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Gleason — Trumpeters and Kettledrummers 41 king and nobility, including the cavalry and artillery were allotted their use.81 Mention should be made here that kettledrums in artillery units were often transported in a carriage, a four-wheeled chariot, rather than mounted on horseback.

Farmer suggests that the earliest reference of this practice on the continent was in the Swedish army under FieldMarshall Wittenburg in 1655.

He also refers to ‘our Trains of Artillery’ having them decades earlier during the reign of King James I (r. 1603-1625) and were in common use during the Irish Rebellion of 1689 when the kettledrums of the Royal Artillery were drawn in a carriage by six white horses.82   Kettledrums were not only prohibited from being used by civic musicians, even military musicians outside of the king’s troop couldn’t use them.

Gradually, ordinary cavalry regiments were permitted to use kettledrums; one pair was allowed for the colonel’s troop, with two trumpeters.

The other troops employed two trumpet players with no kettledrums.

When these trumpeters and drummers massed together, they formed a band of twelve to fourteen men under the direction of a trumpet-major, typically learning marches and flourishes by ear and playing mainly in unison in line regiments until the eighteenth century when harmony was gradually introduced.83 Performance technique was a lofty art with kettledrummers, as symbols of nobility and wealth, being expected to show extravagance in their playing.

This was described by Altenburg as ‘artful figures, turns, and movements of their bodies’, by Manesson Mallet, who stated that ‘he should have a 81 pleasing motion of the arm, an accurate ear, and take a delight in diverting his master by agreeable airs’,84 and by Johann Heinrich Zedler writing in 1735 (a little less respectfully): ‘which elsewhere would seem ridiculous’.85   In France, while kettledrums were initially only allowed in cavalry troops when captured in battle (originally from German troops), it gradually became customary by the end of the seventeenth century to provide kettledrums for all of the king’s household troops except the musketeers.

They served on foot and horseback like the dragoons who also employed mounted musicians, initially trumpets and fifes, and, as Kastner indicates, by 1663, hautbois and sidedrums but not kettledrums.86 However, Titcomb states that the dragoon regiment commanded by Colonel de la Bréteche, who had captured two pairs in battle, were permitted to use them.87 Appropriating kettledrums and trumpets to cavalry units and disallowing them within dragoon units was a result of the high position the two instruments had attained by this point, as well as the stature and the nature of the respective units—especially of full-fledged cavalry units, which were typically comprised of gentlemen.

The pervading attitude of the time (which lasted for centuries) was that a nobleman’s place was to fight on horseback above the common soldier.

This was stated by one of Maximillian’s German men-at-arms when it was suggested that the cavalry dismount to help storm a breach during a sixteenth-century battle: ‘they were not such as went on foot, nor to go into a breach, their true estate being to fight like Fox, Instruments of Processional Music, p. 53.

Farmer, ‘The Great Kettledrums of the Artillery’, in Handel’s Kettledrums and Other Papers on Military Music (London: Hinrichsen Edition Ltd., Printed by Brunce Ltd., 1950).

P. 85. 83 Farmer, Rise & Development, p. 40.

Kappey, Military Music, p. 79.

Line regiments were normal field regiments as distinguished from regiments attached to royal or other noble households. 84 Farmer, Rise & Development, p. 43, citing Manesson Mallet, Les Travaux de Mars ou l’Art de la guerre (Paris, 1691). 85 Altenburg/Tarr, Trumpeters’ and Kettledrummers’ Art, p. 124.

Johann Heinrich Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon, (Halle, 1732-54), XII, col. 1092-3, quoted in Titcomb, ‘Baroque Court’, p. 60, and Sachs, The History of Musical Instruments (New York: W.W.

Norton & Co., Inc., 1940), p. 330. 86 Kastner, Manuel Général de Musique Militaire, p. 110.

Michel Brenet, ‘French Military Music in the Reign of Louis XIV’, trans.

Mariola Chardon, The Musical Quarterly 3/3 (July 1917), pp. 347-348. 87 Titcomb, Kettledrums in Western Europe, p. 301.

It appears that dragoons not being allowed to have kettledrums was a matter of status and position rather than of logistics or practicality.

Dragoon units were not typically regarded as full-fledged cavalry units (probably because they were not comprised of gentlemen), and thus soldiers held lower positions (and pay) than those in cavalry units, which is why permission had to be sought for a dragoon unit to retain captured kettledrums.

Hans Delbrück writes that they often rode ‘nags of little worth’, (p. 125) which of course would have contributed to their second-class nature.

