11 Table 2.1 Number of horses on agricultural properties Number of horses 1990 Stud Other Total Source: ABS cat. 7113.0. 43 400 217 100 310 400 1997 69 000 165 000 234 000 Breed and other registrations The total number of horses is estimated from the sources indicated in Table 2.2.
These numbers overstate the number of horses in that registered horses often include deceased horses and some horses are multiply registered, but they understate the numbers in that many horses are not registered at all.
Many performance and pleasure horses are thoroughbred and standardbred, often drawn from racing stock.
The numbers used in the modelling are given in Chapter 4.
Trends in horse numbers The reduction in the turnover required to be included in the ABS survey resulted in a rise in the estimate of the number of horses in studs.
However, despite the reduction in the farm turnover in the survey base the number of horses on other properties declined dramatically.
Because of the change in the base, the trend is difficult to establish, however this evidence does suggests that overall the number of horses in Australia is declining fairly rapidly.
Yet membership in horse associations and societies is in general growing.
Some associations such as the Paint Horse Association and Australian Stock Horse Society report very strong growth in recent years.
However, this may reflect an increase in the proportion of horse owners joining organisations rather than horse numbers.
Insurance offered with membership in many of the associations and clubs is one reason that might be attracting a larger proportion of horse owners to join an organisation. 12 Table 2.2 Information on the number of horses in Australia Type Thoroughbred (racing) Estimated numbers 32 039 Source Australian Racing Board (ARB 1999) 1998-99 number of horses racing ARB (1999) 1998 total of stallion, broodmare and two years foal crop Inter-Dominion Harness Racing Council (IDHRC 2001) 1998 number of horses racing IDHRC(2001) 1998 total of stallion, broodmares covered plus estimate of mares not covered and three years foal crop Arabian Horse Society (AHS) 2000 — 24328 purebred mares, 18 492 stallions & geldings, 690 foals registered Arabian Horse Society (AHS) 2000 – 33329 partbred mares, 27454 stallions & geldings, includes deceased (estimated 7 per cent) Australian Stock Horse Society (ASHS) Number registered since 1971, approximately 3000 registrations a year includes deceased (estimated 7 per cent) Australian Quarter Horse Association (AQHA 2001) Number of registered horses- up to 5 per cent could be deceased, some overlap with ASHA registrations – estimated 10 per cent Australian Warmblood Horse Association Australian Appaloosa Association (AAA) 2001 Paint Horse Association of Australia (PHAS) 2001 Shire Horse Association of Australia Percheron Horse Breeders Association Commonwealth Clydesdale Horse Society Irish Draught and Sporthorse Society of Australia Australian Palomino Horse Association Pinto Horse Association National Buckskin Society Australian Whitehorse Association Hackney Horse Society of Australia American Saddlebred Horse Association Fresian Horse Society Australian Peruvian Paso Association Hanoverian (German) Horse of Australia Cleveland Bay Horse Society of Australia Lipizzaner Horse Society Andalusian Horse Association of Australia Australian Pony Stud Book Society (APSB) 2001 Covers 9 major pony breeds — Shetland, Welsh (Mountain, Cross, Cob), Highland, Dartmoor, New Forest, Connemarra, Fjord Horse, Hackney Pony and Horse.
Number registered since 1979 is 35 000 Australian Saddle Pony Association (ASPA) 2001 – (11 to 14.2 hands) expected that only 10 per cent are not registered elsewhere Miniature Horse Association of Australia – open to horses and ponies under 8.2 hands. Thoroughbred (breeding) 68 199 Standardbred (racing) 13 954 Standardbred (breeding) 33 080 Arabian Horses Arabian derivatives 42 101 60 333 Australian Stock Horse 145 000 Australian Quarter Horse 87 000 Warmblood Appaloosa Paint Horse Heavy Horses 10 000 34 000 6000 Estimated average 5000 per breed — Education and research and development Business related expenditure Estimates of the number of horses used for breeding and the annual foal crop are given in Table 4.1.
The numbers are based on data where available, or derived from assumptions about the foal crop, which is proxied by new registrations where unavailable.
The average return rate for thoroughbreds and standardbreds is 70 per cent and around 15 per cent of thoroughbred broodmares are not served in any one year.
These numbers were used as the basis to estimate the number of mares used for breeding in other breeds.
Most horse studbooks now allow artificial insemination.
