Appaloosa : They sometimes have small white spots on the body but….

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Thoroughbred – Developed in England in the early 1700s.

Every TB traces back to 3 foundation stallions – the Byerly Turk, the Godolphin Arabian and the Darley Arabian.

They were developed for racing, which is still the main purpose for which they are bred.

They are also used for show jumping, eventing, steeplechasing, show hunters, and foxhunting.

They are often crossed with other breeds to improve them, making them faster, lighter and more athletic.

They were also used as a foundation when creating other breeds.

They are usually between 15 and 17 hands and are most commonly bay, chestnut, and grey, and more rarely black, palomino, buckskin and white.

They sometimes have small white spots on the body, but pinto and appaloosa patterns are not recognized.

Thoroughbreds tend to be nervous and excitable.

They have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, and long legs.

Thoroughbreds are a hot-blooded breed. Arabian – Developed in and around Egypt about 2000 to 3000 years ago.

They are one of the oldest and most pure breeds known to man.

They were developed as transportation in the desert – both for riding and pulling vehicles.

They are used nowadays for endurance racing, flat racing, trail riding and showing.

They were used as one of the foundations for many breeds, and are often crossed with other breeds to improve and refine them, adding stamina, lightness and refinement.

They are usually between 14.1 and 15.1 hands and are most commonly grey, bay, chestnut, and less commonly, black and white.

Pinto, palomino, appaloosa patterns and buckskin do not occur.

Extensive white markings and white hairs throughout the body are common.

Arabians tend to be excitable and hot.

Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles.

Most display a distinctive concave, or “dished” profile.

Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup, or top of the hindquarters, and naturally high tail carriage.

They are a hot-blooded breed . Quarter Horse – Developed in Virginia, USA in the mid-1700s as a racehorse to run quarter-mile races.

They eventually became ranch horses in the west, and were used for working cattle.

They are still used as ranch horses and rodeo horses as well as racing, showing, and jumping.

They are often crossed with other breeds to add strength, substance and toughness.

They are usually between 14 and 16 hands and come in many colors, including sorrel (chestnut), bay, black, brown, buckskin, dun, red dun, gray, grullo, palomino, red roan, blue roan, bay roan, perlino and cremello.

QHs tend to be smart, sensible and steady.

They have a small, short, refined head with a straight profile, and a strong, well-muscled body, featuring a broad chest and powerful, rounded hindquarters. Appaloosa – Developed in the 1700s in the Palouse River area of Idaho by the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and were first used as transportation, and for hunting.

They were developed from the original horses brought to North America by the Spanish conquistadors.

They are now used in just about every discipline – ranch horse, western showing, English showing, jumping, eventing, dressage, trail riding and racing.

They are usually between 14 and 16 hands and can be one of several coat patterns, most with spots or roaning.

They can be any base color, but can’t have any pinto or paint patterns.

They also have several other characteristics – striped hooves, white sclera showing around the eyes, and mottled skin around the eyes and muzzle.

They often have a sparse mane and tail.

Appaloosas tend to be smart, tough, and have a lot of endurance. Warmbloods – Developed in many European countries, mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries by crossing heavy farm horses (coldbloods) with lighter, faster thoroughbreds (hotbloods).

They were mostly bred as carriage horses, but are now mostly used as sport horses, and excel as show jumpers, hunters, dressage horses and eventers, as well as in driving.

They are usually 16 – 17 hands and come in most solid colors, bay, chestnut, grey and black are most common.

They tend to be athletic, strong, and fairly steady.

Warmbloods differ from most true breeds in that most of them have open studbooks.

Individual horses are inspected and approved for registry, regardless of whether the parents are registered with that or another studbook.

In a closed studbook, individuals have to have both parents registered with the studbook.

Warmbloods are usually branded on the left haunch.

The brand identifies which breed it is.

Some breeds of warmblood are Hanoverian, Holsteiner, Rhinelander, Trakhener, Belgian warmblood, Dutch warmblood, Oldenburg. American saddlebred – Developed in the early 1800s in the southern USA as a comfortable, flashy riding horse.

