small quantities.
Most good-quality feeds include sufficient mineral content so that supplementation is not required.
The mineral content of horse feed should be determined to ensure proper intake.
The two minerals calcium and phosphorous are required (in a 2:1 ratio) for normal development of teeth and bone.
Calcium should include about 1% by weight of the horse’s daily ration.
Alfalfa is a good source of calcium.
Salt is necessary for the normal functioning of a horse.
A pound of sweat contains approximately two grams of salt.
The horse should be given free access to salt or the diet should be supplemented with between 0.5-1% salt by weight.
Other required minerals in horse diets should include: iron, iodine, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, selenium and manganese. A horse can live longer without food than without water.
A horse’s body is comprised of 50-75% water (foal-adult).
Water comprises the majority of the volume in blood.
It is used as an intermediate in most, if not all, chemical reactions in the horse’s body.
It acts as a coolant (sweat) and as a lubricant (in joints).
A constant supply of fresh, clean water is an absolute must for good horse management.
An average horse will drink approximately 15-20 gallons of water daily. Horse feeds can be categorized into two broad types: roughage and concentrates.
Examples of roughage include pasture forages, hays, and high percentage fiber byproduct feeds.
Hays are classified as being either legumes (alfalfa, red/white clovers) or grass (oat, barley, timothy).
In general, the quality of hay and/or grass is related to the quantity of soft leaf and the lack of coarse stems (cellulose).
Use alfalfa or grass hays that are harvested before complete maturity because the energy nutrients and vitamins/minerals are higher.
If a hay is harvested after maturity, the leafiness value decreases as nutritious carbohydrates in the leaves are converted into cellulose.
The color of hay is an indication of the roughage’s quality and nutrient content.
All overly mature alfalfa hay is pale colored.
Vitamin A and carbohydrates are leached from the hay during prolonged drying or exposure to the sun.
Hay that is baled before the content is properly dried can lose nutrition through fermentation or “heating”.
Hays that are baled wet promote the growth of molds that is an unacceptable source of feed for horses.
The odor of hay should be aromatic and pleasant.
A stale/musty smell indicates the hay was baled wet and has become moldy.
Dust is not desirable in hay as it reduces palatability and can initiate heaves (or other respiratory disorders).
Dustiness can be reduced by sprinkling the hay with water or adding molasses prior to feeding.
Alfalfa hay is an excellent roughage and is high in protein, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorous and vitamin A.
Oat hay, on the other hand, is not high in protein, calcium or vitamin A.
Care must be taken, therefore, to supplement a horse’s diet depending on the type of hay fed. Allowing horses to graze freely on pasture forage (1) reduces feed costs and (2) provides a natural source of vitamins and good quality proteins.
A third benefit is that the horse can exercise while grazing.
Grasses developing in early spring have a laxative effect on horses so care should be taken in managing your horse during this period. Examples of concentrates include energy-rich grains (with or without molasses), protein/energy rich supplements, vitamin supplements and mineral supplements.
Barley and oats are the most commonly fed concentrates – both are high in energy nutrients and protein.
Both should be rolled (seed coat physically cracked) to maximize absorption during digestion.
Oats are usually the most expensive feed grain (cost per unit of nutrient) but are the safest, most abundant and easiest to feed.
Barley is slightly higher in terms of nutrient value and, when fed with alfalfa hay, is a well-balanced diet.
Corn is similar to the other grains in nutritional content.
However, it contains the highest total digestible nutrient content but the lowest protein, fiber, calcium and phosphorus concentrations.
Wheat/rice bran’s are highly palatable and can be used for their laxative effects, as well.
They are a good source of vitamins, energy and protein and are a good supplement to grass, hay and grains.
Bran is relatively inexpensive but large quantities cause a dangerous imbalance in the calcium-phosphorous ratio. If prepared properly, commercially available concentrates are nutritionally balanced.
A benefit is that the same brands are usually available throughout the United States (or at least regionally).
Purchase commercially prepared concentrates from reputable firms.
Many feeds are available in pellet form which provides a total nutrition for your horse.
Hay, grain, trace minerals are all usually formulated into the prepared pellets. Feeding requirements are to be conducted on an individual basis and are influenced by a number of factors such as reproductive status (pregnant, lactating mare, stallions in breeding season), size, exercise scheduling.
