Propylene glycol (225 g, b.i.d.
For 2 days, followed by 100 g daily for 2 days) -Control: –properly condition during late lactation and dry period –body score should be 3.5/5.0 –2 wks prior to parturition-sm amt concentrate, gradually incr to 1 lb/150 lb body wt.
Daily @ parturition –DON’T OVERFEED after parturition –rations containing 16-18% crude protein and 19-21% fiber –eliminate predisposing factors Acrodermatitis – Lethal familial zinc deficiency in white bull terriers. Retarded growth, progressive, acral, hyperkeratotic dermatitis, pustular dermatits at mucocutaneous jxns. Death by 2 yrs of age.
Don’t respond to Zn therapy Acute Abdomen – Syndrome. Acute presentation, showing systemic signs, abdomen painful, distended, V/D, weakness. Major categories are bacterial sepsis, obstruction/perforation, ischemia/thrombosis. Fundamental question is surgical or medical tx reqd. W/ septic peritonitis, the solution to polution is dilution – exploratory and lavage. See GDV and pancreatitis for others. Addison’s Disease – Hypoadrenocorticism. Immune-mediated or iatrogenic adrenocortical insufficiency leads to deficiency of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Seen in young to middle-aged dogs, occasionally horses. Familial in standard poodles (?). Lack of aldosterone secretion results in impaired ability to conserve Na+ and excrete K+. Leads to hyponatremia and hyperkalemia (Na:K < 25:1). Clinical signs - Hyponatremia leads to hypotension, ↓ CO, hypovolemia. Results in prerenal azotemia.
Severe hyperkalemia-→bradycardia; ECG changes. Lack of cortisol secretion can lead to GI signs, lethargy, and impaired stress response. Normocytic, normochromic anemia. Absolute eosinophilia. Hypoglycemia due to ↓ glucose production (glucocorticoid deficiency). Occasional hypercalcemia. Ddx – Whipworm infection, renal failure, acute pancreatitis, toxin. Diagnosis – ACTH stimulation test. Treatment – Fluid replacement, electrolyte assessment. Florinef (Fludrocortisone acetate) or DOCP (Desoxycorticosterone pivalate). Prednisone if necessary. ADH – Antidiuretic Hormone. Suppresses excretion of urine. Has specific effect on the epithelial cells of the renal tubules. Stimulates the resorption of water, resulting in concentration of urine. Adrenal Glands – Endocrine gland.
Adrenal cortex – Three zones. Zona glomerulosa (outer) secretes mineralocorticoids. Zona fasciculata (middle) layer secretes glucocorticoids. Zona reticularis (inner) secretes sex steroids. Accessory cortical tissue seen as small nodules in aged dogs is common and nonfunctional. Adrenal Medulla – Modified sympathetic nervous system ganglion. Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Important role in response to stress or hypoglycemia. Tumor of adrenal medulla is pheochromocytoma, which may secrete either hormone. Mineralocorticoids – Aldosterone regulates ion transport of epithelial cells, resulting in excretion of K+ and conservation of Na+. Glucocorticoids – Regulate carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism resulting in sparing of glucose and lipolysis. Glucocorticoids suppress inflammatory and immunologic responses. Can have negative effect on wound healing due to inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. Sex hormones – Progesterone, estrogens, and androgens. –Aegyptianellosis: acute, tick-borne, febrile disease caused by Aegyptianella spp –rickettsia, family Anaplasmataceae –variety of avian spp –vector: Argas spp –bloodborne dz; “signet ring” shaped organism or oval, lateral to nucleus rbc — passages, and death –tx:ivermectin, pyrethrin/piperonyl butoxide spray, dichlorvos pest strip Aldosterone – The main mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Regulates electrolyte and water balance by promoting retention of Na+ and the excretion of K+. Retention of water induces an increase in plasma volume and an increase in blood pressure. Secretion of aldosterone is stimulated by angiotensin II. Aleutian Disease – Parvoviral infection of mink resulting in immune complex formation and deposition.
Clin signs: poor reproduction, wt loss, oral/GI bleeding, renal failure, uremia.