They are now used mostly as show horses, both under saddle and in harness, but can also be used for dressage, jumping, and western disciplines.

They are usually 15 – 16 hands and come in bay, chestnut, grey, black, palomino, buckskin, champagne and pinto patterns.

The main characteristic of saddlebreds in their gaits.

They are shown as 3-gaited (walk-trot-canter) and 5gaited (walk, trot, canter, slow gait and rack).

The slow gait and rack are not natural, and have to be taught to the horse.

Exaggerated foot trimming and shoeing are often used to enhance the gaits.

They are generally well-proportioned, have large, wide-set expressive eyes and gracefully shaped ears set close together on a well-shaped head.

The neck is long with a fine, clean throatlatch and is arched and wellflexed at the poll.

The American Saddlebred has well-defined and prominent withers, while the shoulders are deep and sloping.

Well-sprung ribs and a strong level back also characterize the breed.

The legs are straight with broad flat bones, sharply defined tendons and sloping pasterns.

It is a gaited breed Morgan – Developed in the late 1700s in Vermont, USA, as an all-around horse that was strong enough to haul logs and work on the farm, fast enough to race, and pretty enough to pull the family carriage.

They are now used mostly for showing, but also for long-distance trail riding, ranch work and jumping.

They are usually around 14.1 – 15 hands and come in any color except appaloosa patterns, but are most commonly bay, chestnut and black.

Morgans are all descended from one foundation sire – his name was Figure, but he became known as Justin Morgan’s horse, and later, Justin Morgan, after his owner, Justin Morgan.

He won just about every weight-pulling contest and race he ever entered.

Morgans are known for their versatility, toughness and endurance.compact and refined in build, the Morgan has strong legs, an expressive face, large eyes, well-defined withers, laid back shoulders, an upright, well arched neck, and a clean cut head .

The back is short and hindquarters are strongly muscled, with a long and well-muscled croup.

The tail is attached high and carried gracefully and straight.

They appear to be a strong powerful horse,and the breed is well known as an easy keeper. Standardbred – Developed in the USA in the late 1800s for harness racing at the trot and pace.

They are still used mostly for racing.

Many become useful riding horses after their racing careers are over.

They are often used by the Amish as carriage horses.

They are usually between 16 and 17 hands, and come in bay, chestnut, black and grey.

The name come from the fact that when the breed was developed, a horse had to meet a standard of trotting a mile in 2 minutes, 30 seconds, or less.

Standardbreds are either trotters or pacers, and must maintain their gait during a race.

Standardbreds are tough, and are usually steadier and quieter than their close relative, the thoroughbred.

Their heads are refined and straight with broad foreheads, large nostrils, and shallow mouths.

The typical Standardbred body is long, with the withers being well defined, with strong shoulders and the muscles being long and heavy.

The neck of the standardbred is muscular and should be slightly arched, with a length of medium to long.

Their legs are muscular and solid with muscles on the inside and outside of the legs, with generally very tough and durable hooves. Tennessee Walking Horse – Developed in the southern USA in the late 1800s as a plantation owner’s horse.

They were used for overseeing the plantation, and for general transportation.

Nowadays, they are used mainly as a show horse, but are also used for trail riding, and for hunting dog field trials.

They are usually between 15 and 16 hands, and come in any color, including pinto patterns.

Tennessee walkers are quiet, easygoing, tough horses.

Their gaits, which are all naturally occuring, include walk, running walk, and canter, and are very smooth.

Their animated way of going is often enhanced by special trimming and shoeing, and abusive practices that take that action to extremes are not uncommon at shows.

The Tennessee Walker is a tall horse with a long neck and sloping shoulder.

The head is traditionally large but refined in bone, with small well-placed ears.

The Tennessee Walker is a gaited breed. Mustang – the mustang is a breed of feral horse developed in the USA in the 1500s and 1600s.

They originated from horses that escaped from the Spanish explorers and from settlers.