If a dragoon regiment captured kettledrums, in time it was often promoted to a cavalry/cuirassier regiment.

Grose writes that, ‘In modern times, that is, since the revolution, kettle drums and trumpets have been chiefly appropriated to the horse.

The dragoons long had the hautbois and side drum, but about the year 1759 changed them for the trumpet; the infantry had only the drum, till the introduction of fifes…’.

Francis Grose, Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the English Army, from the Conquest to the Present Time, Vol.

II (London: T.

Egerton Whitehall & G.

Kearsley, 1801), pp. 49-50. 82 42 88 The Galpin Society Journal LXII (2009) disks, or rosettes, for heads.

While battlefield music was normally loud and vigorous, some special occasions on the battlefield and in processions, like that of trumpets, called for soft playing, including echo effects in special pieces where the player played softly near the rim and then boomed loudly near the middle of the head.

Further, the drum tone could also be muffled for funerals and other occasions by covering the heads with woolen cloth, and sticks could be covered with chamois leather.93   The forerunners of European kettledrums, those used in the Middle East at the time of the Crusades, were not tuned to specific pitches, but probably rather to timbres.94 As the tradition spread north and westward, kettledrums became tuned (more or less) to specific pitches.

By the sixteenth century, kettledrums were tuned to correspond with tonic and dominant functions95 in association with contemporary compositional developments.

However, this development, along with assigning the lower and higher drum to the tonic or dominant and then to the right or left side of the horse, was probably gradual.

Edmund Bowles writes, ‘Following the cavalry tradition, during most of this era the smaller drum was tuned to the dominant and the larger to the tonic…

However… composers later started writing music calling for the high drum to be tuned to the tonic and the larger one [below] to the dominant (modern d and A)’.96 As orchestral instruments gradually evolved from horse-mounted ones, and larger sizes became more available, accepted practice put the dominant below, resulting in notated music that indicates the dominant playing below the tonic.97   However, tuning the kettledrums would have depended on the country, the era and the regiment. gentlemen on horseback.’ Hence dragoons did not fit this image.

By the middle of the eighteenth century, as dragoons began gradually to be looked upon as cavalry, the trumpet, which worked better as a signaling instrument, was substituted for the side drum, 89 but kettledrums were generally still reserved for traditional cavalry units.   Kettledrum construction changed, probably with use, over the years.

By the eighteenth century, they were in the shape of two large round kettles (one larger than the other) made of bronze, brass, copper, or silver, the openings of which were covered with strong parchment skins of donkey, goat, sheep, or calf.

Originally the skin was pulled taut by the aid of ropes, but by the beginning of the sixteenth century, a circle held tight by wing nuts or screws was used.

This was tightened by means of a tuning key and thus the drums could be tuned (if desired) to the trumpets.

Diameters varied over time between 17 and 28 inches,90 with a typical pair measuring approximately 18 and 20 inches in diameter and from 11 to 15 inches deep.91 Although the size of kettledrums grew from the late Renaissance until late in the nineteenth century, they were small by today’s standards.

For centuries they did double duty — mounted and dismounted — and consequently needed to be lightweight and capable of being slung over the animal’s shoulders by means of a special harness.

They could not become too big because they still were being carried on horseback.

When dismounted use gradually became established in the early Baroque period, the timpani were set on low stands.92   Kettledrummers used various types of drum sticks made of different hard woods, initially mainly knobbed sticks and later, sticks with small wooden 88 John Ellis, Cavalry, the History of Mounted Warfare (New York: G.P.

Putnam’s Sons, 1978), p. 104.

In fact, writing in 1670 and ’71, Turner states, ‘It is not above fourscore and ten years since in the raign of Maximilian the Second, all that were Enrolled in the German Cavalry were by birth Gentlemen…’.

Pallas Armata, p. 163. 89 Farmer, Rise & Development, p. 54.

Sumner indicates that trumpeters replaced drummers in Britain’s Dragoon Guards and Dragoons by an ordinance of 11 March 1766, ‘Uniforms and Equipment of Cavalry Regiments’, p. 88. 90 Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, pp. 231-232. 91 Edmund A.

Bowles, ‘The Double, Double, Double Beat of the Thundering Drum: The Timpani in Early Music’, Early Music 19/3 (August 1991), p. 419. 92 Bowles, ‘The Double, Double, Double Beat’, p. 419. 93 Roger Nourisson, Timbales & Timbaliers, Notices sur la Musique Militaire (Paris: unpublished, n.d.), p. 9.