Control: test/slaughter; No vaccine. Alimentary Lymphosarcoma – Most have normal or ↓ peripheral lymphocytes. “Nonresponsive IBD”. Can be diffuse or multinodular. Dx w/ full thickness biopsy. Very difficult to treat. Alkalosis – ↑HCO3, ↑TCO2, hyperventilation causes alkalosis. Cow saliva rich in HCO3 (horse saliva rich in Cl-). Amyloidosis – Consists of β pleated sheets of amino acids, refractory to enzymatic breakdown. Two major amyloid proteins. AA released from hepatocytes due to chronic infection. AL composed of partially degraded immunoglobulin light chains produced by malignant plasma cells. Disease caused by displacement of normal cells with amyloid deposits, mainly liver, spleen, brain and kidneys. Anal Sac Disease – Hematochezia. Chronic bright red blood w/ normal stools. Anaplasmosis – Anaplasma marginale. Rickettsia located in the stroma of RBC. Disease of ruminants.
Transmission through contamination with infected blood via ticks (Boophilus, Dermacentor), horse flies, stable flies, mechanical transfer of blood (vax, dehorn, etc). Fomites. Carriers maintain disease in a herd.
More severe in adult cattle; lifelong resistance if exposed young. Clinical signs – Depression, inappetence, fever, decreased production, marked icterus. Anemia leading to hypoxemia. No hemoglobinuria. Diagnosis – Suspect in mature cattle showing anemia without hemoglobinuria. Blood smear, see anisocytosis, presence of agent. Serology. Treatment – Tetracycline. LA200. Do not stress patients, may die. Insect control. Vax – May cause neonatal isoerythrolysis. Ancylostoma caninum – Canine hookworm. See hookworms. Anemia – CRC = % reticulocytes X patient PCV/normal PCV (45 in dog, 37 in cat). Regenerative if > than 1% in dog or 0.5% in cat. Horses have no peripherally circulating reticulocytes. Regenerative Anemia – Macrocytic, normochromic, nRBCs. Regenerative response take 2-5 days. Hemolysis – Intravascular = RBC destruction w/in blood vessels and loss of Hgb from cells. Often severly ill w/ weakness, fever, icterus, Hgbemia, Hbguria. More aggressive therapy, worse px. Extravascular = RBCs lysed following phagocytosis w/in RE system. Patients ± ill and may only have signs related to anemia, spleno/hepatomegaly, ± icterus.
Ddx: IMHA, SLE, Zn tox (pennies<1982), Heinz body anemia (onions, tylenol in cats), Babesia, Hemobartonella, copper tox, Lepto, endotoxemia. Blood loss – Acute blood loss see severe signs bc no time to compensate. Chronic internal blood loss will have no Fe deficiency. Chronic external blood loss via skin, UT, GIT will have Fe deficiency. Ddx: coagulopathy, trauma, ruptured hemangiosarcoma, GI ulceration, nasal epistaxis. Nonregenerative Anemia – Microcytic, hypochromic. 1) BM aplastic diseases such as myelofibrosis, neoplasia, Ehrlichia, FeLV. Toxins such as anticonvulsants, chloramphenicol, TMPS, estrogen, phenylbutazone, chemo. 2) 2° failure of erythropoeisis – ACD.
Mild to mod anemia. 3) Hemoglobin synthesis defects such as Fe deficiency. 4) 1° failure of erythropoeisis. Pure red cell aplasia, immune mediated disease, estrogen therapy (often given for urinary incontinence). See severe anemia, ↑ serum Fe, ↑ EP, normal platelets and WBCs. Tx w/ immunosuppressives. Circulating nRBCs – Metarubricytes.
Ddx: regenerative response (only if orderly), BM dysfunction, splenic dysfunction, extramedullary hematopoiesis, lead toxicity, hemangiosarcoma, heatstroke/vasculitis. Anesthesia Premedications Anticholinergics – Parasympatholytics. Protect HRs, decrease secretions, decrease threshold for arrythmias. Do not work in rabbits and goats as they have atropinase (why they can eat nightshade). Atropine – Muscarinic antagonist. Competitively inhibits acetycholine at postganglionic parasympathetic sites.