The daily requirement for a 1,000 pound, idle horse, generally speaking, is 6.8 pounds of total digestible nutrients (TDN) which is approximately equal to 14 pounds of good quality hay per day.
Generally speaking, one pound of grain per day can replace ~ 1.5 pounds of good quality hay. A growing foal can gain up to one-half of his adult weight in one-fourth of the time (12 months) it takes to attain maturity.
Therefore, it is important that quality feed be supplied to a growing foal to ensure proper nutrition.
Begin feeding a foal concentrates after he is approximately 3-4 weeks old.
Gradually increase the concentrate by one-half to three-quarters of a pound per 100 pounds of body weight.
Concentrate feeds can be fed to a foal by using a creep feeder.
A creep feeder is a restraint which allows a smaller stature animal access to grain while keeping larger horses out.
After weaning, the foal’s ration of concentrates should be increased to 2.5-3 pounds per 100 pounds of body weight.
The concentrate should be palatable, high in digestibility, protein and minerals and low in fiber.
A rule of thumb for rationing is to feed a foal one pound for each month of age up to 8 months.
From then until approximately 2 years of age, feed 8 pounds per day.
A 2:1 calcium-phosphorous ratio should be employed during this growth period. Feed horses twice a day to increase the animal’s utilization of supplied food stuffs.
Feed at regularly scheduled times in the day.
Do not feed on the ground – provide pails or feeding boxes for grain and mangers for hay.
Allows provide clean water and feeding conditions.
Adjust changes in feeding habits or feed types slowly over a week’s time.
Never feed grain or water to a recently exercised or overly tired horse.
Access to hay will not harm the tired horse.
Never feed moldy or spoiled feed.
Check the condition of the horse’s teeth annually to ensure good general dental health and proper digestion of food. COMMON NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE IN HORSES (1) COLIC — (3) STRANGLES Strangles is an acutely contagious respiratory disease which is characterized by a thick nasal discharge and involvement of the lymph nodes around the head/jaw/throat area.
The disease is caused by a bacterium called Streptococcus equi which can be found in both the nasal discharge and in the pus formed in the involved lymph area.
Younger animals are most susceptible because older horses have been exposed to it and have developed some immunity.
Contaminated water troughs are a common source of the infection.
Most infected animals initially develop a watery discharge which later becomes thicker after the lymph nodes become enlarged and involved.
Temperatures of 104-106 ° F are common. Symptoms of strangles surface about 4-10 days after exposure.
As the bacteria concentrate in the lymph glands around the throat latch, the immune reaction causes the glands to expand causing the “strangling”.
Horses can be vaccinated for strangles. (4) VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS Viral encephalitis (Sleeping Sickness) is an acute viral disease characterized by central nervous system disturbance.
There are at least four known strains (Western, Eastern, Venezuelan, and West Nile) which are transmitted by biting insects, primarily mosquitoes.
Affected animals develop a 103-107 ° F temperature and have a reduced appetite associated with difficulty in chewing/swallowing.
Frequent yawning, grinding of teeth, circling and stumbling are symptoms.
Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms include impaired vision, depression and loss of normal coordination.
Annual inoculations are recommended to prevent outbreaks and proper disease management practices (ie, mosquito abatement) is helpful. INTERNAL PARASITES IN HORSES There are five major groups of internal parasites: large strongyles, small strongyles, ascarids, bots and pinworms. Because of the various stages of the life cycle, it is obvious that no one deworming program will be completely effective.
Effective control programs require continuous, long-term commitments using both management and medical considerations.
Veterinarians should be consulted for the appropriate de-worming agents. Management considerations to be practiced for effective worm control include: the provision of sanitary feeding and watering facilities, regular manure removal schedules, regular de-worming procedures, avoidance of overcrowding in pastures to decrease the exposure of larvae present in a field, separating horses by age (younger horses may harbor or be more susceptible to certain internal parasites), and rigorous insect control.
Worming considerations include: de-worming all horses simultaneously, isolating transient or visiting horses, conducting routine microscopic examination of feces (inspecting for worm eggs), rotating known effective antithelmetics (de-worming medications) to increase each agent’s effectiveness, and de-worming horses at specific ages for specific worms.
Horses should be regularly wormed every 8 weeks (or 6 times a year).
Anti-bot fly preparations should be administered at least once a year in the late fall or early winter months. (1) STRONGYLES Strongyles (also called blood worms) are the most common internal parasite found in horses worldwide.