Nowadays they are used as general all-around horses – mainly in western disciplines but can be used in many different disciplines.

Mustangs are around 13 to 15 hands and come in any color.

They have low-set tails and short stature, however, their overall appearance is well-balanced.

Their strong hoofs and legs make them less prone to injury, as compared to other horse breeds.

All the decades spent in the wild has made this breed of horses to be extremely rugged, with great endurance level.

They are very sure-footed. Percheron – Developed in the Perche valley in France in the 1600s and 1700s.

They were first developed as war horses, then were used to pull coaches, then later, to do farm work.

They are used today mainly as draft horses, doing farm work and pulling wagons and carts for exhibition, competition, and recreation.

They are also ridden, and used for ranch work, foxhunting and jumping.

In France, they are mainly bred for meat.

They are usually between 17 and 18 hands and are usually black or grey, but can also be bay, chestnut or roan in America.

They are generally easygoing, steady horses, and have a lot of knee action.

The head has a straight profile, broad forehead, large eyes and small ears.

The chest is deep and wide and the croup long and level.

The feet and legs are clean and heavily muscled.

The overall impression of the Percheron is one of power and ruggedness.

The percheron is a draft breed. Clydesdale – Developed in Scotland in the 1600s and 1700s to pull wagons, haul heavy loads and do farm work.

They are still used for farm work, but are most commonly used for exhibition, showing, and recreational driving.

They are usually between 16 and 18 hands and come in black , chesnut, and most commonly bay.

They often have extensive white markings, white spots on the body, and roaning throughout, but they aren’t true roans.

The Clydesdale horse is lively and intelligent with good temperament.

The Clydesdale horse is lively and intelligent with good temperament.

The feet must be round and open with hoof heads wide and springy.

The horse must have action, but not exaggerated, the inside of every shoe being made visible to anyone walking behind.

The forelegs must be well under the shoulders, not carried bull-dog fashion, in fact must hang straight from shoulder to fetlock joint, with no openness at the knee, yet with no inclination to knock.

The hind legs must be similar, with the points of the hocks turned inwards rather than outwards, and the pasterns must be long.

Distinctive long, silky hair below the knees and hocks draw attention to the stylish lifting of the feet at the trot.

The head must have an open forehead, broad across the eyes, the front of the face must be flat, neither dished nor roman, wide muzzle, large nostrils and a bright, clear, intelligent eye.

A well-arched and long neck must spring out of an oblique shoulder with high withers, while the back should be short, with well-sprung ribs, and the thighs must be packed with muscle and sinew.

The Clydesdale is a draft breed. Shire – Developed in the shire region of England in the 1500s and 1600s, first as a war horse, then as a horse for hauling freight.

They are used nowadays for farm work, , but are most commonly used for exhibition, showing, and recreational driving.

They are usually between 17 and 18 hands and come in black, bay and grey.

Mares and geldings can be roan.

The head of a Shire is long and lean, with large eyes, set on a neck that is slightly arched and long in proportion to the body.

The shoulder is deep and wide, the chest wide, the back muscular and short and the hindquarters long and wide.

There is not to be too much feathering on the legs, and the hair is fine, straight and silky.

The Shire is lively and intelligent with good temperament.

The shire is a draft breed. Belgian – The Belgian was developed in Belgium in the 1600s and 1700s as a war horse, then as a horse for hauling heavy loads.

They are used nowadays for farm work, , but are most commonly used for exhibition, showing, and recreational driving.

They are usually between 16.2 and 17.2 and come in chestnut, roan, dun and grey.

In the US, chestnut with flaxen mane and tail are by far most common.

The body is compact with a short, wide back and powerful loins.

The quarters are massive, with a characteristic “double muscling” over the croup.

The gaskins are heavily muscled and the legs are short and strong.

The hooves are medium sized, for a draft horse, with only limited “feathering”.

The Belgian is known for it’s kind temperament and is easy to handle.