Low dose inhibits salivation, bronchial secretions, sweating. Moderate dose dilates and inhibits accommodation of the pupil, ↑ heart rate. High dose ↓ GI and urinary tract motility. Very high dose inhibits gastric secretions.
Crosses BBB. May cause ileus in horses. Also, antiemetic, mjydriatic, organophosphate tox tx. Red as a beet, dry as a bone, mad as a wet hen. Tachycardia, dilated pupils. Glycopyrrolate vs.
Atropine – Atropine for emergency, works quicker (but doesn’t last as long only 2-3 hrs). Glyco is 2-4x more potent than atropine, duration of action 4X longer (4-6 hours), prevents bradycardia without causing tachycardia. Glyco does not penetrate BBB (poor lipid solubility), atropine does. Tranquilizers – Calm the animal, facilitate handling for induction, ↓ amount of induction drugs. — -2nd: piglets, assoc with E.
Coli enteritis, excess iron overwhelms phagocytic cells→infection.
Cause of death: enteritis -3rd: calciphylaxis; rare; massive mobilization of calcium after injection of iron preparations in the presence and absence of supplementary vitamin D.
Occurs within days of iron supplementation.
Hard swellings at injection sites.
Death may occur Babesiosis – Babesia canis, B.
Gibsoni in dogs, B.
Felis in cats, B.
Bovis in cows. Intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite transmitted by ticks. Dogs and cats – Rhipicephalus, the brown dog tick and some Dermacentor. Boophilus tick spp in cattle. Destroys RBCs intravascularly during escape from cells. No human health risk. Clinical signs – Can look just like IMHA, regenerative anemia. Most subclinical. If immunocompromised or splenectomized (parasitized cells removed by spleen), see Hgburia, hgbemia, anemia, hemolysis, icterus. Death. Diagnosis – Hx of tick infestations. Giemsa-stained capillary blood or organ smears. ELISA, IFA. Often Coombs +, polyclonal gammopathy. Treament – Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol), Diminazene aceturate (Berenil). Feline may be nonresponsive, primaquine phosphate reported to be effective. Bacillary hemoglobinuria – Clostridium hemolyticum. “Red water disease.” Acute, infectious, toxemic disease primarily of cattle. Soil borne organism found naturally in alimentary tract of cattle. Latent spores become lodged in the liver, where they germinate. The resulting vegetative cells produce phospholipase C, which causes acute hemolytic anemia. Clinical findings – Acute hemolytic anemia. Sudden onset of severe depression, fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea, dysentery, hemoglobinuria, anemia, jaundice. Diagnosis – Port-wine colored urine. Liver infarct. Normal size and consistency of spleen, IFA of liver. Control – Early treatment with penicillin – C.
Hemolyticum bacterin in endemic areas. Bacterial Pneumonia (equine).
Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) equi – severe pneumonia- may be endemic on some farms.
Also maybe secondary to viral dz.
Acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia affects foals 1 wk to 8 months old, and the etiology is unknown.
Equi and P.
Aeruginosa have been identified.
Marked by acute or peracute onset, respiratory distress, cyanosis, reluctance to eat, septicemia, DIC, increased fibrinogen concentrations, radiographs showing increased alveolar and neutrophilic leucocytosis. Dx: Culture of bronchoalveolar lavage or a tracheal wash (nasal swabs not recommended because of resident microflora).
The diagnosis of respiratory infections is usually based on a combination of history and results from clinical, endoscopic, radiographic, and in some cases, ultrasonographic examinations. Tx: Abs (eg, penicillin, potentiated sulfonamide& bronchodilators. Bacterial sepsis – Bacterial enteritis (guinea pigs) A number of bacteria are capable of causing infections of the gastrointestinal tract in guinea pigs.
Some of these bacteria are introduced through contaminated greens or vegetables or in contaminated water.
One of the most common bacteria that cause intestinal disease in guinea pigs is Salmonella spp.
Other bacterial species that may cause diarrhea and enteritis are Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, E.
Coli, Arizona spp., and Clostridium spp.