Generally speaking, strongyles are tissue feeders and some consume blood.
Some species are extremely destructive and may cause fatal bouts of colic due to interference with the blood vascularity of the intestines.common signs of strongyle infestation include: emaciation, anemia, soft foul-smelling feces, decreased appetite, exhaustion, rough coat, stocked up legs, colic, diarrhea and intermittent lameness. Small strongyles generally don’t migrate through tissue but remain and thrive in the intestinal tract.
The large strongyles are more destructive because they travel through body tissues during portions of their development within the host horse.
The female large strongyle is very prolific and produces a large number of eggs.
Those eggs passed in the horse’s stool become infective larvae which are free living organisms that cling to grass blades and are ultimately ingested by a grazing horse.
These larvae survive best in cool, moist conditions and are unable to resist dry, hot environments for long.
After they are ingested, the larvae stay in the intestine for about two weeks and thereafter penetrate the intestinal wall.
Some are carried to distant organs (liver, lungs, pancreas) via the blood system.
Some larvae remain in the larger blood vessels in the legs and G.I. (gastrointestinal) tract.
After the larva mature and become the adult worm, they can occlude these vessels and, in many cases, cause death.
Some time later, the larva return to the colon and cecum to complete the life cycle by producing eggs.
The developmental process can take from 3-12 months.
Control of strongyles is through good sanitation management and sound de-worming practices. (2) ASCARIDS Ascarids (also called large roundworms) are the one parasite to which horses can develop an immunity – that’s why one rarely sees roundworm infestation problems in horses older than 1 or 2.
Because of their large size, ascarids can obstruct the intestine and/or bile ducts which can easily lead to death of the host horse.
Eggs are passed along with the horse’s feces and become infective in about a month.
Like the strongyles, ascarids can survive in cool, moist environments but not in hot, dry ones.
Grazing horses eat the infective larva and themselves become infected.
Developing small larva penetrate the gut wall and migrate to target organs such as the liver and the lungs.
Roundworm larva growing in the lungs are often coughed up and swallowed again to become adult worms in the intestine.
The life cycle of the roundworm (leaving and returning to the intestinal area) may take 3-4 weeks.
Regular de-worming younger horses (beginning at 8 weeks of age) is strongly recommended. (3) PIN WORM Pin worms are smaller, white worms which develop in the large intestine.
The adult female migrates to the horse’s rectum where she emerges and lays clusters of eggs on the skin underneath the tail area.
This is irritating and causes the infected horse to rub its perineal area (anus and genital areas) in an attempt to seek relief.
Eggs eventually drop to the ground and are ingested by the host.
Adults feed off intestinal contents while the larva attach themselves directly to the gut wall. (4) STOMACH WORM — REVIEW QUESTIONS DRILL AND BREEDS What are the recovery commands for as foragers? left (or right) oblique? and line of half squad columns? How many troopers are there in a Squad? What is meant by a horse’s classification? Name three breeds of horse and their classification? Where was the Morgan breed originated? What is the unit used to measure the height of a horse? Where is the height of a horse measured? What is the maximum height of a pony? Name five classifications for horses and/or ponies. What are some major differences between the Arabian and Quarter Horse? What is meant by the versatility of a horse? What is the difference between a base breed and a color breed? Name four color patterns in the Appaloosa? Name the four characteristics of an Appaloosa Horse. How does an Albino Horse differ from a White Horse? Name three color breeds and describe their characteristics. COLORS, GROOMING, NUTRITION, DISEASES, AND PARASITES Describe the following body colors: Bay, Dun, Roan, Buckskin. Name three color breeds and describe them. Describe the following markings: star, snip, strip, blaze, sock. What is a dorsal stripe? What are black points? Name five grooming aids and their uses. What the two major categories of horse feed? Name the five nutritional classifications required by horses daily? What is a herbivore? Name three categories of activity which require a change in feeding schedule. Name three roughage’s.
Name three supplements. What are legumes? What is colic? What are its causes? How can faulty teeth cause colic? What disorder can occur as a result of a horse standing in water/unsanitary conditions? What is laminitis? What are its causes? What is the white line? Describe the differences between heatstroke and exhaustion? Describe the treatment of colic. Describe the treatment of heatstroke. Describe three infectious diseases which can be prevented with vaccinations. What are the two types of vaccines for tetanus and how do they differ? Why is an outbreak of Rhino pneumonitis serious around pregnant mares?
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