The Belgian is a draft breed. Welsh – The Welsh was developed in Wales in the 1400s and 1500s as a general use animal – transportation, farm work, hauling.

They have many uses nowadays – hunter pony, driving,western showing, children’s ponies.

They are crossed with many breeds to make a smaller animal and to add refinement or substance, depending on the type.

They have four types – Section A, Welsh mountain pony, section B, Welsh pony of riding type, section C, Welsh pony of cob type, section D, Welsh cob.

Section A is up to 12.2, section B is up to 14.2, section C is up to 13.2, section D is over 13.2 andhas no height limit.

They come in any solid color, grey being the most common.

Extensive white markings are common, along with roaning on the body.

The Section A Welsh Pony, or Welsh Mountain pony has refinement, substance, and stamina.

Well known for their friendly personalities and even temperaments, they are extremely intelligent and easily trained.

They have a large, bold eye, tiny head, short back, strong quarters, high set on tail, fine hair, hocks that do not turn in, laid back shoulder, straight foreleg and short cannon bone.

With all the physical and personality characteristics of the Section A, this section of the Welsh Pony was originally added to meet the demand for a larger riding type pony.

They are well known for their elegant movement and athletic ability but still retain the substance and hardiness of their foundation, the Section A.

The Section C is also known as the Welsh Pony of Cob Type.

They are characterized as being strong, hardy and active with pony character and as much substance as possible.

Bold eyes, strong laid back shoulders, dense hooves, a moderate quantity of silky feather, lengthy hindquarters, and powerful hocks.

Known for their gentle nature, they are characterized as strong, hardy and active, with pony character and as much substance as possible.

They have bold eyes, strong laid back shoulders, dense hooves, a moderate quantity of silky feather, lengthy hindquarters, and powerful hocks.

The forceful ground covering trot of the cob is legendary.

Welsh Cobs are known for their gentle nature, and are characterized as strong, hardy and active, with pony character and as much substance as possible.

They have bold eyes, strong laid back shoulders, dense hooves, a moderate quantity of silky feather, lengthy hindquarters, and powerful hocks.

A strong and powerful animal, have gentle natures and are extremely hardy.

The Welsh is considered a pony. Shetland – The Shetland was developed in the Shetland Islands in Scotland in over 2000 years ago for general use – carrying loads, and their owners.

Later they were used extensively in coal mines for hauling coal.

Nowadays, they are used mainly as children’s ponies, and for driving, showing and companionship.

They are generally between 9 and 11 hands and come in all colors except appaloosa pattern.

There are 2 types of shetlands – the classic Shetland and the American Shetland.

This covers the classic Shetland.

Shetland Ponies are hardy and strong They have a small head, sometimes with a dished face, widely-spaced eyes and small and alert ears.

They have a short, muscular neck, compact, stocky bodies, and short, strong legs and a shorter than normal cannon bone in relation to their size.

A short broad back and deep girth are universal characteristics as is a springy stride.

Shetlands have long thick manes and tails and a dense double winter coat to withstand harsh weather.

Shetland ponies are generally gentle, good-tempered, and very intelligent by nature, but can be very opinionated or “cheeky”, and can be impatient, snappy, and sometimes become uncooperative.

Due in part to their intelligence and size, they are easily spoiled and can be very headstrong if not well-trained.

They are ponies. Connemara – The Connemara was developed in County Galway in Ireland in the 1700s.

They were originally used as all-around ponies – pulling carts and plows and carrying loads.

Nowadays they are used mostly as show ponies – they are excellent jumpers all-around mounts for children and adults foxhunters and for driving.

They are often bred with thoroughbreds and other breeds to add jumping ability substance, and toughness.

They are generally between 13 and 15 hands and come in grey, black, chestnut, bay, dun, and occasionally roan.

Connemaras are sure-footed, hardy and agile, they have great stamina, staying power and adaptability.

They are renowned for their versatility jumping ability, and their gentle, tractable, sensible and willing dispositions.

They are the only native breed from Ireland.