In addition to diarrhea, other common symptoms associated with intestinal disease are lethargy and weight loss.
In other cases, however, sudden death may occur before _expression of these signs. Barium Series – Should move out of stomach into duodenum by 30 min. Reach ileocolic valve w/in 2 hrs. Bartonellosis (cats) – Bartonella Henselea.(intracellular RBC g -ve.
Bacteria) Cat scratch fever. (cats are asymptomatic carriers).
The risk of zoonotic transmission is low (unless immunocompromised).
Humans will present an ocular reaction. Dx: blood culture, antibody titer (indicates exposure)Tx: enrofloxacin, doxycycline (efficacy in uncertain). Beak deformities (congenital and traumatic) Lateral deviation of the maxilla occurs most frequently in macaws, but is occasionally observed in other species.
Mandibular prognathism, also called maxillary brachygnathism, occurs most frequently in cockatoos, but may be seen in other species.
Early discovery of beak deformities will facilitate easy correction.
Physical therapy and corrective grinding may be corrective in cases that are discovered early, but orthodontic devices or prosthetics may be necessary to correct beaks that have already hardened.
Beak overgrowth is seen in parrots with no chew toys.
Psittacine Beak and Feather disease- viral, immunosuppressive disease, often die of 2° causes. Feather disease w/ damaged follicles, dystrophic feathers, hemorrhage in shafts. Necrotic beaks. Old world birds at risk PCR of blood sample to dx. Beef quality assurance / food safety: Pesticides/ herbicides and other chemicals, molds, mycotoxins, feed additives and medications, etc.
Withdrawal periods should be strictly enforced.
All im and sq injection should be given in the neck region.
Ruminant derived protein should not be fed.
No more than 10cc of im injection per site.
No extra-label use of nutritional additives.
Records are to be maintained for a minimum of two years. Behavior problems (dogs and cats): Most behavior modification focuses on counterconditioning and desensitization using food treats or rewards.
Antianxiety medications (eg, amitriptyline, clomipramine, fluoxetine) have been helpful in treating the anxiety associated with the aggression and in facilitating the behavior modification.
May be: Dominance aggression, Fear aggression, Idiopathic aggression, Inter-animal aggression, Pain aggression, Play aggression, Predatory aggression, Status-related aggression, Redirected aggression and Territorial aggression Bence-Jones Proteins – In urine, comprised of immunoglobulin light chains. Bethanocol – Parasympathomimetic used for treating disorders of micturition when no obstruction present. Other drugs include dantrolene, diazepam, diethylstilbestrol, estrogen, testosterone, propantheline. Cholinergic, effects primarily muscarinic, negligible nicotinic activity. Has ↑ duration of action compared to acetylcholine.
Used to ↑detrusor muscle tone and stimulate bladder contractions in small animals. Also an esophageal or GI stimulant, but metoclopramide and neostigmine are better. Bicarbonate Deficit Replacement – Base deficit x 0.3 x kg = mEq bicarbonate Normals: base deficit 0 ± 4 mEq/L bicarbonate 24 ± 4mEq/L — Especially FORE feet, can be all 4.
Rotation of 3rd phalanx.
Many causes- drinking cold water by overheated animal.
Eating exesive amouts of grain.
Concussion on hard surface.
Toxemias, sequelae to pneumonia, metritis, strangles, allergic reactions.
Animal resist movement.
Intense pain wears of with movement.
Hoof testers-> great pain.
Mild cases-> recovery in 10 days.
Severe cases prognosis poor (os pedis displaced by pull of deep digital extensor tendon-> distorted hoof, concave and hoof wall corrugated) xray.
Hot pack followed with cold packs.
Digital nerve block and walk horse (bring blood to area) – contraindicated once pedal rotation.
Tx: Because of its value in hoof keratinization, methionine has been used at dosages of 10 mg/lb (22 mg/kg), daily for 1 wk followed by 5 mg/lb for the second week and 2.5 mg/lb for the third. Thrush: Degeneration of horn in central and colateral sulci ->involves whole frog.
Especially hind feet.
Moist black thick discharge.
Tx: Astringent solution (FeSO4, CuSO4).