However, for some breeds this is a recent change, and the genetic diversity is also likely to be greater, so stallion numbers for breeding are likely to be somewhat higher than the 5 per cent for thoroughbred and standardbred breeds. 24 Table 4.1 Estimated number of horses involved in breeding Broodmare a Stallionsb Foal crop Young horses C Total Thoroughbred 30 531 1 459 17 876 16 088 65 954 Standardbred 9 774 443 6 927 5 611 22 755 Arabian — purebred 1 916 213 1 166 944 4 239 Arabian — part bred 1 612 179 981 795 3 566 Australian Stock Horse 5 750 639 3 500 2 835 12 724 Quarter Horse 6 571 730 4 000 3 240 14 542 Warmblood 821 91 500 405 1 818 Paint Horse 821 91 500 405 1 818 Appaloosa 904 100 550 446 1 999 Draft Horses 1 643 183 1 000 810 3 635 Pony 2 629 292 1 600 1 296 5 817 Other registered breeds 1 643 183 1 000 810 3 635 Registered coloured horses 821 91 500 405 1 818 Other horses — not registered 3 286 365 2 000 1 620 7 271 Total 68 722 5 059 42 100 35 710 151 591 Assumptions: a Broodmares services have 70 per cent return, 15 per cent are not services.
B Stallions make up 10 per cent of breeding stock, 5 per cent for thoroughbred and standardbred.
C Assumed 10 per cent loss of foals in first 3 years, young horses are considered up to 2 years for thoroughbreds and 3 years for other breeds.
Source: CIE estimates based on Table 2.3 and studbook estimates. The total number of young horses is estimated assuming that there is an annual wastage of 10 per cent, that thoroughbreds become economically active as two year olds and other horses as three year olds.
Many of these horses would be sold before this age, but are included in the breeding estimates, as they would not be included in the other categories.
The numbers of horses involved in breeding is estimated to be 151 591 made up of 68 722 broodmares, 5 059 stallions, 42 100 foals and 35 710 young horses.
This number is considerably larger than the ABS estimate of horses at stud due to the addition of foals and young horses.
Number of establishments The ABS estimates of the number of horse farming establishments by area are given in Table 4.2. Table 4.2 Number of horse farming establishments Area (ha) 0–49 50–99 100–499 500–999 1000–2500 > 2 500 Total Source: ABS 7102.0. 1992 416 272 436 52 19 15 1210 1996 762 366 454 48 28 16 1674 1997 818 386 500 59 23 17 1803 1998 642 420 462 47 29 13 1613 1999 963 457 662 57 19 19 2177 The model estimates the number of breed businesses on the basis of the average number of broodmares per establishment.
Based on an average number of mares of 30 for thoroughbred and 20 for other breeds, there are just over 2 900 establishments breeding horses.
This is around 30 per cent more than reported in the ABS data.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that this may be an underestimate as there are a large number of very small breeders.
However, 25 most of these would also keep horses for events and pleasure and so would have stabling costs included in this category.
Sales Horses are sold directly and through auctions.
Auctions or horse sales are particularly important for the top end of the breeding spectrum.
Unfortunately little information is available on sales of horses other than thoroughbreds.
In 1998, 6 497 thoroughbreds were sold at auction (ARB 1999).
In 2000, 3 360 transfers of ownership of Arabian horses (purebred and derivatives), were recorded (AHSA 2001).
All major breeds have at least one national sale, and many have state and local sales as well.
Sales often attract a number of spectators, for example the national sale of Paint Horses recently attracted up to 3000 spectators.
The model assumes that 8 per cent of horses are sold at sales each year, based on the thoroughbred information of an 8 per cent turnover.
The average number of horses sold at a sale is assumed to be around a hundred a day.
Thoroughbred yearling sales will often offer up to 500 horses, but the sales run for a number of days.
Based on these assumptions there are a total of 150 sale days each year.
Estimates of the economic contribution of the breeding industry Two estimates of the contribution of the breeding industry are made.
The base case, GDP measure, assumes that for thoroughbred breeding 80 per cent of labour is paid, for standardbred, 50 per cent of labour is paid and for other breeds only 20 per cent of labour is paid.
The total contribution (SNA) case assumes that all breeder and strapper labour is paid labour.
The overall economic contribution Under the base case the total contribution of the industry to GDP is estimated to be $0.89 billion a year.
Table 4.3 summarises the estimates under the two assumptions about labour reward. Table 4.3 Economic contribution of the breeding industry
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