Titcomb, ‘Baroque Court’, 60, citing J.P.

Eisel, Musicus autodidaktos, (Erfurt, 1738), p. 66. 94 Jeremy Montagu, Timpani and Percussion, p. 27.

Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, p. 232. 95 As one indication of this, Montagu cites William Byrd’s keyboard piece Battell (c. 1591), which incorporates a tonic to dominant relation in the left hand in imitation of kettledrum patterns.

Timpani & Percussion, p. 47. 96 Bowles, ‘The Double, Double, Double Beat’, p. 419. 97 Titcomb, ‘Baroque Court’, passim; p. 66.

As military kettledrummers played without notation, keys and transposition were probably not prominent in their minds.

Adding to the complexity, especially when these same — down.

Reasons for this include the strong guild system and also, because many court musicians were military musicians, they had learned everything by rote for fear of signals falling into unauthorized hands; consequently, many had not learned to read music.176 Some of the first military signals however, did make it into notation and have survived in composed art music from the sixteenth century.

Janequin’s chanson, La bataille (Paris, 1528), which probably depicts the French victory at Marignano in 1515, is one of the earliest of a genre of vocal and instrumental ‘battle pieces’.

The two trumpet calls, ‘Le boute-selle’ and ‘A l’étendart’, are found in the second section along with drum effects, all of which imitate sounds of battle.177 In England, the keyboard manuscript collection My Ladye Nevells Booke (1591) includes William Byrd’s ‘Battell’, with several sections containing evident imitations of trumpet sounds that were probably military signals of the period.178   Gradually, a few pieces for trumpet and kettledrum were notated.

Some may be found in the collection of music copied and assembled by André Danican Philidor (Philidor l’aîné) and François Fossard,179 and played by the Fifres et Tambours and the Trompettes de la Grande Écurie,180 the wind translation of descriptive text, introduction and notes by Stanley Appelbaum (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1964), p. 15.

See also Herbert Myers, ‘The Musical Minatures of the Triumphzug of Maximilian I’, Galpin Society Journal 60 (2007), pp. 3-28.

A landmark publication that gathers the illustrations of the musical units of these and other events is Edmund A.

Bowles, Musical Ensembles in Festival Books, 1500-1800, An Iconographical & Documentary Survey (Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1989). 175 Nicole Smith, RCMP Historical Office, Ottawa, Ontario, personal communication, 1 December 2003 and 16 April 2004.

See also Bruce P.

Gleason, ‘The Mounted Bands of the North-West Mounted Police’, Band International, Journal of the International Military Music Society Vol. 27, no. 3 (December 2005), pp. 99-103, 120. 176 Whitwell, Baroque Wind Band, pp. 53, 54, 57, 59. 90.

William Barclay Squire, H.G.

Farmer, Edward H.

Tarr/Peter Downey, ‘Signal (i)’, ‘Military signals’, New Grove (2001).

Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, p. 228.

Military signals became parts of several trumpet instructional manuals by the turn of the seventeenth century.

See above, pp. 33-35.

Whitwell, Baroque Wind Band, p. 59. 177 William Barclay Squire, H.

G.

Farmer/Edward Tarr, ‘Military Calls’, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed.

Stanley Sadie (London: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd., 1980). 178 Armin Suppan and Wolfgang Suppan, ‘Military Music’, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed.

Stanley Sadie (London: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd., 2001).

Additionally, several modern sources give glimpses of some of this notated music, including Bolen, ‘Open-Air Music of the Baroque; Susan Goertzel Sandman, ‘Wind Band Music Under Louis XIV: The Philidor Collection, Music for the Military and the Court’ (Ph.D.

Diss., Stanford University, 1974); and the works of David Whitwell including several volumes of his thirteen-volume set of The History and Literature of the Wind Band and Wind Ensemble (Northridge, California: Winds, 1984). 179 According to Smithers, ‘the earliest surviving music for these gargantuan “horse ballets” is found in the Bibliothèque de Versailles, and in the Conservatoire de Paris collection of music now in the music division of the Bibliothèque Natitionale de Paris’.

Baroque Trumpet, p. 233. 180 The Grande Écurie, a select group of instrumentalists was established about 1530, continued until the end of the eighteenth century, and ‘was responsible for the performance of music in the king’s private chambers and in his chapel; they were also required for various occasions and ceremonies, such as balls and masquerades, religious and state celebrations, special military events, and at any other times when music was desired by the king’.

Smithers, Baroque Trumpet, p. 230. 174 (continued) 54 The Galpin Society Journal LXII (2009) century, the ensemble included three to six trumpets, typically with timpani, which improvised a tonicdominant accompaniment.

J.A.Kappey includes several score examples of the Aufzug in Military Music, A History of Wind-Instrumental Bands.185 Summary and Conclusions Court functions of horse-mounted musicians coexisted with those on the battlefield for several centuries and were often undertaken by the same personnel.

In a centuries-old tradition, as signalers in battle and entertainers in camp, cavalry musicians provided direction in warfare and diversions for the war weary.

Adding a sense of grandeur and nobility to cavalry units, trumpeters and kettledrummers also did duty as court musicians in royal and other noble households for pageantry in tournaments, jousts, cavalcades, journeys and carrousels.   However, with the turn of the nineteenth century looming, several changes in military music were on the horizon.

Courts were dissolved along with their trumpeter corps; the trumpeters and kettledrummers guild was dying across Europe; the invention of the valve for brass instruments was just around the corner; and kettledrums were losing their place on the battlefield.

These developments, coupled with political changes, not the least of which was the French Revolution, laid a foundation for an arena that would see the transformation of small mounted trumpet and kettledrum ensembles into the grand mounted bands of enhanced and varied instrumentation in the next stage of cavalry music history in the nineteenth century. bands that performed outdoor music at the Court of Louis XIV (r.1643-1715) of France.

While this band was comprised mainly of fifes, hautbois and drums, there are several pieces for kettledrums and trumpets, including music for the 1686 Carousel de Monseigneur.

The title page of the volume, Partition de Plusieurs Marches et Batteries de Tambours reads: Score of several marches and drum beats, as many French as foreign, with airs for fife and hautbois in 3 and 4 parts and several marches for kettledrums and cavalry trumpets, with airs from the Carousel of 1686 and trumpet calls and fanfares for the hunt.181 While German, Italian and Austro-Bohemian trumpet parts were usually performed by only one trumpeter per part, Smithers indicates that ‘the French made an enormous noise, with sometimes as many as four players on a part’, stemming from a military tradition as evidenced in illustrations of the carrousel of 1662 showing vast numbers of trumpets and timpani.182   Exemplifying a type of music performed mounted during this period, as well as on foot by trumpet and kettledrum ensembles at German-speaking and associated courts for ceremonial processions, festive mealtimes and on other special occasions, were entrance and exit fanfares, termed Aufzüge and Auszüge respectively and (after 1740) Marsch or Fanfare.183 First appearing about 1570, apparently in Dresden, the Aufzug contrasts a Clarino melody with rhythmically active lower parts.184 By the eighteenth Sandman, ‘Wind Band Music Under Louis XIV’, p. 87 citing Partition/ de Plusieurs Marches et batteries de Tambour/ tant françoisen qu’Etrangèren, avec les Airs/ de fifre et de hautbois à 3 et 4 partien/ et PLrs Marches de timballes et de trompetten/ à cheval avec les Airs du Carousel en 1686, Et les appels et fanfares de trompe pour/ la Chasse…1705, Bibliothèque Nationale, Rés.

F. 671.

Philidor was a kettledrummer to Louis XIV and librarian of the Royal Music Library at Versailles; Fossard was a court violinist. 182 Smithers, Baroque Trumpet, p. 236.

See the Chauveau and Silvestre illustrations: Charles Perrault, Courses de Testes de Bague…en l’Annee 1662 (Paris: Impri.

Royale, 1670). 183 Jeremy Montagu, Timpani and Percussion, p. 57. 184 Peter Downey, ‘The Trumpet and its Role in Music of the Renaissance and Early Baroque’ (Ph.D.

Diss., Queen’s University, Belfast, 1983), p. 105. 185 J.A.

Kappey, Military Music, pp. 50, 79. 181 208 e Galpin Society Journal LXII (2009) Cavalry and Court Trumpeters and Kettledrummers From the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century BRUCE P.

GLEASON Figure 1.

E Queen’s Regiment of Horse capturing French Drums and Standards, Ramillies 1706.

By permission of 1st e Queen’s Dragoon Guards Regimental Museum, Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Wales. Figure 2.

Le regiment de Bercheny, c. 1752.

By permission of the Musée de l’Armée, Paris.

Trumpeter Corps of trumpeters and kettledrummers began forming when signalers gathered from their individual units at the fronts of columns to lead a regiment to and from battle.

Ese early cavalry bands were comprised of military signalers who did double duty as musicians, an idea that propelled the notion of mounted bands.

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