Bar show to regenerate frog, Dry standings. Canker: Chronic hypertrophy of horn, involving frog, sole and wall.
Especially hind feet heavy draft horse. Corns: bursing of sole in angle between wall and bar.
Usually inner quarter and especially fore-feet.
Exesive triming of sole (exposing sensitive laminae).
Shoes on to long, or fitted to closely.
Red color at site of corn.
Supporting leg lameness – hoofterster-> pain.
Pus may burrow through to coronet (quitor).
Shorten toe and place bar shoe to promote frog preasure (3/4 bar shoe).
Hot foot baths.
Clean box. Bruised sole: Tx like corns Puncture wounds: Acute painful foot.
Keep foot in plastic boot + cotton soaked in MgSO4 solution.
Nerveblock(plantar) for relief. Quittor: Chronic purulent inflamation of lat.
Cartilage of 3rd phalanx->necrosis of cartilage.
Sinus tracks. Sandcrack: Toe crack, quarter crack.
Break in hoof beginning at coronet and parallels horn tubules.
Can lead to overlap of hoof wall-> false quarter.
Usually no lameness.
Patch with fiber glass. Club foot: Abnormal flexion of 3rd phalanx on 2nd phalanx.
Foals 6 -12 weeks.
Cause by rapid growth.
Correct shoe (if not to young) or inferior check ligament.
Desmotomy Coon foot or bear foot: over digital extension.
Tx swimming. Side bone: Ossification of lat cartilage of 3rd phalanx.
Hunters, Jumpers, usually front feet.
Loss of flexibility (on palpation) Dx: Xray.
Tx: correcting shoeing to promote expansion of quarter and protect foot from concussion.
Groove hooves Ring bone: Phalangeal exostosis.
Periostitis or osteoarthritis of 1 or 2nd phalanx.
Improper shoeing, wire cuts, strained ligaments.
Deep point firing. Navicular dz: Fore feet.Podotroclosis.
Mature riding horse.
Cause->Arterial thrombosis withing navicular bones.
At rest horse relieves pressure of deep flex tendon area by “pointing”.
Dx: Xray & nerve block.
Shorten toe and use shoe with thick heel (relieve pressure of deep digital flexor) Double digital neurectomy.
Anticouagulants (warfarin). Pedal osteitis: Rarefying osteitis in pedal bone.
Sole tender of percussion.
Ddx NAvicular dz.
Tx: rest and shoe to protect sole. Lameness exam (horses) Laminitis in Cows – Usually dt grain overload. Lactic acidosis causes vasoactive endotoxins to be released which cause pathologic changes in microcirculation of corium. Dairy cows show signs of laminitis immediately after calving. Clinical signs include lameness, walking on knees, etc.
Tx: if it’s due to grain overload, correct it. Risk Factors: lactic asidosis, endotoxemia, histamine, fiber quality, high prot, genetics, exercise, low keratinization Lesions: Infalm @ dermal/epidermal jxn.
Soften, hemorrage, sequela> sole/heel ulcer, white line lessions. Pathogen: Local disruption=>release vasoactive => AVA shunt=> inflam dermis=> compresion=>further cap damge=> focal necrosis=>lesion development => coronary band thick, fissures, white line. C/S: subclinical> dx with secondary lessions Acute> rapid pain, praying position Chronic> Freq.
Subclinical, dx with hoof differences Prevention: test rumen pH, feed slowly, less crowd, hoof trim, rest areas. Tx: NSAIDs * and Rx secondary dz. Larkspur – Delphinine. Contains toxic alkaloids causing respiratory and cardiac failure. Uneasiness, stiff gait, straddled posture, sudden collapse. Animals die from respiratory paralysis or inhalation of regurgitated rumenal contents. Laryngeal Hemiplegia and Paralysis – Equine, usu young.