The Connemara has a strong back, loins and hind quarters, deep and broad through the ribs, and with a well laid-back shoulder and well-placed neck without undue crest.

The head should be of pony type, broad between the eyes, which should be large and appear kind, and with a deep but refined jaw and clearly defined cheekbone.

The ears should be of pony type (relatively short).

The legs should be relatively short from the knees and hocks to the ground, with a strong, muscular upper leg, strong and well-defined knees and hocks, and well-shaped hard feet which are of a medium size.

The action should be free, active and easy They are considered ponies. Pony of the Americas – The Pony of the Americas, or POA, was developed in Iowa, in the USA in the 1950s.

They were developed as an appaloosa-patterned pony for children and small adults for all types of riding but western disciplines were its main use.

They are still used for the same, and its main focus is as a children’s pony.

They are between 11.2 and 14 hands and come in any appaloosa pattern.

They must have secondary appaloosa characteristics – mottled skin on the muzzle, white sclera around the eyes and striped hooves.

The Pony of the Americas has a refined head with a dished, Arab-like nose, expressive eyes and fine ears.

The body is full, the chest broad, and the shoulders should be sloping.

The quarters are substantial, and the legs should have ample bone.

The POA is a strong, fast, and durable pony capable of performing a wide variety of tasks.

It is a pony. Chincoteague pony – The Chincoteague pony was developed in Virginia USA in the 1600s and 1700s.

They are descendants of the horses and ponies that belonged to the original settlers and were used for farm work and transportation.

They are used nowadays as children’s ponies in many disciplines.

They are around 12 to 14 hands and come in any color except appaloosa patterns pinto being very common.

In general, the breed tends to have a straight or slightly concave facial profile with a broad forehead and refined throatlatch and neck.

The shoulders are well angled, the ribs well sprung, the chest broad and the back short with broad loins.

The croup is rounded, with a thick, low-set tail.

The breed’s legs tend to be straight, with good, dense bone that makes them sound and sturdy.Domesticated Chincoteagues are considered intelligent and willing to please.

They are ponies. Light Horse Breeds Light horse breeds include most breeds.

They are not as heavy as drafts, and not ponies.

They are used for riding, driving in many different disciplines. Hot-blooded breeds are considered the foundation breeds of light horses.

Arabians, Barbs, Thoroughbreds, Akhal-Tekes and Karabakh are considered hot-blooded.

Gaited horses are horses that have gaits other than walk, trot and canter.

Some of the additional gaits are natural, and some have to be taught.

In addition to the ones already profiled, other gaited breds are paso fino, Peruvian paso, Mangalarga Marchador, Missouri foxtrotter, Rocky Mountain Horse, Icelandic pony. Draft Horses Draft horses are tall, strong and very heavy horses.

Most of them descended from the Great Horse of Europe.

They started off as war horses and knights’ horses.

They were smaller and lighter then, more like a Welsh cob or Friesian.

As that need disappeared, they were bred to be larger, heavier and steadier, to better perform the tasks of plowing, hauling and general draft work.

These days, they are often crossed with thoroughbreds to produce horses that are good for dressage jumping and foxhunting.

They have the speed and athleticism of the TB with the steadiness and substance of the draft.

They are also crossed with saddlebreds to produce a type of horse called the Georgian Grande.

It has the flashiness and refinement of the saddlebred and the steadiness and substance of the draft. Draft horses are bred for human consumption in some European countries. Other breeds of draft horse are Suffolk punch, Brabant, Irish draft, Breton, Konik, Haflinger, fjord. Ponies Most pony breeds developed naturally in areas where food was scarce and conditions were tough.

A smaller animal could survive on less food and water and needed less shelter.

Most pony breeds are tough and hardy, and require less care than horses.

They usually have very thick coats, manes and tails, need little food, and have tough feet.

Too much food, or food that is too rich can be very bad for ponies.

They tend to founder more easily than horses.

They are often crossed with horses to produce an animal with the characteristics of the horse but smaller and tougher .

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