NCSSEL Questions 1) Name four natural gaits of the horse.
Walk, trot, canter, and gallop 2) How many beats (footfalls) to the walk? Four 3) How many beats (footfalls) to the trot? Two 4) How many beats (footfalls) to the canter? Three 5) Name three different coat colors of the horse.
Bay, Dark Brown, Black, Grey, Palomino, Chestnut, Sorrel, Buckskin, etc 6) What predominant skin color do grey horses have? Black 7) Describe the difference between a chestnut colored horse and a sorrel colored horse.
A) Chestnut horses have reddish-brown body color with manes and tails of almost identical color.
B) Sorrel horses also have reddish-brown body color, but their manes and tails are much lighter than their body color. 8) Name three common facial markings in horses.
Star, stripe, snip, blaze, bald face 9) Name two common leg markings in horses and describe which has more white in it (which is bigger).
Coronet, anklet, sock, stocking 10) What is the normal temperature range for a horse? 99 to 101 11) Name three general signs that a horse is sick.
A) A temperature over 101 degrees or under 99 b) Cold and patchy sweating c) A pulse rate greater than 60 that is weak and irregular d) Heavy nasal discharge e) Little or no intestinal sounds f) Lower limbs puffy or full of swelling g) Weak or irregular respiration Equitation League Questions Revised 2005 1 12) What are some signs of colic? Persistent pawing and rolling, profuse sweating, looking at sides, kicking belly. 13) How do you estimate a horse’s age? By examining his teeth. 14) Name one joint in the horse’s hind leg.
Pastern, fetlock, hock, stifle, hip 15) Name one joint in the horse’s front leg.
Pastern, fetlock, knee, elbow, shoulder 16) What does the word “aid” mean? Two things: (1) Natural aids are what the rider uses to tell his horse his intentions; they are typically things a rider is born with and (2) artificial aids are things used for reinforcing the natural aids; they are typically things the rider was not born with. 17) Give an example of a “natural aid”.
Hand, seat, leg, voice 18) Give an example of an “artificial aid”.
Spurs, crop, whip 19) What is a simple change of lead? For hunters, it is changing the lead by executing a downward transition from a canter to trot for not more than three steps and then picking up the opposite lead. 20) Why should there be a ground line for each fence? Ground lines help a horse in judging how big the fence is and finding the right take-off spot. 21) What 5 stages does a horse go through when it is jumping? Approach, take-off, flight, landing, departure 22) What is a disunited or cross-canter? A disunited or cross-canter occurs when it appears the horse is cantering on one lead on the forehand and on the other lead on the hindquarters. 23) What is a counter-canter? A counter-canter occurs when the horse is on the left lead when going to the right or vice versa – like being on the wrong lead on purpose 24) Name 2 basic types of hay. Equitation League Questions Revised 2005 2 a) Grass, ex: Timothy or Orchard grass b) Legume, ex: alfalfa 25) What is the most vital nutrient for a horse to have? Water 26) List at least two common forms of bedding.
Straw, sawdust and shavings 27) What are the purposes of grooming? To increase the blood supply to the skin; to remove the dirt and dandruff; to give a good shine to the coat and to lubricate the skin; and to help prevent skin disease. Equitation League Questions Revised 2005 3
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