Exercise intolerance, roaring. Paralysis of Left recurrent laryngeal nerve, cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. Grade 1 = normal, G2 = asynchronous movement but can maintain full abduction, G3 = asynchronous but unable to maintain full abduction, G4 = paralysis. Dx via treadmill endoscopy, hx. Tx with laryngeoplasty or “tie back” with incision ventral to linguofacial vein. Ventriculocordectomy and vocal folds via laryngotomy (through cricothyroid ligament). — PLE in juvenile dog – parasites, chronic intussusception. Prototheca – Saprophytic, achlorphyllic algae. Female collies may be predisposed. Pseudocowpox – Milker’s nodes. Parapoxvirus, related to orf and bovine papular stomatitis. Small, red papules on teats and udders of cows. Scabs, pustules, raised lesions. Infection spreads slowly through herds. Prevent w/ good hygienic measures such as teat dipping. ZOONOTIC, painless, itchy, purplish-red nodules on fingers and hands. Little disturbance and disappear after few weeks. Pseudorabies – Herpesvirus. Affects all farm animals except horse, affects spp differently.
Pigs are 1° host and only reservoir. Can be insidious in pigs and go undetected. Secrete virus in saliva and nasal secretions. Virus travels to brain and respiratory system. Clinical findings – Pigs: In older pigs, URD and repro failure, usu recover and are carriers. Young pigs, see CNS signs. Highly fatal. “Shaker pigs”. Cows: Undergo excitement phase, aggressiveness. Pruritus causing severe self-mutilation. Convulsions, coma, death. Diagnosis – History and clinical signs. VI from tonsil, brain, liver, spleen, lung. Serology. Histopath – intranuclear inclusion bodies. Treatment – Test and remove. Monoclonal antibody for swine. No tx for ruminants. Control – Vaccination. Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease – Debilitating disease of psittacines. Abnormal feathers, beak abnormalities, immunosuppression. Dx via feather follicle biopsy showing intracytoplasmic inclusions. Progressive and usu fatal. Psittacosis – Chlamydia psittaci. Diz of birds. Reportable. ZOONOTIC. Aerosol transmission. Clinical findings – Wt loss, depression, anorexia, diarrhea, lime-green urates, respiratory signs. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, air sac changes. Diagnosis – ELISA, titers, intracellular elementary bodies on impression smears of air sac, spleen, liver, pericardium. Treatment – Doxycycline. Psoroptes cuniculi – Mite causing otitis externa in rabbits. Pullorum Disease – Salmonella pullorum.
Infection in birds.REPORTABLE.
Birds under 4 weeks old.
Close to 100% mortality Flocks are monitored by serology (agglutination test).
Definitive diagnosis requires isolation and identification of S.
Quarantine, depopulate, eradicate. Purpura Hemorrhagica – Vasculitis. Immune mediated hemorrhagic disease characterized by extravasation of blood into tissues, under skin and through mucous membranes. Produces ecchymoses and petechia on skin. Nonthrombocytopenic diz of horses assoc w/ previous S.
Equi respiratory infection. Mediated by immune complexes of IgA and streptococcal M antigen in vascular basement membranes. Clinical signs include cold, SQ, edematous swellings around head, mucosal petechiation and high heart rate. Affected horses die w/in few days. Pyoderma – Pyogenic infection of skin, commonly dt Staphylococcus intermedius. Metabolic disorders, immune deficiencies, endocrine imbalances, allergies predispose. Tx w/ antibiotics such as clavamox. Pyloric Stenosis – Benign. Causes gastric outlet obstruction axxoc w/ hypertrophy of circular muscle fibers of pylorus. Young dogs of brachycephalic breeds, boston terrier at ↑ risk. Pyometra in Large Animals – Cow: Metritis (inflammation of muscular and endometrial layers of uterus) via contamination of uterus during parturition. Tx w/ local and systemic antibiotics. Mare: Uterine lavage, local antibiotics. Pyometra in Small Animals – Diestral disorder characterized by abnormal uterine endometrium w/ 2° bacterial infection. Progesterone secretion following ovulation promotes endometrial growth, ↓ myometrial activity, inhibits WBC response to bacterial infection. E coli is most common cause of pyometra. Exogenous estrogen (mismate shots during diestrus) ↑ effects of progesterone and thereby ↑ chance of developing pyometra. Clinical signs – Systemic illness, purulent vaginal discharge (if cervix open). PU, PD, vomiting. Diagnosis – History (ill,diestral bitch). Rads – see stucture between rectum and bladder. U/S. Treatment – Ovariohysterectomy. Medical management is possible with PGF2α, which causes contraction of the myometrium, relaxation of the cervix and expulsion of the uterine exudate. Broad-spectrum antibiotics. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity – Senecio (ragwort), Crotalaria (rattleweed), Heliotropium. Chronic poisoning from small yellow flowers results in hepatic failure in cattle, horse, pigs, and farmed deer. Sheep and goats more resistant (req 20x more). Animals usually avoid, but eat in drought conditions or when in hay. See loss of condition, dullness, diarrhea, constipation, tenesmus. Jaundice, photosensitization, hepatic encephalopathy w/ excitability, staggering gait, circling, dragging feet. Dx via hx, clin signs, necropsy. Animals showing signs rarely recover, remove plant material. Pythiosis/Phycomycosis – Aquatic mold/fungi of GIT and skin. Gulf coast. Motile zoospores infect damaged tissue. Usu affects young, large breeds. Pylorus, root of mesentery, anus. See vomiting, diarrhea. Dx via rads, biopsy, histopath. Tx w/ complete sx excision. Ddx = perineal hernias, tumors. Q-Fever – Coxiella burnetti, rickettsial infection. Usu inapparent. Can cause abortion in sheep, goats, cattle. Causes influenza-like diz in man; endocarditis. Quittor – Chronic suppurative inflammation of lateral cartilage of the third phalanx of the horse. Causes lameness, discharging sinus at coronet.
Surgery to remove diseased tissue and cartilage. Rabies – Rhabdovirus, bullet shaped virus. Highly fatal viral infection of nervous system which affects all warm-blooded animal spp. MAJOR ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL. Incubates for wks to mos. Once present, rapidly progressive causing motor irritation, ascending paralysis, mania/dummy. Transmission – Via saliva, usu bite wound. In USA skunk, raccoon, bat and fox are important sources of infection. Clinical signs – Once present, rapidly progressive. Prodromal stage characterized by change in behavior and highly variable clinical signs. Excitative or Furious stage characterized by hyperasthesia, tremors, bellows, tenesmus, yawning, circling, aggressiveness, abnormal sexual activity. Paralytic or Dumb Stage – Depression, stupor, paralysis. Ascending ataxia of back legs.
Paralysis of muscles of deglutition results in drooling and inability to swallow. Death dt respiratory arrest. Diagnosis – IFA staining of brain tissue. Autopsy, see negri inclusion bodies in neuron cell bodies. Control – Vax under direct vet supervision. Animal must be > 12 wks but < 16 wks old. Wait until central incisors are present in kitten/puppy strays (know at least 12 wks). In right rear limb as close to stifle as possible, SQ. Rabies vaccine alopecia seen in poodles and poodle-like breeds (common, still vax). Rabbits – Always support back legs when carry or will kick out and can break back. Bucks and does. Husbandry – Small wire cage, must have board to rest on or will get sore/injured hocks. Eat grass hay, ¼ to ½ cup pellets and ¼ to ½ cup vegetables. Anatomy – Teeth continually grow, 2 pairs of incisors. Require dentistry. If in pain and don’t eat, get fatty liver. Can not vomit. Small pylorus, prone to hairballs there. Large cecum. Cecal pellets, B vitamins. Copraphagic. Reach sex maturity at 4-5 mos. Neuter females to prevent litters and uterine adenocarcinoma. Gestation is 30-33 days, rabbits kindle (not whelp) from 4-12 kits. Rabbits feed young SID, not while watching. Venipuncture in marginal ear vein, cephalic, lat saphenous, jugular. Females have double cervix. Skin Diz – Mites, ringworm (Trichophyton), barbering (Psoroptes cuniculi, Cheyletiella parsiovarax). Treponema is rabbit syphilis. Cuterebra in outdoor rabbits on face. Abscesses usu Pastuerella, debride. Read more about Acute presentation, showing systemic signs, abdomen painful, distended, V/D, weakness: