By extension, any one of a group of related bodies of which saponin proper is the type

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GIFT VOUCHER - Gift Vouchers - Gifts By extension, any one of a group of related bodies of which saponin proper is the type

sapling, n.

Def.: A young tree. Shak. Sapodilla, n.

Etym. [Sp. zapote, sapotillo, zapotillo, Mexican cochit-zapotl.

Cf. Sapota.] (Bot.) Def.: A tall, evergeen, tropical American tree (Achras Sapota); also, its edible fruit, the sapodilla plum. [Written also sapadillo, sappadilo, sappodilla, and zapotilla.]
Sapodilla plum

(Bot.), the fruit of Achras Sapota.

It is about the size of an ordinary quince, having a rough, brittle, dull brown rind, the flesh being of a dirty yellowish white color, very soft, and deliciously sweet.

Called also naseberry.

It is eatable only when it begins to be spotted, and is much used in desserts. Sapogenin, n.

Etym. [Saponin + -gen + in.] (Chem.) Def.: A white crystalline substance obtained by the decomposition of saponin. Saponaceous, a.

Etym. [L. sapo, -onis, soap, of Teutonic origin, and akin to E. soap.

See Soap.] Def.: Resembling soap; having the qualities of soap; soapy. <-- p. 1276 --> Saponacity, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being saponaceous. Saponary, a.

Def.: Saponaceous. Boyle. Saponifiable, a.

Def.: Capable of conversion into soap; as, a saponifiable substance. Saponification, n.

Etym. [Cf.

F. saponification.

See Saponify.] Def.: The act, process, or result, of soap making; conversion into soap; specifically (Chem.), the decomposition of fats and other ethereal salts by alkalies; as, the saponification of ethyl acetate.<-- ethereal salt = ester --> Saponifier, n. (Chem.) Def.: That which saponifies; any reagent used to cause saponification. Saponify, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Saponified (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Saponifying (?).] Etym. [L. sapo, -onis, soap + -fy: cf.

F. saponifier.] Def.: To convert into soap, as tallow or any fat; hence (Chem.), to subject to any similar process, as that which ethereal salts undergo in decomposition; as, to saponify ethyl acetate. Saponin, n.

Etym. [L. sapo, -onis soap: cf.

F. saponine.] (Chem.) Def.: A poisonous glucoside found in many plants, as in the root of soapwort (Saponaria), in the bark of soap bark (Quillaia), etc.

It is extracted as a white amorphus powder, which occasions a soapy lather in solution, and produces a local anoestesia.

Formerly called also struthiin, quilaiin, senegin, polygalic acid, etc.

By extension, any one of a group of related bodies of which saponin proper is the type. Saponite, n.

Etym. [Sw. saponit, fr.

L. sapo, -onis, soap.] (Min.) Def.: A hydrous silicate of magnesia and aluminia.

It occurs in soft, soapy, amorphous masses, filling veins in serpentine and cavities in trap rock. Saponul, n.

Etym. [F. saponule, fr.

L. sapo, -onis, soap.] (Old Chem.) Def.: A soapy mixture obtained by treating an essential oil with an alkali; hence, any similar compound of an essential oil. [Written also saponule.] [Obs.] \’d8Sapor, n.

Etym. [L.

See Savor.] Def.: Power of affecting the organs of taste; savor; flavor; taste. There is some sapor in all aliments. Sir T.

Browne. Saporific, a.

Etym. [L. sapor taste + facere to make.] Def.: Having the power to produce the sensation of taste; producing taste, flavor, or relish. Saporosity, n.

Def.: The quality of a body by which it excites the sensation of taste. Saporous, a.

Etym. [L. saporius that relishes well, savory, fr. sapor taste.] Def.: Having flavor or taste; yielding a taste. [R.] Bailey. Sapota, n.

Etym. [NL., from Sp. sapote, zapote.

See Sapodilla.] (Bot.) Def.: The sapodilla. Sapotaceous, a. (Bot.) Def.: Of or pertaining to a natural order (Sapotaceoe) of (mostly tropical) trees and shrubs, including the star apple, the Lucuma, or natural marmalade tree, the gutta-percha tree (Isonandra), and the India mahwa, as well as the sapodilla, or sapota, after which the order is named. Sappan wood.

Def.: Sapan wood. Sappare, n.

Etym. [F. sappare; — so called by Saussure.] (Min.) Def.: Kyanite. [Written also sappar.] Sapper, n.

Etym. [Cf.

F. sapeur.] Def.: One who saps; specifically (Mil.), one who is employed in working at saps, building and repairing fortifications, and the like. Sapphic, a.

Etym. [L. Sapphicus, Gr. 1. Def.: Of or pertaining to Sappho, the Grecian poetess; as, Sapphic odes; Sapphic verse. 2. (Pros.) Def.: Belonging to, or in the manner of, Sappho; — said of a certain kind of verse reputed to have been invented by Sappho, consisting of five feet, of which the first, fourth, and fifth are trochees, the second is a spondee, and the third a dactyl. Sapphic, n. (Pros.) Def.: A Sapphic verse. Sapphire (? , n.

Etym. [OE. saphir, F. saphir, L. sapphirus, Gr. Heb. sapp\’c6r.] 1. (Min.) Def.: Native alumina or aluminium sesquioxide, Al2O3; corundum; esp., the blue transparent variety of corundum, highly prized as a gem. of rubies, sapphires, and of pearlés white. Chaucer. The name ‘sapphire’ is usually restricted to the blue crystals, while the bright red crystals are called ‘Oriental rubies’ (see under Ruby), the amethystine variety ‘Oriental amethyst’ (see under Amethyst), and the dull massive varieties ‘corundum’ (a name which is also used as a general term to include all varieties).

See Corundum. 2. Def.: The color of the gem; bright blue. 3. (Zool.) Def.: Any humming bird of the genus Hylocharis, native of South America.

The throat and breast are usually bright blue.
Star sapphire

, Asteriated sapphire

(Min.), a kind of sapphire which exhibits asterism. Sapphire, a.

Def.: Of or resembling sapphire; sapphire; blue. \’bdThe ‘sapphire’ blaze.\’b8 Gray. — Shathmont (, n.

Def.: A shaftment. [Scot.] Shatter, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shattered (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shattering.] Etym. [OE. schateren, scateren, to scatter, to dash, AS. scateran; cf.

D. schateren to crack, to make a great noise, OD. schetteren to scatter, to burst, to crack.

Cf. Scatter.] 1. Def.: To break at once into many pieces; to dash, burst, or part violently into fragments; to rend into splinters; as, an explosion shatters a rock or a bomb; too much steam shatters a boiler; an oak is shattered by lightning. A monarchy was shattered to pieces, and divided amongst revolted subjects. Locke. 2. Def.: To disorder; to derange; to render unsound; as, to be shattered in intellect; his constitution was shattered; his hopes were shattered. A man of a loose, volatile, and shattered humor. Norris. 3. Def.: To scatter about. [Obs.] Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year. Milton. Shatter, v.


Def.: To be broken into fragments; to falSome fragile bodies break but where the force is; some shatter and fly in many places. Bacon. Shatter, n.

Def.: A fragment of anything shattered; — used chiefly or soley in the phrase ‘into shatters’; as, to break a glass into shatters. Swift. { Shatter-brained, Shatter-pated, } a.

Def.: Disordered or wandering in intellect; hence, heedless; wild. J.

Goodman. Shattery, a.

Def.: Easily breaking into pieces; not compact; loose of texture; brittle; as, shattery spar. Shave, Def.: obs.



Of Shave. Chaucer. His beard was shave as nigh as ever he can. Chaucer. Shave, v.

T. [imp. Shaved;p.

P. Shaved or Shaven (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shaving.] Etym. [OE. shaven, schaven, AS. scafan, sceafan; akin to D. schaven, G. schaben, Icel. skafa, Sw. skafva, Dan. skave, Goth. scaban, Russ. kopate to dig, Gr. scabere to scratch, to scrape.

Cf. Scab, Shaft, Shape.] 1. Def.: To cut or pare off from the surface of a body with a razor or other edged instrument; to cut off closely, as with a razor; as, to shave the beard. 2. Def.: To make bare or smooth by cutting off closely the surface, or surface covering, of; especially, to remove the hair from with a razor or other sharp instrument; to take off the beard or hair of; as, to shave the face or the crown of the head; he shaved himself. I’ll shave your crown for this. Shak. The laborer with the bending scythe is seen Shaving the surface of the waving green. Gay. 3. Def.: To cut off thin slices from; to cut in thin slices. Plants bruised or shaven in leaf or root. Bacon. 4. Def.: To skim along or near the surface of; to pass close to, or touch lightly, in passing. Now shaves with level wing the deep. Milton. 5. Def.: To strip; to plunder; to fleece. [Colloq.]
To shave a note

, to buy it at a discount greater than the legal rate of interest, or to deduct in discounting it more than the legal rate allows. [Cant, U.S.] <-- p. 1325 --> Shave, v.


Def.: To use a razor for removing the beard; to cut closely; hence, to be hard and severe in a bargain; to practice extortion; to cheat. Shave, n.

Etym. [AS. scafa, sceafa, a sort of knife.

See Shave, v.

T.] 1. Def.: A thin slice; a shaving. Wright. 2. Def.: A cutting of the beard; the operation of shaving. 3. (a) Def.: An exorbitant discount on a note. [Cant, U.S.] (b) Def.: A premium paid for an extension of the time of delivery or payment, or for the right to vary a stock contract in any particular. [Cant, U.S.] N.

Biddle. 4. Def.: A hand tool consisting of a sharp blade with a handle at each end; a drawing knife; a spokeshave. 5. Def.: The act of passing very near to, so as almost to graze; as, the bullet missed by a close shave. [Colloq.]
Shave grass

(Bot.), the scouring rush.

See the Note under Equisetum. —
Shave hook

, a tool for scraping metals, consisting of a sharp-edged triangular steel plate attached to a shank and handle. Shaveling, n.

Def.: A man shaved; hence, a monk, or other religious; — used in contempt. I am no longer a shaveling than while my frock is on my back. Sir W.

Scott. Shaver, n. 1. Def.: One who shaves; one whose occupation is to shave. 2. Def.: One who is close in bargains; a sharper. Swift. 3. Def.: One who fleeces; a pillager; a plunderer. By these shavers the Turks were stripped. Knolles. 4. Def.: A boy; a lad; a little fellow. [Colloq.] \’bdThese unlucky little ‘shavers’.\’b8 <-- often little shaver --> Salmagundi. As I have mentioned at the door to this young shaver, I am on a chase in the name of the king. Dickens. 5. (Mech.) Def.: A tool or machine for shaving.
A note shaver

, a person who buys notes at a discount greater than the legal rate of interest. [Cant, U.S.] Shaving, n. 1. Def.: The act of one who, or that which, shaves; specifically, the act of cutting off the beard with a razor. 2. Def.: That which is shaved off; a thin slice or strip pared off with a shave, a knife, a plane, or other cutting instrument. \’bd’Shaving’ of silver.\’b8 Chaucer.
Shaving brush

, a brush used in lathering the face preparatory to shaving it. Shaw, n.

Etym. [OE. schawe, scha, thicket, grove, AS. scaga; akin to Dan. skov, Sw. skog, Icel. sk.] 1. Def.: A thicket; a small wood or grove. [Obs.

Or Prov.Eng. & Scot.] Burns. Gaillard he was as goldfinch in the shaw. Chaucer. The green shaws, the merry green woods. Howitt. 2. pl. Def.: The leaves and tops of vegetables, as of potatoes, turnips, etc. [Scot.] Jamieson. Shawfowl, n.

Etym. [Scot. schaw, shaw, show + fowl.] Def.: The representation or image of a fowl made by fowlers to shoot at. Johnson. Shawl, n.

Etym. [Per. & Hind. sh\’bel: cf.

F. ch\’83le.] Def.: A square or oblong cloth of wool, cotton, silk, or other textile or netted fabric, used, especially by women, as a loose covering for the neck and shoulders.
India shawl

, a kind of rich shawl made in India from the wool of the Cashmere goat.

It is woven in pieces, which are sewed together. —
Shawl goat

(Zool.), the Cashmere goat. Shawl, v.


Def.: To wrap in a shawl. Thackeray. Shawm, n.

Etym. [OE. shalmie, OF. chalemie; cf.

F. chalumeau shawm, chaume haulm, stalk; all fr.

L. calamus a reed, reed pipe.

See Haulm, and cf. Calumet.] (Mus.) Def.: A wind instrument of music, formerly in use, supposed to have resembled either the clarinet or the hautboy in form. [Written also shalm, shaum.] Otway. Even from the shrillest shaum unto the cornamute. Drayton. Shawnees, n.

Pl.; sing. Shawnee (. (Ethnol.) Def.: A tribe of North American Indians who occupied Western New York and part of Ohio, but were driven away and widely dispersed by the Iroquois. Shay, n.

Def.: A chaise. [Prov.

Eng. & Local, U.S.] She, pron. [sing.

Nom. She; poss. Her. ( or Hers (; obj. Her; pl.

Nom. They (?); poss. Their or Theirs (; obj. Them (?).] Etym. [OE. she, sche, scheo, scho, AS. se\’a2, fem.

Of the definite article, originally a demonstrative pronoun; cf.

OS. siu, D. zij, G. sie, OHG. siu, s\’c6, si, Icel. s, sj\’be, Goth. si she, s, fem.

Article, Russ. siia, fem., this, Gr. Article, Skr. s\’be, sy\’be.

The possessive her or hers, and the objective her, are from a different root.

See Her.] 1. Def.: This or that female; the woman understood or referred to; the animal of the female sex, or object personified as feminine, which was spoken of. She loved her children best in every wise. Chaucer. Then Sarah denied, . . .

For she was afraid. Gen.

Xviii. 15. 2. Def.: A woman; a female; — used substantively. [R.] Lady, you are the cruelest she alive. Shak. Sheading, n.

Etym. [From AS. sc\’bedan, sce\’a0dan, to separate, divide.

See Shed, v.

T.] Def.: A tithing, or division, in the Isle of Man, in which there is a coroner, or chief constable.

The island is divided into six sheadings. Sheaf, n. (Mech.) Def.: A sheave. [R.] Sheaf, n.; pl. Sheaves .

Etym. [OE. sheef, shef, schef, AS. sce\’a0f; akin to D. schoof, OHG. scoub, G. schaub, Icel. skauf a fox’s brush, and E. shove.

See Shove.] 1. Def.: A quantity of the stalks and ears of wheat, rye, or other grain, bound together; a bundle of grain or straw. The reaper fills his greedy hands, And binds the golden sheaves in brittle bands. Dryden. 2. Def.: Any collection of things bound together; a bundle; specifically, a bundle of arrows sufficient to fill a quiver, or the allowance of each archer, — usually twenty-four. The sheaf of arrows shook and rattled in the case. Dryden. Sheaf, v.


Def.: To gather and bind into a sheaf; to make into sheaves; as, to sheaf wheat. Sheaf, v.


Def.: To collect and bind cut grain, or the like; to make sheaves. They that reap must sheaf and bind. Shak. Sheafy, a.

Def.: Pertaining to, or consisting of, a sheaf or sheaves; resembling a sheaf. Sheal, n.

Def.: Same as Sheeling. [Scot.] Sheal, v.


Def.: To put under a sheal or shelter. [Scot.] Sheal, v.


Etym. [See Shell.] Def.: To take the husks or pods off from; to shell; to empty of its contents, as a husk or a pod. [Obs.

Or Prov.Eng. & Scot.] Jamieson. That’s a shealed peascod. Shak. Sheal, n.

Def.: A shell or pod. [Obs.

Or Prov.Eng.] Shealing, n.

Def.: The outer husk, pod, or shell, as of oats, pease, etc.; sheal; shell. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng. & Scot.] Shealing, n.

Def.: Same as Sheeling. [Scot.] Shear, v.

T. [imp. Sheared or Shore (;p.

P. Sheared or Shorn (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shearing.] Etym. [OE. sheren, scheren, to shear, cut, shave, AS. sceran, scieran, scyran; akin to D. & G. scheren, Icel. skera, Dan. ski, Gr. Cf. Jeer, Score, Shard, Share, Sheer to turn aside.] 1. Def.: To cut, clip, or sever anything from with shears or a like instrument; as, to shear sheep; to shear cloth. 2. Def.: To separate or sever with shears or a similar instrument; to cut off; to clip (something) from a surface; as, to shear a fleece. Before the golden tresses . . .

Were shorn away. Shak. 3. Def.: To reap, as grain. [Scot.] Jamieson. 4. Def.: Fig.: To deprive of property; to fleece. 5. (Mech.) Def.: To produce a change of shape in by a shear.

See Shear, n., 4. Shear, n.

Etym. [AS. sceara.

See Shear, v.

T.] 1. Def.: A pair of shears; — now always used in the plural, but formerly also in the singular.

See Shears. On his head came razor none, nor shear. Chaucer. Short of the wool, and naked from the shear. Dryden. 2. Def.: A shearing; — used in designating the age of sheep. After the second shearing, he is a two-sher ram; . . .

At the expiration of another year, he is a three-shear ram; the name always taking its date from the time of shearing. Youatt. 3. (Engin.) Def.: An action, resulting from applied forces, which tends to cause two contiguous parts of a body to slide relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact; — also called shearing stress, and tangential stress. 4. (Mech.) Def.: A strain, or change of shape, of an elastic body, consisting of an extension in one direction, an equal compression in a perpendicular direction, with an unchanged magnitude in the third direction.
Shear blade

, one of the blades of shears or a shearing machine.
Shear hulk

. See under Hulk.
Shear steel

, a steel suitable for shears, scythes, and other cutting instruments, prepared from fagots of blistered steel by repeated heating, rolling, and tilting, to increase its malleability and fineness of texture. Shear, v.

I. 1. Def.: To deviate.

See Sheer. 2. (Engin.) Def.: To become more or less completely divided, as a body under the action of forces, by the sliding of two contiguous parts relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. Shearbill, n. (Zool.) Def.: The black skimmer.

See Skimmer. Sheard, n.

Def.: See Shard. [Obs.] Shearer, n. 1. Def.: One who shears. Like a lamb dumb before his shearer. Acts viii. 32. 2. Def.: A reaper. [Scot.] Jamieson. Shearing, n. 1. Def.: The act or operation of clipping with shears or a shearing machine, as the wool from sheep, or the nap from cloth. 2. Def.: The product of the act or operation of clipping with shears or a shearing machine; as, the whole shearing of a flock; the shearings from cloth. 3. Def.: Same as Shearling. Youatt. 4. Def.: The act or operation of reaping. [Scot.] 5. Def.: The act or operation of dividing with shears; as, the shearing of metal plates. 6. Def.: The process of preparing shear steel; tilting. 7. (Mining) Def.: The process of making a vertical side cutting in working into a face of coal.
Shearing machine

. (a) A machine with blades, or rotary disks, for dividing plates or bars of metal. (b) A machine for shearing cloth. Shearling, n.

Def.: A sheep but once sheared. Shearman, n.; pl. Shearmen (. Def.: One whose occupation is to shear cloth. Shearn, n.

Etym. [AS. scearn.

Cf. Scarn.] Def.: Dung; excrement. [Obs.] [Written also shern.] Holland. Shears, n.


Etym. [Formerly used also in the singular.

See Shear, n.,1.] 1. Def.: A cutting instrument.

Specifically: (a) Def.: An instrument consisting of two blades, commonly with bevel edges, connected by a pivot, and working on both sides of the material to be cut, — used for cutting cloth and other substances. Fate urged the shears, and cut the sylph in twain. Pope. (b) Def.: A similar instrument the blades of which are extensions of a curved spring, — used for shearing sheep or skins. (c) Def.: A shearing machine; a blade, or a set of blades, working against a resisting edge. 2. Def.: Anything in the form of shears.

Specifically: (a) Def.: A pair of wings. [Obs.] Spenser. (b) Def.: An apparatus for raising heavy weights, and especially for stepping and unstepping the lower masts of ships.

It consists of two or more spars or pieces of timber, fastened together near the top, steadied by a guy or guys, and furnished with the necessary tackle. [Written also sheers.] 3. (Mach.) Def.: The bedpiece of a machine tool, upon which a table or slide rest is secured; as, the shears of a lathe or planer.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Lathe.
Rotary shears

. See under Rotary. Sheartail, n. (Zool.) (a) Def.: The common tern. (b) Def.: Any one of several species of humming birds of the genus Thaumastura having a long forked tail. Shearwater, n.

Etym. [Shear + water; cf.

G. wassersherer; — so called from its running lightly along the surface of the water.] (Zool.) Def.: Any one of numerous species of long-winged oceanic birds of the genus Puffinus and related genera.

They are allied to the petrels, but are larger.

The Manx shearwater (P.

Anglorum), the dusky shearwater (P.

Obscurus), and the greater shearwater (P.

Major), are well-known species of the North Atlantic.

See Hagdon. Sheatfish, n.

Etym. [Cf.


G. scheid, schaid, schaiden.] (Zool.) Def.: A European siluroid fish (Silurus glanis) allied to the cat-fishes.

It is the largest fresh-water fish of Europe, sometimes becoming six feet or more in length.

See Siluroid. Sheath, n.

Etym. [OE. schethe, AS. sc, sce\’a0, sc; akin to OS. sk, D. scheede, G. scheide, OHG. sceida, Sw. skida, Dan. skede, Icel. skei, pl., and to E. shed, v.t., originally meaning, to separate, to part.

See Shed.] 1. Def.: A case for the reception of a sword, hunting knife, or other long and slender instrument; a scabbard. The dead knight’s sword out of his sheath he drew. Spenser. 2. Def.: Any sheathlike covering, organ, or part.

Specifically: (a) (Bot.) Def.: The base of a leaf when sheathing or investing a stem or branch, as in grasses. (b) (Zool.) Def.: One of the elytra of an insect.
Medullary sheath

. (Anat.) See under Medullary.
Primitive sheath

. (Anat.) See Neurilemma.
Sheath knife

, a knife with a fixed blade, carried in a sheath.
Sheath of Schwann

. (Anat.) See Schwann’s sheath. Sheathbill, n. (Zool.) Def.: Either one of two species of birds composing the genus Chionis, and family Chionidoe, native of the islands of the Antarctic.seas. The base of the bill is covered with a saddle-shaped horny sheath, and the toes are only slightly webbed.

The plumage of both species is white. Sheathe, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sheathed (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sheating.] Etym. [Written also sheath.] 1. Def.: To put into a sheath, case, or scabbard; to inclose or cover with, or as with, a sheath or case. The leopard . . .

Keeps the claws of his fore feet turned up from the ground, and sheathed in the skin of his toes. Grew. ‘T is in my breast she sheathes her dagger now. Dryden. 2. Def.: To fit or furnish, as with a sheath. Shak. 3. Def.: To case or cover with something which protects, as thin boards, sheets of metal, and the like; as, to sheathe a ship with copper. 4. Def.: To obtund or blunt, as acrimonious substances, or sharp particles. [R.] Arbuthnot.
To sheathe the sword

, to make peace. — Shekel, n.

Etym. [Heb. shegel, fr. sh\’begal to weigh.] 1. Def.: An ancient weight and coin used by the Jews and by other nations of the same stock. 2. pl. Def.: A jocose term for ‘money’. Shekinah, n.

Etym. [Heb Talmud shek\’c6n\’beh, fr. sh\’bekan to inhabit.] Def.: The visible majesty of the Divine Presence, especially when resting or dwelling between the cherubim on the mercy seat, in the Tabernacle, or in the Temple of Solomon; — a term used in the Targums and by the later Jews, and adopted by Christians. [Written also Shechinah.] Dr.


Smith (Bib.

Dict.) Sheld, a.

Etym. [OE., fr. sheld a shield, probably in allusion to the ornamentation of shields.

See Shield.] Def.: Variegated; spotted; speckled; piebald. [Prov.

Eng.] { Sheldafle, Sheldaple (?), } n.

Etym. [Perhaps for sheld dapple.

Cf. Sheldrake.] (Zool.) Def.: A chaffinch. [Written also sheldapple, and shellapple.] Sheldfowl, n. (Zool.) Def.: The common sheldrake. [Prov.

Eng.] Sheldrake, n.

Etym. [Sheld + drake.] 1. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of several species of large Old World ducks of the genus Tadorna and allied genera, especially the European and Asiatic species. (T.

Cornuta, ), which somewhat resembles a goose in form and habit, but breeds in burrows. Called also shelduck, shellduck, sheldfowl, skeelduck, bergander, burrow duck, and links goose. Tadorna radja) has the head, neck, breast, flanks, and wing coverts white, the upper part of the back and a band on the breast deep chestnut, and the back and tail black.

The chestnut sheldrake of Australia (Casarca tadornoides) is varied with black and chestnut, and has a dark green head and neck.

The ruddy sheldrake, or Braminy duck (C.

Rutila), and the white-winged sheldrake (C.

Leucoptera), are related Asiatic species. 2. Def.: Any one of the American mergansers. Shelduck, n.

Etym. [Sheld variegated + duck.] (Zool.) Def.: The sheldrake. [Written also shellduck.] Shelf, n.; pl. Shelves .

Etym. [OE. shelfe, schelfe, AS. scylfe; akin to G. schelfe, Icel. skj\’belf.

In senses 2 & 3, perhaps a different word (cf. Shelve, v.

I.).] 1. (Arch.) Def.: A flat tablet or ledge of any material set horizontally at a distance from the floor, to hold objects of use or ornament. 2. Def.: A sand bank in the sea, or a rock, or ledge of rocks, rendering the water shallow, and dangerous to ships. On the tawny sands and shelves. Milton. On the secret shelves with fury cast. Dryden. 3. (Mining) Def.: A stratum lying in a very even manner; a flat, projecting layer of rock. 4. (Naut.) Def.: A piece of timber running the whole length of a vessel inside the timberheads. D.

To lay on the shelf

, to lay aside as unnecessary or useless; to dismiss; to discard. Shelfy, a. 1. Def.: Abounding in shelves; full of dangerous shallows. \’bdA ‘shelfy’ coast.\’b8 Dryden. 2. Def.: Full of strata of rock. [Obs.] The tillable fields are in some places . . .

So shelfy that the corn hath much ado to fasten its root. Carew. Shell, n.

Etym. [OE. shelle, schelle, AS. scell, scyll; akin to D. shel, Icel. skel, Goth. skalja a tile, and E. skill.

Cf. Scale of fishes, Shale, Skill.] 1. Def.: A hard outside covering, as of a fruit or an animal.

Specifically: (a) Def.: The covering, or outside part, of a nut; as, a hazelnut shell. (b) Def.: A pod. (c) Def.: The hard covering of an egg. Think him as a serpent’s egg, . . .

And kill him in the shell. Shak. (d) (Zool.) Def.: The hard calcareous or chitinous external covering of mollusks, crustaceans, and some other invertebrates.

In some mollusks, as the cuttlefishes, it is internal, or concealed by the mantle.

Also, the hard covering of some vertebrates, as the armadillo, the tortoise, and the like. (e) (Zool.) Def.: Hence, by extension, any mollusks having such a covering. 2. (Mil.) Def.: A hollow projectile, of various shapes, adapted for a mortar or a cannon, and containing an explosive substance, ignited with a fuse or by percussion, by means of which the projectile is burst and its fragments scattered.

See Bomb. 3. Def.: The case which holds the powder, or charge of powder and shot, used with breechloading small arms. 4. Def.: Any slight hollow structure; a framework, or exterior structure, regarded as not complete or filled in; as, the shell of a house. 5. Def.: A coarse kind of coffin; also, a thin interior coffin inclosed in a more substantial one. Knight. 6. Def.: An instrument of music, as a lyre, — the first lyre having been made, it is said, by drawing strings over a tortoise shell. When Jubal struck the chorded shell. Dryden. 7. Def.: An engraved copper roller used in print works. 8. pl. Def.: The husks of cacao seeds, a decoction of which is often used as a substitute for chocolate, cocoa, etc. 9. (Naut.) Def.: The outer frame or case of a block within which the sheaves revolve. 10. Def.: A light boat the frame of which is covered with thin wood or with paper; as, a racing shell.
Message shell

, a bombshell inside of which papers may be put, in order to convey messages.
Shell bit

, a tool shaped like a gouge, used with a brace in boring wood.

See Bit, n., 3. —
Shell button

. (a) A button made of shell. (b) A hollow button made of two pieces, as of metal, one for the front and the other for the back, — often covered with cloth, silk, etc.
Shell cameo

, a cameo cut in shell instead of stone.
Shell flower

. (Bot.) Same as Turtlehead.
Shell gland

. (Zool.) (a) A glandular organ in which the rudimentary shell is formed in embryonic mollusks. (b) A glandular organ which secretes the eggshells of various worms, crustacea, mollusks, etc.
Shell gun

, a cannon suitable for throwing shells.
Shell ibis

(Zool.), the openbill of India.
Shell jacket

, an undress military jacket.
Shell lime

, lime made by burning the shells of shellfish.
Shell marl

(Min.), a kind of marl characterized by an abundance of shells, or fragments of shells.
Shell meat

, food consisting of shellfish, or testaceous mollusks. Fuller.
Shell mound

. See under Mound.
Shell of a boiler

, the exterior of a steam boiler, forming a case to contain the water and steam, often inclosing also flues and the furnace; the barrel of a cylindrical, or locomotive, boiler.
Shell road

, a road of which the surface or bed is made of shells, as oyster shells.
Shell sand

, minute fragments of shells constituting a considerable part of the seabeach in some places. Shell, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shelled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shelling.] 1. Def.: To strip or break off the shell of; to take out of the shell, pod, etc.; as, to shell nuts or pease; to shell oysters. 2. Def.: To separate the kernels of (an ear of Indian corn, wheat, oats, etc.) from the cob, ear, or husk. 3. Def.: To throw shells or bombs upon or into; to bombard; as, to shell a town.
To shell out

, to distribute freely; to bring out or pay, as money. [Colloq.] Shell, v.

I. 1. Def.: To fall off, as a shell, crust, etc. 2. Def.: To cast the shell, or exterior covering; to fall out of the pod or husk; as, nuts shell in falling. 3. Def.: To be disengaged from the ear or husk; as, wheat or rye shells in reaping. { Shell-lac, Shellac } (?), n.

Etym. [Shell + lac a resinous substance; cf.

D. shellak, G. schellack.] Def.: See the Note under 2d Lac. Shellapple, n. (Zool.) Def.: See Sheldafle. Shellbark, n. (Bot.) Def.: A species of hickory (Carya alba) whose outer bark is loose and peeling; a shagbark; also, its nut. Shelled, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having a shell. Sheller, n.

Def.: One who, or that which, shells; as, an oyster sheller; a corn sheller. Shellfish, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any aquatic animal whose external covering consists of a shell, either testaceous, as in oysters, clams, and other mollusks, or crustaceous, as in lobsters and crabs. Shelling, n.

Def.: Groats; hulled oats. Simmonds. Shell-lessDef.: , a.

Having no shell. J.

Burroughs. Shellproof, a.

Def.: Capable of resisting bombs or other shells; bombproof. Shellwork, n.

Def.: Work composed of shells, or adorned with them. Cotgrave. Shelly, a.

Def.: Abounding with shells; consisting of shells, or of a shell. \’bdThe ‘shelly’ shore.\’b8 Prior. Shrinks backward in his shelly cave. Shak. Shelter, n.

Etym. [Cf.

OE. scheltrun, shiltroun, schelltrome, scheldtrome, a guard, squadron, AS. scildtruma a troop of men with shields; scild shield + truma a band of men.

See Shield, n.] 1. Def.: That which covers or defends from injury or annoyance; a protection; a screen. The sick and weak the healing plant shall aid, From storms a shelter, and from heat a shade. Pope. 2. Def.: One who protects; a guardian; a defender. Thou [God] hast been a shelter for me. Ps.

Lxi. 3. 3. Def.: The state of being covered and protected; protection; security. Who into shelter takes their tender bloom. Young.
Shelter tent

,a small tent made of pieces of cotton duck arranged to button together.

In field service the soldiers carry the pieces. Syn. — Asylum; refuge; retreat; covert; sanctuary; protection; defense; security. — Shinney, n.

Etym. [CF. Shindy.] Def.: The game of hockey; — so called because of the liability of the players to receive blows on the shin. Halliwell. <-- shinny.

Same as shin, to climb with hands and feet –> Shinplaster, n.

Def.: Formerly, a jocose term for a bank note greatly depreciated in value; also, for paper money of a denomination less than a dollar. [U.

S.] { Shinto, Shintiism (?), } n.

Etym. [Chin. shin god + tao way, doctrine.] Def.: One of the two great systems of religious belief in Japan.

Its essence is ancestor worship, and sacrifice to dead heroes. [Written also Sintu, and Sintuism.] Shintoist, n.

Def.: An adherent of Shintoism. Shinty, n.

Etym. [Cf.

Gael. sinteag a skip, a bound.] Def.: A Scotch game resembling hockey; also, the club used in the game. Jamieson. Shiny, a. [Compar. Shinier; superl. Shiniest.] Def.: Bright; luminous; clear; unclouded. Like distant thunder on a shiny day. Dryden. -ship.

Etym. [OE. -schipe, AS. -scipe; akin to OFries. -skipe, OLG. -skepi, D. -schap, OHG. -scaf, G. -schaft.

Cf. Shape, n., and Landscape.] Def.: A suffix denoting ‘state’, ‘office’, ‘dignity’, ‘profession’, or ‘art’; as in lord’ship’, friend’ship’, chancellor’ship’, steward’ship’, horseman’ship’. Ship, n.

Etym. [AS. scipe.] Def.: Pay; reward. [Obs.] In withholding or abridging of the ship or the hire or the wages of servants. Chaucer. Ship, n.

Etym. [OE. ship, schip, AS. scip; akin to OFries. skip, OS. scip, D. schip, G. schiff, OHG. scif, Dan. skib, Sw. skeep, Icel. & Goth. skip; of unknown origin.

Cf. Equip, Skiff, Skipper.] 1. Def.: Any large seagoing vessel. Like a stately ship . . .

With all her bravery on, and tackle trim, Sails filled, and streamers waving. Milton. Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State! Longfellow. 2. Def.: Specifically, a vessel furnished with a bowsprit and three masts (a mainmast, a foremast, and a mizzenmast), each of which is composed of a lower mast, a topmast, and a topgallant mast, and square-rigged on all masts.

See ‘Illustation’ in Appendix. <-- illustration: Deck plan of a ship -->
‘l’ Port or Larboard Side; s Starboard Side; 1 Roundhouse or Deck House; 2 Tiller; 3 Grating; 4 Wheel; 5 Wheel Chains; 6 Binnacle; 7 Mizzenmast; 8 Skylight; 9 Capstan; 10 Mainmast; 11 Pumps; 12 Galley or Caboose; 13 Main Hatchway; 14 Windlass; 15 Foremast; 16 Fore Hatchway; 17 Bitts; 18 Bowsprit; 19 Head Rail; 20 Boomkins; 21 Catheads on Port Bow and Starboard Bow; 22 Fore Chains; 23 Main Chains; 24 Mizzen Chains; 25 Stern.

<--illustration: Outline of a ship -->
1 Fore Royal Stay; 2 Flying Jib Stay; 3 Fore Topgallant Stay;4 Jib Stay; 5 Fore Topmast Stays; 6 Fore Tacks; 8 Flying Martingale; 9 Martingale Stay, shackled to Dolphin Striker; 10 Jib Guys; 11 Jumper Guys; 12 Back Ropes; 13 Robstays; 14 Flying Jib Boom; 15 Flying Jib Footropes; 16 Jib Boom; 17 Jib Foottropes; 18 Bowsprit; 19 Fore Truck; 20 Fore Royal Mast; 21 Fore Royal Lift; 22 Fore Royal Yard; 23 Fore Royal Backstays; 24 Fore Royal Braces; 25 Fore Topgallant Mast and Rigging; 26 Fore Topgallant Lift; 27 Fore Topgallant Yard; 28 Fore Topgallant Backstays; 29 Fore Topgallant Braces; 30 Fore Topmast and Rigging; 31 Fore Topsail Lift; 32 Fore Topsail Yard; 33 Fore Topsail Footropes; 34 Fore Topsail Braces; 35 Fore Yard; 36 Fore Brace; 37 Fore Lift; 38 Fore Gaff; 39 Fore Trysail Vangs; 40 Fore Topmast Studding-sail Boom; 41 Foremast and Rigging; 42 Fore Topmast Backstays; 43 Fore Sheets; 44 Main Truck and Pennant; 45 Main Royal Mast and Backstay; 46 Main Royal Stay; 47 Main Royal Lift; 48 Main Royal Yard; 49 Main Royal Braces; 50 Main Topgallant Mast and Rigging; 51 Main Topgallant Lift; 52 Main Topgallant Backstays; 53 Main Topgallant Yard; 54 Main Topgallant Stay; 55 Main Topgallant Braces; 56 Main Topmast and Rigging; 57 Topsail Lift; 58 Topsail Yard; 59 Topsail Footropes; 60 Topsail Braces; 61 Topmast Stays; 62 Main Topgallant Studding-sail Boom; 63 Main Topmast Backstay; 64 Main Yard; 65 Main Footropes; 66 Mainmast and Rigging; 67 Main Lift; 68 Main Braces; 69 Main Tacks; 70 Main Sheets; 71 Main Trysail Gaff; 72 Main Trysail Vangs; 73 Main Stays; 74 Mizzen Truck; 75 Mizzen Royal Mast and Rigging; 76 Mizzen Royal Stay; 77 Mizzen Royal Lift; 78 Mizzen Royal Yard; 79 Mizzen Royal Braces; 80 Mizzen Topgallant Mast and Rigging; 81 Mizzen Topgallant Lift; 82 Mizzen Topgallant Backstays; 83 Mizzen Topgallant Braces; 84 Mizzen Topgallant Yard; 85 Mizzen Topgallant Stay; 86 Mizzen Topmast and Rigging; 87 Mizzen Topmast Stay; 88 Mizzen Topsail Lift; 89 Mizzen Topmast Backstays; 90 Mizzen Topsail Braces; 91 Mizzen Topsail Yard; 92 Mizzen Topsail Footropes; 93 Crossjack Yard; 94 Crossjack Footropes; 95 Crossjack Lift; 96 Crossjack Braces; 97 Mizzenmast and Rigging; 98 Mizzen Stay; 99 Spanker Gaff; 100 Peak Halyards; 101 Spanker Vangs; 102 Spanker Boom; 103 Spanker Boom Topping Lift; 104 Jacob’s Ladder, or Stern Ladder; 105 Spanker Sheet; 106 Cutwater; 107 Starboard Bow; 108 Starboard Beam; 109 Water Line; 110 Starboard Quarter; 111 Rudder.

<-- p. 1330 --> 3. Def.: A dish or utensil (originally fashioned like the hull of a ship) used to hold incense. [Obs.] Tyndale.
Armed ship

, a private ship taken into the service of the government in time of war, and armed and equipped like a ship of war. [Eng.] Brande & C.
General ship

. See under General.
Ship biscuit

, hard biscuit prepared for use on shipboard; — called also ship bread.

See Hardtack. —
Ship boy

, a boy who serves in a ship. \’bdSeal up the ‘ship boy’s’ eyes.\’b8 Shak.
Ship breaker

, one who breaks up vessels when unfit for further use.
Ship broker

, a mercantile agent employed in buying and selling ships, procuring cargoes, etc., and generally in transacting the business of a ship or ships when in port.
Ship canal

, a canal suitable for the passage of seagoing vessels.
Ship carpenter

, a carpenter who works at shipbuilding; a shipwright.
Ship chandler

, one who deals in cordage, canvas, and other, furniture of vessels.
Ship chandlery

, the commodities in which a ship chandler deals; also, the business of a ship chandler.
Ship fever

(Med.), a form of typhus fever; — called also putrid, jail, .
Ship joiner

, a joiner who works upon ships.
Ship letter

, a letter conveyed by a ship not a mail packet.
Ship money


Hist.), an imposition formerly charged on the ports, towns, cities, boroughs, and counties, of England, for providing and furnishing certain ships for the king’s service.

The attempt made by Charles I.

To revive and enforce this tax was resisted by John Hampden, and was one of the causes which led to the death of Charles.

It was finally abolished. —
Ship of the line

. See under Line.
Ship pendulum

, a pendulum hung amidships to show the extent of the rolling and pitching of a vessel.
Ship railway

. (a) An inclined railway with a cradelike car, by means of which a ship may be drawn out of water, as for repairs. (b) A railway arranged for the transportation of vessels overland between two water courses or harbors.
Ship’s company

, the crew of a ship or other vessel.
Ship’s days

, the days allowed a vessel for loading or unloading.
Ship’s husband

. See under Husband.
Ship’s papers


Law), papers with which a vessel is required by law to be provided, and the production of which may be required on certain occasions.

Among these papers are the register, passport or sea letter, charter party, bills of lading, invoice, log book, muster roll, bill of health, etc. Bouvier. Kent. —
To make ship

, to embark in a ship or other vessel. Ship, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shipped (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shipping.] 1. Def.: To put on board of a ship, or vessel of any kind, for transportation; to send by water. The timber was . . . shipped in the bay of Attalia, from whence it was by sea transported to Pelusium. Knolles. 2. Def.: By extension, in commercial usage, to commit to any conveyance for transportation to a distance; as, to ship freight by railroad. 3. Def.: Hence, to send away; to get rid of. [Colloq.] 4. Def.: To engage or secure for service on board of a ship; as, to ship seamen. 5. Def.: To receive on board ship; as, to ship a sea. 6. Def.: To put in its place; as, to ship the tiller or rudder. Ship, v.

I. 1. Def.: To engage to serve on board of a vessel; as, to ship on a man-of-war. 2. Def.: To embark on a ship. Wyclif (Acts xxviii. 11) Shipboard, n.

Etym. [Ship + board. See Board, n., 8] Def.: A ship’s side; hence, by extension, a ship; — found chiefly in adverbial phrases; as, on shipboard; a shipboard. Shipbuilder, n.

Def.: A person whose occupation is to construct ships and other vessels; a naval architect; a shipwright. Shipbuilding, n.

Def.: Naval architecturel the art of constructing ships and other vessels. Shipful, n.; pl. Shipfuls (. Def.: As much or as many as a ship will hold; enough to fill a ship. Shipholder, n.

Def.: A shipowner. Shipless, a.

Def.: Destitute of ships. Gray. Shiplet, n.

Def.: A little ship. [R.] Holinshed. Shipload, n.

Def.: The load, or cargo, of a ship. Shipman, n.; pl. Shipmen (. Def.: A seaman, or sailor. [Obs.

Or Poetic] Chaucer.


Browning. About midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near to some country. Acts xxvii. 27.
Shipman’s card

, the mariner’s compass. [Obs.] Shak. Shipmaster, n.

Def.: The captain, master, or commander of a ship. Jonah i. 6. Shipmate, n.

Def.: One who serves on board of the same ship with another; a fellow sailor. Shipment, n. 1. Def.: The act or process of shipping; as, he was engaged in the shipment of coal for London; an active shipment of wheat from the West. 2. Def.: That which is shipped. The question is, whether the share of M.

In the shipment is exempted from condemnation by reason of his neutral domicle. Story. Shipowner, n.

Def.: Owner of a ship or ships. Shippen, n.

Etym. [AS. scypen.

Cf. Shop, Shepen.] Def.: A stable; a cowhouse. [Obs.

Or Prov.Eng.] Shipper, n.

Etym. [See Ship, n., and cf. Skipper.] Def.: One who sends goods from one place to another not in the same city or town, esp.

One who sends goods by water. Shipping, a. 1. Def.: Relating to ships, their ownership, transfer, or employment; as, shiping concerns. 2. Def.: Relating to, or concerned in, the forwarding of goods; as, a shipping clerk. — Shore, v.


Def.: To set on shore. [Obs.] Shak. Shoreless, a.

Def.: Having no shore or coast; of indefinite or unlimited extent; as, a shoreless ocean. Young. Shoreling, n.

Def.: See Shorling. Shorer, n.

Def.: One who, or that which, shores or props; a prop; a shore. Shoreward, adv.

Def.: Toward the shore. Shoring, n. 1. Def.: The act of supporting or strengthening with a prop or shore. 2. Def.: A system of props; props, collectively. Shorl, n., Shorlaceous (,a. (Min.) Def.: See Schorl, Schorlaceous. Shorling, n. 1. Def.: The skin of a sheen after the fleece is shorn off, as distinct from the ‘morling’, or skin taken from the dead sheep; also, a sheep of the first year’s shearing. [Prov.

Eng.] 2. Def.: A person who is shorn; a shaveling; hence, in contempt, a priest. [Obs.] Halliwell. Shorn (, Def.: p.


Of Shear. Short, a. [Compar. Shorter; superl. Shortest.] Etym. [OE. short, schort, AS. scort, sceort; akin to OHG. scurz, Icel. skorta to be short of, to lack, and perhaps to E. shear, v.


Cf. Shirt.] 1. Def.: Not long; having brief length or linear extension; as, a short distance; a short piece of timber; a short flight. The bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it. Isa.

Xxviii. 20. 2. Def.: Not extended in time; having very limited duration; not protracted; as, short breath. The life so short, the craft so long to learn. Chaucer. To short absense I could yield. Milton. 3. Def.: Limited in quantity; inadequate; insufficient; scanty; as, a short supply of provisions, or of water. 4. Def.: Insufficiently provided; inadequately supplied; scantily furnished; lacking; not coming up to a resonable, or the ordinary, standard; — usually with ‘of’; as, to be short of money. We shall be short in our provision. Shak. 5. Def.: Deficient; defective; imperfect; not coming up, as to a measure or standard; as, an account which is short of the trith. 6. Def.: Not distant in time; near at hand. Marinell was sore offended That his departure thence should be so short. Spenser. He commanded those who were appointed to attend him to be ready by a short day. Clarendon. 7. Def.: Limited in intellectual power or grasp; not comprehensive; narrow; not tenacious, as memory. Their own short understandings reach No farther than the present. Rowe. 8. Def.: Less important, efficaceous, or powerful; not equal or equivalent; less (than); — with ‘of’. Hardly anything short of an invasion could rouse them again to war. Landor. 9. Def.: Abrupt; brief; pointed; petulant; as, he gave a short answer to the question. 10. (Cookery) Def.: Breaking or crumbling readily in the mouth; crisp; as, short pastry. 11. (Metal) Def.: Brittle. Those that are brittle when cold are called ‘cold-short’; as, cast iron may be ‘cold-short’, on account of the presence of phosphorus. 12. (Stock Exchange) Def.: Engaging or engaged to deliver what is not possessed; as, short contracts; to be short of stock.

See The shorts, under Short, n., and To sell short, under Short, adv. 13. (Phon.) Def.: Not prolonged, or relatively less prolonged, in utterance; — opposed to ‘long’, and applied to vowels or to syllables.

In English, the long and short of the same letter are not, in most cases, the long and short of the same sound; thus, the ‘i’ in ‘ill’ is the short sound, not of ‘i’ in ‘isle’, but of ‘ee’ in ‘eel’, and the ‘e’ in ‘pet’ is the short sound of ‘a’ in ‘pate’, etc.

See Quantity, and ‘Guide to Pronunciation’,
At short notice

, in a brief time; promptly.
Short rib

(Anat.), one of the false ribs.
Short suit

(Whist), any suit having only three cards, or less than three. R.


Proctor. —
To come short

To cut short

To fall short

, etc.

See under Come, Cut, etc. Short, n. 1. Def.: A summary account. The short and the long is, our play is preferred. Shak. 2. pl. Def.: The part of milled grain sifted out which is next finer than the bran. The first remove above bran is shorts. Halliwell. 3. pl. Def.: Short, inferior hemp. 4. pl. Def.: Breeches; shortclothes. [Slang] Dickens. 5. (Phonetics) Def.: A short sound, syllable, or vowel. If we compare the nearest conventional shorts and longs in English, as in \’bdbit\’b8 and \’bdbeat,\’b8 \’bdnot\’b8 and \’bdnaught,\’b8 we find that the short vowels are generally wide, the long narrow, besides being generally diphthongic as well.

Hence, originally short vowels can be lengthened and yet kept quite distinct from the original longs. H.

In short

, in few words; in brief; briefly.
The long and the short

, the whole; a brief summing up.
The shorts

(Stock Exchange), those who are unsupplied with stocks which they contracted to deliver. Short, adv.

Def.: In a short manner; briefly; limitedly; abruptly; quickly; as, to stop short in one’s course; to turn short. He was taken up very short, and adjudged corrigible for such presumptuous language. Howell.
To sell short

(Stock Exchange), to sell, for future delivery, what the party selling does not own, but hopes to buy at a lower rate. Short, v.


Etym. [AS. sceortian.] Def.: To shorten. [Obs.] Short, v.


Def.: To fail; to decrease. [Obs.] Shortage, n.

Def.: Amount or extent of deficiency, as determined by some requirement or standard; as, a shortage in money accounts. Short-breathed, a. 1. Def.: Having short-breath, or quick respiration. 2. Def.: Having short life. Shortcake, n.

Def.: An unsweetened breakfast cake shortened with butter or lard, rolled thin, and baked. Short circuit. (Elec.) Def.: A circuit formed or closed by a conductor of relatively low resistance because shorter or of relatively great conductivity. Short-circuit, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Short-circuited; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Short-circuiting.] (Elec.) Def.: To join, as the electrodes of a battery or dynamo or any two points of a circuit, by a conductor of low resistance. Shortclothes, n.

Def.: Coverings for the legs of men or boys, consisting of trousers which reach only to the knees, — worn with long stockings. Shortcoming, n.

Def.: The act of falling, or coming short; as: (a) Def.: The failure of a crop, or the like. (b) Def.: Neglect of, or failure in, performance of duty. Short-dated, a.

Def.: Having little time to run from the date. \’bdThy ‘short-dated’ life.\’b8 Sandys. Shorten, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shortened ; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shortening.] Etym. [See Short, a.] 1. Def.: To make short or shorter in measure, extent, or time; as, to shorten distance; to shorten a road; to shorten days of calamity. 2. Def.: To reduce or diminish in amount, quantity, or extent; to lessen; to abridge; to curtail; to contract; as, to shorten work, an allowance of food, etc. Here, where the subject is so fruitful, I am shortened by my chain. Dryden. 3. Def.: To make deficient (as to); to deprive; — with ‘of’. Spoiled of his nose, and shortened of his ears. Dryden. 4. Def.: To make short or friable, as pastry, with butter, lard, pot liquor, or the like.
To shorten a rope

(Naut.), to take in the slack of it.
To shorten sail

(Naut.), to reduce sail by taking it in. Shorten, v.


Def.: To become short or shorter; as, the day shortens in northern latitudes from June to December; a metallic rod shortens by cold. Shortener, n.

Def.: One who, or that which, shortens. Shortening, n. 1. Def.: The act of making or becoming short or shorter. 2. (Cookery) Def.: That which renders pastry short or friable, as butter, lard, etc. Shorthand, n.

Def.: A compendious and rapid method or writing by substituting characters, abbreviations, or symbols, for letters, words, etc.; short writing; stenography.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Phonography. Short-handed, a.

Def.: Short of, or lacking the regular number of, servants or helpers. Shorthead, n.

Def.: A sucking whale less than one year old; — so called by sailors. Shorthorn, a.

Def.: One of a breed of large, heavy domestic cattle having short horns.

The breed was developed in England. Short-jointed, a.

Def.: Having short intervals between the joints; — said of a plant or an animal, especially of a horse whose pastern is too short. Short-lived, a.

Def.: Not living or lasting long; being of short continuance; as, a short-lived race of beings; short-lived pleasure; short-lived passion. Shortly, adv.

Etym. [AS. sceortlice.] 1. Def.: In a short or brief time or manner; soon; quickly. Chaucer. I shall grow jealous of you shortly. Shak. The armies came shortly in view of each other. Clarendon. 2. Def.: In few words; briefly; abruptly; curtly; as, to express ideas more shortly in verse than in prose. Shortness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being short; want of reach or extension; brevity; deficiency; as, the shortness of a journey; the shortness of the days in winter; the shortness of an essay; the shortness of the memory; a shortness of provisions; shortness of breath. Shortsighted, a. 1. Def.: Not able to see far; nearsighted; myopic.

See Myopic, and Myopia. 2. Def.: Fig.: Not able to look far into futurity; unable to understand things deep; of limited intellect. 3. Def.: Having little regard for the future; heedless. — Shortsightedly, adv. — Shortsightedness, n. Cunning is a kind of shortsightedness. Addison. Short-spoken, a.

Def.: Speaking in a quick or short manner; hence, gruff; curt. [Colloq.] Shortstop, n. (Baseball) Def.: The player stationed in the field bewtween the second and third bases. Short-waisted, a.

Def.: Having a short waist. Short-winded, a.

Def.: Affected with shortness of breath; having a quick, difficult respiration, as dyspnoic and asthmatic persons. May. Shortwing, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of several species of small wrenlike Asiatic birds having short wings and a short tail.

They belong to ‘Brachypterix’, ‘Callene’, and allied genera. <-- p. 1333 --> Short-wited, a.

Def.: Having little wit; not wise; having scanty intellect or judgment. Shory, a.

Def.: Lying near the shore. [Obs.] Shoshones, n.

Pl.; sing. Shoshone (. (Ethnol.) A linguistic family or stock of North American Indians, comprising many tribes, which extends from Montana and Idaho into Mexico.

In a restricted sense the name is applied especially to the Snakes, the most northern of the tribes. Shot, Def.: imp. & p.

P. Shoot. Shot, a.

Def.: Woven in such a way as to produce an effect of variegation, of changeable tints, or of being figured; as, shot silks.

See Shoot, v.

T., 8. Shot, n.

Etym. [AS. scot, sceot, fr. sce\’a2tan to shoot; akin to D. sschot, Icel. skot. See Scot a share, Shoot, v.

T., and cf. Shot a shooting.] Def.: A share or proportion; a reckoning; a scot. Here no shots are where all shares be. Chapman. A man is never . . .

Welcome to a place till some certain shot be paid and the hostess say \’bdWelcome.\’b8 Shak. Shot, n.; pl. Shotor Shots .

Etym. [OE. shot, schot, AS. gesceot a missile; akin to D. schot a shot, shoot, G. schuss, geschoss a missile, Icel. skot a throwing, a javelin, and E. shoot, v.t. See Shoot, and cf. Shot a share.] 1. Def.: The act of shooting; discharge of a firearm or other weapon which throws a missile. He caused twenty shot of his greatest cannon to be made at the king’s army. Clarendon. 2. Def.: A missile weapon, particularly a ball or bullet; specifically, whatever is discharged as a projectile from firearms or cannon by the force of an explosive. See Bar shot, Chain shot, etc., under Bar, Chain, etc. 3. Def.: Small globular masses of lead, of various sizes, — used chiefly for killing game; as, bird shot; buckshot. 4. Def.: The flight of a missile, or the distance which it is, or can be, thrown; as, the vessel was distant more than a cannon shot. 5. Def.: A marksman; one who practices shooting; as, an exellent shot.
Shot belt

, a belt having a pouch or compartment for carrying shot.
Shot cartridge

, a cartridge containing powder and small shot, forming a charge for a shotgun.
Shot garland

(Naut.), a wooden frame to contain shot, secured to the coamings and ledges round the hatchways of a ship.
Shot gauge

, an instrument for measuring the diameter of round shot. Totten.
shot hole

, a hole made by a shot or bullet discharged.
Shot locker

(Naut.), a strongly framed compartment in the hold of a vessel, for containing shot.
Shot of a cable

(Naut.), the splicing of two or more cables together, or the whole length of the cables thus united.
Shot prop

(Naut.), a wooden prop covered with tarred hemp, to stop a hole made by the shot of an enemy in a ship’s side.
Shot tower

, a lofty tower for making shot, by dropping from its summit melted lead in slender streams.

The lead forms spherical drops which cool in the descent, and are received in water or other liquid. —
Shot window

, a window projecting from the wall.

Ritson, quoted by Halliwell, explains it as a window that opens and shuts; and Wodrow describes it as a window of shutters made of timber and a few inches of glass above them. Shot, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shotted; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shotting.] Def.: To load with shot, as a gun. Totten. Shot-clog, n.

Def.: A person tolerated only because he pays the shot, or reckoning, for the rest of the company, otherwise a mere clog on them. [Old Slang] Thou common shot-clog, gull of all companies. Chapman. — Sketchiness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being sketchy; lack of finish; incompleteness. Sketchy, a.

Def.: Containing only an outline or rough form; being in the manner of a sketch; incomplete. The execution is sketchy throughout; the head, in particular, is left in the rough. J.


Harford. Skew, adv.

Etym. [Cf.

D. scheef.

Dan. ski, Sw. skef, Icel. skeifr, G. schief, also E. shy, a. & v.

I.] Def.: Awry; obliquely; askew. Skew, a.

Def.: Turned or twisted to one side; situated obliquely; skewed; — chiefly used in technical phrases.
Skew arch

, an oblique arch.

See under Oblique. —
Skew back

. (Civil Engin.) (a) The course of masonry, the stone, or the iron plate, having an inclined face, which forms the abutment for the voussoirs of a segmental arch. (b) A plate, cap, or shoe, having an inclined face to receive the nut of a diagonal brace, rod, or the end of an inclined strut, in a truss or frame.
Skew bridge

. See under Bridge, n.
Skew curve

(Geom.), a curve of double curvature, or a twisted curve.

See Plane curve, under Curve. —
Skew gearing

, Skew bevel gearing

(Mach.), toothed gearing, generally resembling bevel gearing, for connecting two shafts that are neither parallel nor intersecting, and in which the teeth slant across the faces of the gears.
Skew surface

(Geom.), a ruled surface such that in general two successive generating straight lines do not intersect; a warped surface; as, the helicoid is a ‘skew surface’.
Skew symmetrical determinant

(Alg.), a determinant in which the elements in each column of the matrix are equal to the elements of the corresponding row of the matrix with the signs changed, as in (1), below. (1) 0 2 -3-2 0 53 -5 0 (2) 4 -1 71 8 -2-7 2 1 This requires that the numbers in the diagonal from the upper left to lower right corner be zeros.

A like determinant in which the numbers in the diagonal are not zeros is a ‘skew determinant’, as in (2), above. Skew, n. (Arch.) Def.: A stone at the foot of the slope of a gable, the offset of a buttress, or the like, cut with a sloping surface and with a check to receive the coping stones and retain them in place. Skew, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Skewed; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Skewing.] 1. Def.: To walk obliquely; to go sidling; to lie or move obliquely. Child, you must walk straight, without skewing. L’Estrange. 2. Def.: To start aside; to shy, as a horse. [Prov.

Eng.] 3. Def.: To look obliquely; to squint; hence, to look slightingly or suspiciously. Beau & Fl. Skew, v.


Etym. [See Skew, adv.] 1. Def.: To shape or form in an oblique way; to cause to take an oblique position. 2. Def.: To throw or hurl obliquely. Skewbald, a.

Def.: Marked with spots and patches of white and some color other than black; — usually distinguished from ‘piebald’, in which the colors are properly white and black.

Said of horses. Skewer, n.

Etym. [Probably of Scand, origin; cf.

Sw. & Dan. skifer a slate.

Cf. Shuver a fragment.] Def.: A pin of wood or metal for fastening meat to a spit, or for keeping it in form while roasting. Meat well stuck with skewers to make it look round. Swift. Skewer, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Skewered; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Skewering.] Def.: To fasten with skewers. Skid, n.

Etym. [Icel. sk\’c6 a billet of wood.

See Shide.] [Written also skeed.] 1. Def.: A shoe or clog, as of iron, attached to a chain, and placed under the wheel of a wagon to prevent its turning when descending a steep hill; a drag; a skidpan; also, by extension, a hook attached to a chain, and used for the same purpose. 2. Def.: A piece of timber used as a support, or to receive pressure.

Specifically: (a) pl. (Naut.) Def.: Large fenders hung over a vessel’s side to protect it in handling a cargo. Totten. (b) Def.: One of a pair of timbers or bars, usually arranged so as to form an inclined plane, as form a wagon to a door, along which anything is moved by sliding or rolling. (c) Def.: One of a pair of horizontal rails or timbers for supporting anything, as a boat, a barrel, etc.<-- a small platform, typically of two layers, having a space between the layers into which the fork of a fork lift can be inserted; used to conveniently transport heavy objects by means of a fork lift. --> Skid, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Skidded; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Skidding.] 1. Def.: To protect or support with a skid or skids; also, to cause to move on skids. 2. Def.: To check with a skid, as wagon wheels. Dickens. Skiddaw, n. (Zool.) Def.: The black guillemot. [Prov.

Eng.] Skidpan, n.

Def.: See Skid, n., 1. [Eng.] Skied, Def.: imp. & p.


Of Sky, v.

T. Skiey, a.

Def.: See Skyey. Shelley. Skiff, n.

Etym. [F. esquif, fr.

OHG. skif, G. schiff.

See Ship.] Def.: A small, light boat. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff. Milton.
Skiff caterpillar

(Zool.), the larva of a moth (Limacodes scapha); — so called from its peculiar shape. Skiff, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Skiffed; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Skiffing.] Def.: To navigate in a skiff. [R.] Skiffling, n. (Quarrying) Def.: Rough dressing by knocking off knobs or projections; knobbing. Skilder, v.


Def.: To beg; to pilfer; to skelder. [Prov.

Eng.& Scot.] Sir W.

Scott. Skilful, a.

Def.: See Skilful. Skill, n.

Etym. [Icel. skil a distinction, discernment; akin to skilja to separate, divide, distinguish, Sw. skilja,. skille to separate, skiel reason, right, justice, Sw. skäl reason, Lith. skelli to cleave.

Cf. Shell, Shoal, a multitude.] 1. Def.: Discrimination; judgment; propriety; reason; cause. [Obs.] Shak. \’bdAs it was ‘skill’ and right.\’b8 Chaucer. For great skill is, he prove that he wrought. Chaucer. [For with good reason he should test what he created.] 2. Def.: Knowledge; understanding. [Obsoles.] That by his fellowship he color might< oth his estate and love from skill of any wight. Spenser. Nor want we skill or art. Milton. 3. Def.: The familiar knowledge of any art or science, united with readiness and dexterity in execution or performance, or in the application of the art or science to practical purposes; power to discern and execute; ability to perceive and perform; expertness; aptitude; as, the skill of a mathematician, physician, surgeon, mechanic, etc. Phocion, . . .

By his great wisdom and skill at negotiations, diverted Alexander from the conquest of Athens. Swift. Where patience her sweet skill imparts. Keble. 4. Def.: Display of art; exercise of ability; contrivance; address. [Obs.] Richard . . .

By a thousand princely skills, gathering so much corn as if he meant not to return. Fuller. 5. Def.: Any particular art. [Obs.] Learned in one skill, and in another kind of learning unskillful. Hooker. Syn. — Dexterity; adroitness; expertness; art; aptitude; ability. Skill, Dexterity, Adroitness. ‘Skill’ is more intelligent, denoting familiar knowledge united to readiness of performance. ‘Dexterity’, when applied to the body, is more mechanical, and refers to habitual ease of execution. ‘Adroitness’ involves the same image with ‘dexterity’, and differs from it as implaying a general facility of movement (especially in avoidance of danger or in escaping from a difficalty).

The same distinctions apply to the figurative sense of the words.

A man is ‘skillful’ in any employment when he understands both its theory and its practice.

He is ‘dexterous’ when he maneuvers with great lightness.

He is ‘adroit’ in the use od quick, sudden, and well-directed movements of the body or the mind, so as to effect the object he has in view. Skill, v.


Def.: To know; to understand. [Obs.] To skill the arts of expressing our mind. Barrow. Skill, v.

I. 1. Def.: To be knowing; to have understanding; to be dexterous in performance. [Obs.] I can not skill of these thy ways. Herbert. 2. Def.: To make a difference; to signify; to matter; — used impersonally. Spenser. What skills it, if a bag of stones or gold About thy neck do drown thee? Herbert. It skills not talking of it. Sir W.

Scott. Skilled, a.

Def.: Having familiar knowledge united with readiness and dexterity in its application; familiarly acquainted with; expert; skillful; — often followed by ‘in’; as, a person skilled in drawing or geometry. Skillet, n.

Etym. [OF. escuelette, dim.

Of escuelle a porringer, F. ecuelle, fr.

L. scutella, dim.

Of scutra, scuta, a dish.

Cf. Scuttle a basket.] Def.: A small vessel of iron, copper, or other metal, with a handle, used for culinary purpose, as for stewing meat. — So, interj.

Def.: Be as you are; stand still; stop; that will do; right as you are; — a word used esp.

To cows; also used by sailors. Soak, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Soaked; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Soaking.] Etym. [OE. soken, AS. socian to sioak, steep, fr. s, s, to suck.

See Suck.] 1. Def.: To cause or suffer to lie in a fluid till the substance has imbibed what it can contain; to macerate in water or other liquid; to steep, as for the purpose of softening or freshening; as, to soak cloth; to soak bread; to soak salt meat, salt fish, or the like. 2. Def.: To drench; to wet thoroughly. Their land shall be soaked with blood. Isa.

Xxiv. 7. 3. Def.: To draw in by the pores, or through small passages; as, a sponge soaks up water; the skin soaks in moisture. 4. Def.: To make (its way) by entering pores or interstices; — often with ‘through’. The rivulet beneath soaked its way obscurely through wreaths of snow. Sir W.

Scott. 5. Def.: Fig.: To absorb; to drain. [Obs.] Sir H.

Wotton. Soak, v.

I. 1. Def.: To lie steeping in water or other liquid; to become sturated; as, let the cloth lie and soak. 2. Def.: To enter (into something) by pores or interstices; as, water soaks into the earth or other porous matter. 3. Def.: To drink intemperately or gluttonously. [Slang] Soakage, n.

Def.: The act of soaking, or the state of being soaked; also, the quantity that enters or issues by soaking. Soaker, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, soaks. 2. Def.: A hard drinker. [Slang] South. Soaking, a.

Def.: Wetting thoroughly; drenching; as, a soaking rain. — Soakingly, adv. Soaky, a.

Def.: Full of moisture; wet; soppy. Soal, n. 1. Def.: The sole of a shoe. [Obs.

Or R.] 2. (Zool.) Def.: See Sole, the fish. [Obs.] Soal, n.

Etym. [AS. sol mire.

Cf. Sully.] Def.: A dirty pond. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. Soam, n.

Def.: A chain by which a leading horse draws a plow. Knight. Soap, n.

Etym. [OE. sope, AS. s\’bepe; akin to D. zeep, G. seife, OHG. seifa, Icel. s\’bepa, Sw. s, Dan. s, and perhaps to AS. s\’c6pan to drip, MHG. s\’c6fen, and L. sebum tallow.

Cf. Saponaceous.] Def.: A substance which dissolves in water, thus forming a lather, and is used as a cleansing agent.

Soap is produced by combining fats or oils with alkalies or alkaline earths, usually by boiling, and consists of salts of sodium, potassium, etc., with the fatty acids (oleic, stearic, palmitic, etc.).

See the Note below, and cf. Saponification.

By extension, any compound of similar composition or properties, whether used as a cleaning agent or not. Calcium, magnesium, lead, etc., form soaps, but they are insoluble and useless. The purifying action of soap depends upon the fact that it is decomposed by a large quantity of water into free alkali and an insoluble acid salt.

The first of these takes away the fatty dirt on washing, and the latter forms the soap lather which envelops the greasy matter and thus tends to remove it. Roscoe & Schorlemmer.
Castile soap

, a fine-grained hard soap, white or mottled, made of olive oil and soda; — called also Marseilles, .
Hard soap

, any one of a great variety of soaps, of different ingredients and color, which are hard and compact.

All solid soaps are of this class. —
Lead soap

, an insoluble, white, pliable soap made by saponifying an oil (olive oil) with lead oxide; — used externally in medicine.

Called also lead plaster, diachylon, etc. —
Marine soap

. See under Marine.
Pills of soap

(Med.), pills containing soap and opium.
Potash soap

, any soap made with potash, esp.

The soft soaps, and a hard soap made from potash and castor oil. —
Pumice soap

, any hard soap charged with a gritty powder, as silica, alumina, powdered pumice, etc., which assists mechanically in the removal of dirt.
Resin soap

, a yellow soap containing resin, — used in bleaching.
Silicated soap

, a cheap soap containing water glass (sodium silicate).
Soap bark

. (Bot.) See Quillaia bark.
Soap bubble

, a hollow iridescent globe, formed by blowing a film of soap suds from a pipe; figuratively, something attractive, but extremely unsubstantial. This soap bubble of the metaphysicians. J.


Shairp. —
Soap cerate

, a cerate formed of soap, olive oil, white wax, and the subacetate of lead, sometimes used as an application to allay inflammation.
Soap fat

, the refuse fat of kitchens, slaughter houses, etc., used in making soap.
Soap liniment

(Med.), a liniment containing soap, camphor, and alcohol.
Soap nut

, the hard kernel or seed of the fruit of the soapberry tree, — used for making beads, buttons, etc.
Soap plant

(Bot.), one of several plants used in the place of soap, as the Chlorogalum pomeridianum, a California plant, the bulb of which, when stripped of its husk and rubbed on wet clothes, makes a thick lather, and smells not unlike new brown soap.

It is called also soap apple, soap bulb, and soap weed. —
Soap tree

. (Bot.) Same as Soapberry tree.
Soda soap

, a soap containing a sodium salt.

The soda soaps are all hard soaps. —
Soft soap

, a soap of a gray or brownish yellow color, and of a slimy, jellylike consistence, made from potash or the lye from wood ashes.

It is strongly alkaline and often contains glycerin, and is used in scouring wood, in cleansing linen, in dyehouses, etc.

Figuratively, flattery; wheedling; blarney. [Colloq.]
Toilet soap

, hard soap for the toilet, usually colored and perfumed. Soap, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Soaped; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Soaping.] 1. Def.: To rub or wash over with soap. 2. Def.: To flatter; to wheedle. [Slang] Soapberry tree. (Bot.) Def.: Any tree of the genus Sapindus, esp. Sapindus saponaria, the fleshy part of whose fruit is used instead of soap in washing linen; — also called soap tree. Soapfish, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any serranoid fish of the genus Rhypticus; — so called from the soapy feeling of its skin. Soapiness, n.

Def.: Quality or state of being soapy. Soaproot, n. (Bot.) Def.: A perennial herb (Gypsophila Struthium) the root of which is used in Spain as a substitute for soap. Soapstone, n.

Def.: See Steatite, and Talc. Soapsuds, n.


Def.: Suds made with soap. Soapwort, n. (Bot.) Def.: A common plant (Saponaria officinalis) of the Pink family; — so called because its bruised leaves, when agitated in water, produce a lather like that from soap.

Called also Bouncing Bet. Soapy, a. [Compar. Soapier; superl. Soapiest.] 1. Def.: Resembling soap; having the qualities of, or feeling like, soap; soft and smooth. 2. Def.: Smeared with soap; covered with soap. Soar, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Soared ; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Soaring.] Etym. [F. s’essorer to soar, essorer to dry (by exposing to the air), fr.

L. ex out + aura the air, a breeze; akin to Gr. 1. Def.: To fly aloft, as a bird; to mount upward on wings, or as on wings. Chaucer. When soars Gaul’s vulture with his wings unfurled. Byron. 2. Def.: Fig.: To rise in thought, spirits, or imagination; to be exalted in mood. Where the deep transported mind may soar. Milton. Valor soars above What the world calls misfortune. Addison. Soar, n.

Def.: The act of soaring; upward flight. This apparent soar of the hooded falcon. Coleridge. Soar, a.

Def.: See 3d Sore. [Obs.] Soar, a.

Def.: See Sore, reddish brown.
Soar falcon

. (Zool.) See Sore falcon, under Sore. Soaring, a. & n.

Def.: from Soar. — Soaringly, adv. \’d8Soave, a.

Etym. [It.] (Mus.) Def.: Sweet. — Sodality, n.; pl. Sodalities .

Etym. [L. sodalitas, fr. sodalis a comrade.] 1. Def.: A fellowship or fraternity; a brotherhood. 2. (R.C.Ch.) Def.: Specifically, a lay association for devotion or for charitable purposes. Sodamide, n. (Chem.) Def.: A greenish or reddish crystalline substance, NaNH2, obtained by passing ammonia over heated sodium. Sodden, a. [p.


Of Seethe.] Def.: Boiled; seethed; also, soaked; heavy with moisture; saturated; as, sodden beef; sodden bread; sodden fields. Sodden, v.


Def.: To be seethed; to become sodden. Sodden, v.


Def.: To soak; to make heavy with water. Sodden-witted, a.

Def.: Heavy; dull. Shak. Soddy, a.

Etym. [From Sod.] Def.: Consisting of sod; covered with sod; turfy. Cotgrave. Soder, n. & v.


Def.: See Solder. Sodic, a. (Chem.) Def.: Of or pertaining to sodium; containing sodium. Sodio-. (Chem.) Def.: A combining form (also used adjectively) denoting ‘the presence of sodium’ or ‘one of its compounds’. Sodium, n.

Etym. [NL., fr.E. soda.] (Chem.) Def.: A common metallic element of the alkali group, in nature always occuring combined, as in common salt, in albite, etc.

It is isolated as a soft, waxy, white, unstable metal, so readily oxidized that it combines violently with water, and to be preserved must be kept under petroleum or some similar liquid.

Sodium is used combined in many salts, in the free state as a reducer, and as a means of obtaining other metals (as magnesium and aluminium) is an important commercial product.

Symbol Na (‘Natrium’).

Atomic weight 23.

Specific gravity 0.97.
Sodium amalgam

, an alloy of sodium and mercury, usually produced as a gray metallic crystalline substance, which is used as a reducing agent, and otherwise.
Sodium bicarbonate

, a white crystalline substance, HNaCO3, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate.

It is found in many mineral springs and also produced artificially,.

It is used in cookery, in baking powders, and as a source of carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide) for soda water.

Called also cooking soda, saleratus, and technically, acid sodium carbonate, primary sodium carbonate, sodium dicarbonate, etc. —
Sodium carbonate

, a white crystalline substance, Na2CO3.10H2O, having a cooling alkaline taste, found in the ashes of many plants, and produced artifically in large quantities from common salt.

It is used in making soap, glass, paper, etc., and as alkaline agent in many chemical industries.

Called also sal soda, washing soda, or soda.

Cf. Sodium bicarbonate, above and Trona.
Sodium chloride

, common, or table, salt, NaCl.
Sodium hydroxide

, a white opaque brittle solid, NaOH, having a fibrous structure, produced by the action of quicklime, or of calcium hydrate (milk of lime), on sodium carbonate.

It is a strong alkali, and is used in the manufacture of soap, in making wood pulp for paper, etc.

Called also sodium hydrate, and caustic soda.

By extension, a solution of sodium hydroxide. Sodomite, n. 1. Def.: An inhabitant of Sodom. 2. Def.: One guilty of sodomy. Sodomitical, a.

Def.: Pertaining to, or of the nature of, sodomy. — Sodomitically, adv. Sodomy, n.

Etym. [From Sodom.

A country mentioned in the Bible: cf.

F. sodomite.] Def.: Carnal copulation in a manner against nature; buggery. Gen.

Xix. 5. <-- can we be more explicit? --> Soe, n.

Etym. [Scot. sae, say, saye; cf.

Icel. s\’ber a large cask, Sw. s a tub.] Def.: A large wooden vessel for holding water; a cowl. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] Dr.


More. Soever.

Def.: A word compounded of ‘so’ and ‘ever’, used in composition with ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘how’, etc., and indicating any out of all possible or supposable persons, things, places, times, ways, etc.

It is sometimes used separate from the pronoun or adverb. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required. Luke xii. 48. What great thing soever a man proposed to do in his life, he should think of achieving it by fifty. Sir W.

Temple. Sofa, n.; pl. Sofas .

Etym. [Ar. soffah, from saffa to dispose in order: cf.

F. sofa, It.sof\’85.] Def.: A long seat, usually with a cushioned bottom, back, and ends; — much used as a comfortable piece of furniture. Let fall the curtains, wheel the sofa round. Cowper.
Sofa bed

, a sofa so contrived that it may be extended to form a bed; — called also sofa bedstead. Soffit, n.

Etym. [It. soffitta, soffitto, fr. soffiggere to hide, properly, to fix or fasten under, L. suffigere to fasten beneath or below; sub under, beneath + figere to fix, faste: cf.

F. soffite.] (Arch.) Def.: The under side of the subordinate parts and members of buildings, such as staircases, entablatures, archways, cornices, or the like.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Lintel. Sofi, n.; pl. Sofis (. Def.: Same as Sufi. Sofism, n.

Def.: Same as Sufism. Soft, a. [Compar. Softer; superl. Softest.] Etym. [OE. softe, AS. s, properly adv.

Of s, adj.; akin to OS. s\’befto, adv., D. zacht, OHG. samfto, adv., semfti, adj., G. sanft, LG. sacht; of uncertain origin.] 1. Def.: Easily yielding to pressure; easily impressed, molded, or cut; not firm in resisting; impressible; yielding; also, malleable; — opposed to hard; as, a soft bed; a soft peach; soft earth; soft wood or metal. 2. Def.: Not rough, rugged, or harsh to the touch; smooth; delicate; fine; as, soft silk; a soft skin. They that wear soft clothing are in king’s houses. Matt.

Xi. 8. 3. Def.: Hence, agreeable to feel, taste, or inhale; not irritating to the tissues; as, a soft liniment; soft wines. \’bdThe ‘soft’, delicious air.\’b8 Milton. 4. Def.: Not harsh or offensive to the sight; not glaring; pleasing to the eye; not exciting by intensity of color or violent contrast; as, soft hues or tints. The sun, shining upon the upper part of the clouds . . .

Made the softest lights imaginable. Sir T.

Browne. 5. Def.: Not harsh or rough in sound; gentle and pleasing to the ear; flowing; as, soft whispers of music. Her voice was ever soft, Gentle, and low, — an excellent thing in woman. Shak. Soft were my numbers; who could take offense? Pope. 6. Def.: Easily yielding; susceptible to influence; flexible; gentle; kind. I would to God my heart were flint, like Edward’s; Or Edward’s soft and pitiful, like mine. Shak. The meek or soft shall inherit the earth. Tyndale. 7. Def.: Expressing gentleness, tenderness, or the like; mild; conciliatory; courteous; kind; as, soft eyes. A soft answer turneth away wrath. Prov.

Xv. 1. A face with gladness overspread, Soft smiles, by human kindness bred. Wordsworth. 8. Def.: Effeminate; not courageous or manly, weak. A longing after sensual pleasures is a dissolution of the spirit of a man, and makes it loose, soft, and wandering. Jer.

Taylor. 9. Def.: Gentle in action or motion; easy. On her soft axle, white she paces even, And bears thee soft with the smooth air along. Milton. 10. Def.: Weak in character; impressible. The deceiver soon found this soft place of Adam’s. Glanvill. 11. Def.: Somewhat weak in intellect. [Colloq.] He made soft fellows stark noddies, and such as were foolish quite mad. Burton. 12. Def.: Quiet; undisturbed; paceful; as, soft slumbers. 13. Def.: Having, or consisting of, a gentle curve or curves; not angular or abrupt; as, soft outlines. 14. Def.: Not tinged with mineral salts; adapted to decompose soap; as, soft water is the best for washing. 15. (Phonetics) (a) Def.: Applied to a palatal, a sibilant, or a dental consonant (as ‘g’ in ‘gem’, ‘c’ in ‘cent’, etc.) as distinguished from a guttural mute (as ‘g’ in ‘go’, ‘c’ in ‘cone’, etc.); — opposed to ‘hard’. (b) Def.: Belonging to the class of sonant elements as distinguished from the surd, and considered as involving less force in utterance; as, b, d, g, z, v, etc., in contrast with ‘p’, ‘t’, ‘k’, ‘s’, ‘f’, etc.
Soft clam

(Zool.), the common or long clam (Mya arenaria).

See Mya. —
Soft coal

, bituminous coal, as distinguished from ‘anthracite’, or ‘hard, coal’.
Soft crab

(Zool.), any crab which has recently shed its shell.
Soft dorsal

(Zool.), the posterior part of the dorsal fin of fishes when supported by soft rays.
Soft grass

. (Bot.) See Velvet grass.
Soft money

, paper money, as distinguished from ‘coin’, or ‘hard money’. [Colloq.

U.S.] —
Soft mute

. (Phonetics) See Media.
Soft palate

. See the Note under Palate.
Soft ray

(Zool.), a fin ray which is articulated and usually branched.
Soft soap

. See under Soap.

, leavened bread, as distinguished from ‘hard-tack’, or ‘ship bread’.
Soft tortoise

(Zool.), any river tortoise of the genus Trionyx.

See Trionyx. Soft, n.

Def.: A soft or foolish person; an idiot. [Colloq.] G.

Eliot. Soft, adv.

Def.: Softly; without roughness or harshness; gently; quietly. Chaucer. A knight soft riding toward them. Spenser. Soft, interj.

Def.: Be quiet; hold; stop; not so fast.<-- archaic or obs. --> Soft, you; a word or two before you go. Shak. Softa, n.

Etym. [Corruption of Per. s one who burns, is ardent or zealous.] Def.: Any one attached to a Mohammedan mosque, esp.

A student of the higher branches of theology in a mosque school. [Written also sophta.] Soften, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Softened (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Softening.] Def.: To make soft or more soft.

Specifically: — (a) Def.: To render less hard; — said of matter. Their arrow’s point they soften in the flame. Gay. (b) Def.: To mollify; to make less fierce or intractable. Diffidence conciliates the proud, and softens the severe. Rambler. (c) Def.: To palliate; to represent as less enormous; as, to soften a fault. (d) Def.: To compose; to mitigate; to assuage. Music can soften pain to ease. Pope. (e) To make calm and placid. All that cheers or softens life. Pope. (f) Def.: To make less harsh, less rude, less offensive, or less violent, or to render of an opposite quality. He bore his great commision in his look, But tempered awe, and softened all he spoke. Dryden. (g) Def.: To make less glaring; to tone down; as, to soften the coloring of a picture. (h) Def.: To make tender; to make effeminate; to enervate; as, troops softened by luxury. <-- weaken --> (i) Def.: To make less harsh or grating, or of a quality the opposite; as, to soften the voice. — Sowse, n. & v.

Def.: See Souse. [Obs.] ryden. Sowter, n.

Def.: See Souter. [Obs.] B.

Jonson. Soy, n.

Etym. [Chinese sh\’d3y\’d4.] 1. Def.: A Chinese and Japanese liquid sauce for fish, etc., made by subjecting boiled beans (esp.

Soja beans), or beans and meal, to long fermentation and then long digestion in salt and water. 2. (Bot.) Def.: The soja, a kind of bean.

See Soja. Soyle, v.


Etym. [Aphetic form of assoil.] Def.: To solve, to clear up; as, to soyl all other texts. [Obs.] Tyndate. Soyle, n.

Etym. [Cf. Soil to feed.] Def.: Prey. [Obs.] Spenser. Soyned (? , a.

Etym. [F. soigner to care.] Def.: Filled with care; anxious. [Obs.] Mir.

For Mag. Sozzle, v.


Etym. [Freq.

From soss, v.] 1. Def.: To splash or wet carelessly; as, to sozzle the feet in water. [Local, U.S.] Bartlett. 2. Def.: To heap up in confusion. [Prov.

Eng.] Forby. Sozzle, n. 1. Def.: One who spills water or other liquids carelessly; specifically, a sluttish woman. [Local, U.S.] 2. Def.: A mass, or heap, confusedly mingled. [Prov.

Eng.] Spa (?; 277), n.

Def.: A spring or mineral water; — so called from a place of this name in Belgium. Spaad, n.

Etym. [Cf.

G. spath spar.

See Spar the mineral.] (Min.) Def.: A kind of spar; earth flax, or amianthus. [Obs.] oodward. Space, n.

Etym. [OE. space, F. espace, from L. spatium space; cf.

Gr. Akin to E. span.

Cf. Expatiate.] 1. Def.: Extension, considered independently of anything which it may contain; that which makes extended objects conceivable and possible. Pure space is capable neither of resistance nor motion. Locke. 2. Def.: Place, having more or They gave him chase, and hunted him as hare; Long had he no space to dwell [in]. R.

Of Brunne. While I have time and space. Chaucer. 3. Def.: A quantity or portion of extension; distance from one thing to another; an interval between any two or more objects; as, the space between two stars or two hills; the sound was heard for the space of a mile. Put a space betwixt drove and drove. Gen.

“ii. 16. 4. Def.: Quantity of time; an interval between two points of time; duration; time. \’bdGrace God gave him here, this land to keep long ‘space’.\’b8 R.

Of brunne. Nine times the space that measures day and night. Milton. God may defer his judgments for a time, and give a people a longer space of repentance. Tillotson. 5. Def.: A short time; a while. [R.] \’bdTo stay your deadly strife a ‘space’.\’b8 Spenser. 6. Def.: Walk; track; path; course. [Obs.] This ilke [same] monk let old things pace, And held after the new world the space. Chaucer. 7. (print.) (a) Def.: A small piece of metal cast lower than a face type, so as not to receive the ink in printing, — used to separate words or letters. (b) Def.: The distance or interval between words or letters in the lines, or between lines, as in books. 8. (Mus.) Def.: One of the intervals, or open places, between the lines of the staff.
Absolute space

Euclidian space

, etc.

See under Absolute, Euclidian, etc. —
Space line

(Print.), a thin piece of metal used by printers to open the lines of type to a regular distance from each other, and for other purposes; a lead. Hansard.
Space rule

(Print.), a fine, thin, short metal rule of the same height as the type, used in printing short lines in tabular matter. Space, v.


Etym. [Cf.

OF. espacier, L. spatiari.

See Space, n.] Def.: To walk; to rove; to roam. [Obs.] And loved in forests wild to space. Spenser. Space, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spaced; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spacong.] Etym. [Cf.

F. espacer.

See Space, n.] (Print.) Def.: To arrange or adjust the spaces in or between; as, to space words, lines, or letters. Spaceful, a.

Def.: Wide; extensive. Sandys. Spaceless, a.

Def.: Without space. Coleridge. Spacial, a.

Def.: See Spatial. Spacially, adv.

Def.: See Spatially. Sir W,Hamilton. Spacious, a.

Etym. [L. spatiousus: cf.

F. spacieux.

See Space, n.] 1. Def.: Extending far and wide; vast in extent. \’bdA ‘spacious’ plain outstretched in circuit wide.\’b8 Milton. 2. Def.: Inclosing an extended space; having large or ample room; not contracted or narrow; capacious; roomy; as, spacious bounds; a spacious church; a spacious hall.Spaciously, adv. — Spaciousness, n. \’d8Spadassin, n.

Etym. [F., fr.

It. spadaccino a swordsman, from spada a sword.] Def.: A bravo; a bully; a duelist. Ld.

Lytton. Spaddle, n.

Def.: A little spade. [Obs.] Spade, n.

Etym. [Cf. Spay, n.] 1. (Zool.) Def.: A hart or stag three years old. [Written also spaid, spayade.] 2. Etym. [Cf.

L. spado.] Def.: A castrated man or beast. Spade, n.

Etym. [AS. spoed; spada; akin to D. spade, G. spaten, Icel. spa, Dan. & Sw. spade, L. spatha a spatula, a broad two-edged sword, a spathe, Gr. spaqh.

Cf. Epaulet, Spade at cards, Spathe, Spatula.] 1. Def.: An implement for digging or cutting the ground, consisting usually of an oblong and nearly rectangular blade of iron, with a handle like that of a shovel. \’bdWith ‘spade’ and pickax armed.\’b8 Milton. 2. Etym. [Sp. espada, literally, a sword; — so caused because these cards among the Spanish bear the figure of a sword.

Sp. espada is fr.

L. spatha, Gr. spaqh.

See the Etymology above.] Def.: One of that suit of cards each of which bears one or more figures resembling a spade. \’bdLet spades be trumps!\’b8 she said. Pope. 3. Def.: A cutting instrument used in flensing a whale.
Spade bayonet

, a bayonet with a broad blade which may be used digging; — called also trowel bayonet.
Spade handle

(Mach.), the forked end of a connecting rod in which a pin is held at both ends.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Knuckle joint, under Knuckle. <-- p. 1377 --> Spade, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spaded; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spading.] Def.: To dig with a spade; to pare off the sward of, as land, with a spade. Spadebone (, n.

Def.: Shoulder blade. [Prov.

Eng.] Spadefish, n. (Zool.) Def.: An American market fish (Choetodipterus faber) common on the southern coasts; — called also angel fish, moonfish, and porgy. Spadefoot, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any species of burrowing toads of the genus Scaphiopus, esp. S.

Holbrookii, of the Eastern United States; — called also spade toad. — Sphenographer, n.

Def.: One skilled in sphenography; a sphenographist. Sphenographic, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to sphenography. Sphenographist, n.

Def.: A sphenographer. Sphenography, n.

Etym. [Gr. -graphy.] Def.: The art of writing in cuneiform characters, or of deciphering inscriptions made in such characters. Sphenoid, a.

Etym. [Gr. F. sphéno\’8bde.] 1. Def.: Wedge-shaped; as, a sphenoid crystal. 2. (Anat.) Def.: Of or pertaining to the sphenoid bone.
Sphenoid bone

(Anat.), an irregularly shaped bone in front of the occipital in the base of the skull of the higher vertebrates.

It is composed of several fetal bones which become united the adult.

See Alisphenoid, Basisphenoid, Orbitosphenoid, Presphenoid. Sphenoid, n. 1. (Crystallog.) Def.: A wedge-shaped crystal bounded by four equal isosceles triangles.

It is the hemihedral form of a square pyramid. 2. (Anat.) Def.: The sphenoid bone. Sphenoidal, a. 1. Def.: Sphenoid. 2. (Crystalloq.) Def.: Pertaining to, or resembling, a sphenoid. Sphenotic, a.

Etym. [Spheno- + (Anat.) Def.: Of, pertaining to, or designating, the sphenotic bone.
Sphenotic bone

(Anat.), a bone on the anterior side of the auditory capsule of many fishes, and connected with, or adjoining, the sphenoid bone. Sphenotic, n. (Anat.) Def.: The sphenotic bone. Spheral, a. 1. Def.: Of or pertaining to a sphere or the spheres. 2. Def.: Rounded like a sphere; sphere-shaped; hence, symmetrical; complete; perfect. Sphere, n.

Etym. [OE. spere, OF. espere, F. sph\’8are, L. sphaera,.

Gr. 1. (Geom.) Def.: A body or space contained under a single surface, which in every part is equally distant from a point within called its ‘center’. 2. Def.: Hence, any globe or globular body, especially a celestial one, as the sun, a planet, or the earth. Of celestial bodies, first the sun, A mighty sphere, he framed. Milton. 3. (Astron.) (a) Def.: The apparent surface of the heavens, which is assumed to be spherical and everywhere equally distant, in which the heavenly bodies appear to have their places, and on which the various astronomical circles, as of right ascension and declination, the equator, ecliptic, etc., are conceived to be drawn; an ideal geometrical sphere, with the astronomical and geographical circles in their proper positions on it. (b) Def.: In ancient astronomy, one of the concentric and eccentric revolving spherical transparent shells in which the stars, sun, planets, and moon were supposed to be set, and by which they were carried, in such a manner as to produce their apparent motions. 4. (Logic) Def.: The extension of a general conception, or the totality of the individuals or species to which it may be applied. 5. Def.: Circuit or range of action, knowledge, or influence; compass; province; employment; place of existence. To be called into a huge sphere, and not to be seen to move in ‘t. Shak. Taking her out of the ordinary relations with humanity, and inclosing her in a sphere by herself. Hawthorne. Each in his hidden sphere of joy or woe Our hermit spirits dwell. Keble. 6. Def.: Rank; order of society; social positions. 7. Def.: An orbit, as of a star; a socket. [R.] Shak.
Armillary sphere

Crystalline sphere

Oblique sphere

,. See under Armillary, Crystalline,.
Doctrine of the sphere

, applications of the principles of spherical trigonometry to the properties and relations of the circles of the sphere, and the problems connected with them, in astronomy and geography, as to the latitudes and longitudes, distance and bearing, of places on the earth, and the right ascension and declination, altitude and azimuth, rising and setting, etc., of the heavenly bodies; spherical geometry.
Music of the spheres

. See under Music. Syn. — Globe; orb; circle.

See Globe. Sphere, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sphered (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sphering.] 1. Def.: To place in a sphere, or among the spheres; to insphere. The glorious planet Sol In noble eminence enthroned and sphered Amidst the other. Shak. 2. Def.: To form into roundness; to make spherical, or spheral; to perfect. Tennyson. { Spherical, Spheric (?), } a.

Etym. [L. sphaericus, Gr. F. sphérique.] 1. Def.: Having the form of a sphere; like a sphere; globular; orbicular; as, a spherical body. 2. Def.: Of or pertaining to a sphere. 3. Def.: Of or pertaining to the heavenly orbs, or to the sphere or spheres in which, according to ancient astronomy and astrology, they were set. Knaves, thieves, and treachers by spherical predominance. Shak. Though the stars were suns, and overburned Their spheric limitations. Mrs.

Spherical angle

Spherical coordinate

Spherical excess

, etc.

See under Angle, Coordinate, etc. —
Spherical geometry

, that branch of geometry which treats of spherical magnitudes; the doctrine of the sphere, especially of the circles described on its surface.
Spherical harmonic analysis

. See under Harmonic, a.
Spherical lune

,portion of the surface of a sphere included between two great semicircles having a common diameter.
Spherical opening

, the magnitude of a solid angle.

It is measured by the portion within the solid angle of the surface of any sphere whose center is the angular point. —
Spherical polygon

,portion of the surface of a sphere bounded by the arcs of three or more great circles.
Spherical projection

, the projection of the circles of the sphere upon a plane.

See Projection. —
Spherical sector

. See under Sector.
Spherical segment

, the segment of a sphere.

See under Segment. —
Spherical triangle

,re on the surface of a sphere, bounded by the arcs of three great circles which intersect each other.
Spherical trigonometry

. See Trigonometry.Spherically, adv. — Sphericalness, n. Sphericity, n.

Etym. [Cf.

F. sphéricité.] Def.: The quality or state of being spherial; roundness; as, the sphericity of the planets, or of a drop of water. Sphericle, n.

Def.: A small sphere. Spherics, n. (Math.) Def.: The doctrine of the sphere; the science of the properties and relations of the circles, figures, and other magnitudes of a sphere, produced by planes intersecting it; spherical geometry and trigonometry. \’d8Spherobacteria, n.

Pl.; sing. Spherobacterium (.

Etym. [NL.

See Sphere, and Bacterium.] (Biol.) Def.: See the Note under Microbacteria. Spheroconic, n. (Geom.) Def.: A nonplane curve formed by the intersection of the surface of an oblique cone with the surface of a sphere whose center is at the vertex of the cone. Spherograph, n.

Etym. [Sphere + -graph.] Def.: An instrument for facilitating the practical use of spherics in navigation and astronomy, being constructed of two cardboards containing various circles, and turning upon each other in such a manner that any possible spherical triangle may be readily found, and the measures of the parts read off by inspection. Spheroid, n.

Etym. [L. spheroides ball-like, spherical, Gr. F. sphéro\’8bde.] Def.: A body or figure approaching to a sphere, but not perfectly spherical; esp., a solid generated by the revolution of an ellipse about one of its axes.
Oblate spheroid

Prolate spheroid

. See Oblate, Prolate, and Ellipsoid. Spheroidal, a.

Etym. [Cf.

F. sphéro\’8bdal.] Def.: Having the form of a spheroid. — Spheroidally, adv.
Spheroidal state

(Physics.), the state of a liquid, as water, when, on being thrown on a surface of highly heated metal, it rolls about in spheroidal drops or masses, at a temperature several degrees below ebullition, and without actual contact with the heated surface, — a phenomenon due to the repulsive force of heat, the intervention of a cushion of nonconducting vapor, and the cooling effect of evaporation. { Spheroidic, Spheroidical, } a.

Def.: See Spheroidal. Cheyne. { Spheroidicity, Spheroidity, } n.

Def.: The quality or state of being spheroidal. — Spradde, obs. Def.: imp.

Of Spread. Chaucer. Sprag, n.

Etym. [Cf.

Icel. spraka a small flounder.] (Zool.) Def.: A young salmon. [Prov.

Eng.] Sprag, n.

Etym. [See Spray a branch.] Def.: A billet of wood; a piece of timber used as a prop. Sprag, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spragged; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spragging.] 1. Def.: To check the motion of, as a carriage on a steep grade, by putting a sprag between the spokes of the wheel. R.


Poole. 2. Def.: To prop or sustain with a sprag. Sprag, a.

Def.: See Sprack, a. Shak. Sprain, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sprained (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spraining.] Etym. [OF. espreindreto press, to force out, F. épreindre, fr.

L. exprimere.

See Express, v.

T., and cf. Spraints.] Def.: To weaken, as a joint, ligament, or muscle, by sudden and excessive exertion, as by wrenching; to overstrain, or stretch injuriously, but without luxation; as, to sprain one’s ankle. Sprain, n.

Def.: The act or result of spraining; lameness caused by spraining; as, a bad sprain of the wrist.
Sprain fracture

(Med.), the separation of a tendon from its point of insertion, with the detachment of a shell of bone to which the tendon is attached. Spraints, n.


Etym. [OF. espraintes, espreintes, F. épreintes from espreinte a desire to go to stool, from espreindre.

See Sprain, v.

T.] Def.: The dung of an otter. Sprang, Def.: imp.

Of Spring. Sprat, n.

Etym. [OE. sprot, sprotte, D. sprot; akin to G. sprotte.] (Zool.) (a) Def.: A small European herring (Clupea sprattus) closely allied to the common herring and the pilchard; — called also garvie.

The name is also applied to small herring of different kinds. (b) Def.: A California surf-fish (Rhacochilus toxotes); — called also alfione, and perch.
Sprat borer

(Zool.), the red-throated diver; — so called from its fondness for sprats.

See Diver. —
Sprat loon

. (Zool.) (a) The young of the great northern diver. [Prov.

Eng.] (b) The red-throated diver.

See Diver. —
Sprat mew

(Zool.), the kittiwake gull. <-- p. 1393 --> Sprawl (spr, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Sprawled (spr; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sprawling.] Etym. [OE. spraulen; cf.

Sw. sprattla to sprawl, dial.

Sw. spralla, Dan. spoelle, sproelde, D. spartelen, spertelen, to flounder, to struggle.] 1. Def.: To spread and stretch the body or limbs carelessly in a horizontal position; to lie with the limbs stretched out ungracefully. <-- also sprawl out, as to sprawl out all over the couch. --> 2. Def.: To spread irregularly, as vines, plants, or tress; to spread ungracefully, as chirography. 3. Def.: To move, when lying down, with awkward extension and motions of the limbs; to scramble in creeping. The birds were not fledged; but upon sprawling and struggling to get clear of the flame, down they tumbled. L’Estrange. Srawls, n.


Def.: Small branches of a tree; twigs; sprays. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. Spray, n.

Etym. [Cf.



See Sprig.] 1. Def.: A small shoot or branch; a twig. Chaucer. The painted birds, companions of the spring, Hopping from spray, were heard to sing. Dryden. 2. Def.: A collective body of small branches; as, the tree has a beautiful spray. And from the trees did lop the needless spray. Spenser. 3. (Founding) (a) Def.: A side channel or branch of the runner of a flask, made to distribute the metal in all parts of the mold. (b) Def.: A group of castings made in the same mold and connected by sprues formed in the runner and its branches. Knight.
Spray drain

(Agric.), a drain made by laying under earth the sprays or small branches of trees, which keep passages open. Spray, n.

Etym. [probably from a Dutch or Low German form akin to E. spread.

See Spread, v.

T.] 1. Def.: Water flying in small drops or particles, as by the force of wind, or the dashing of waves, or from a waterfall, and the like. 2. (Med.) (a) Def.: A jet of fine medicated vapor, used either as an application to a diseased part or to charge the air of a room with a disinfectant or a deodorizer. (b) Def.: An instrument for applying such a spray; an atomizer.
Spray condenser

(Steam Engine) an injection condenser in which the steam is condensed by a spray of water which mingles with it. Spray, v.

T. 1. Def.: To let fall in the form of spray. [Poetic] M.

Arnold. 2. Def.: To throw spray upon; to treat with a liquid in the form of spray; as, to spray a wound, or a surgical instrument, with carbolic acid. Sprayboard, n. (Naut.) Def.: See Dashboard, n., 2 (b). Spread, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spread; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spreading.] Etym. [OE. spreden, AS. sproedan; akin to D. spreiden, spreijen, LG. spreden, spreen, spreien, G. spreiten, Dan. sprede, Sw. sprida.

Cf. Spray water flying in drops.] 1. Def.: To extend in length and breadth, or in breadth only; to stretch or expand to a broad or broader surface or extent; to open; to unfurl; as, to spread a carpet; to spread a tent or a sail. He bought a parcel of a field where he had spread his tent. Gen.

“iii. 19. Here the Rhone Hath spread himself a couch. Byron. 2. Def.: To extend so as to cover something; to extend to a great or grater extent in every direction; to cause to fill or cover a wide or wider space. Rose, as in a dance, the stately trees, and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit. Milton. 3. Def.: To divulge; to publish, as news or fame; to cause to be more extensively known; to disseminate; to make known fully; as, to spread a report; — often acompanied by abroad. They, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country. Matt.

Ix. 31. 4. Def.: To propagate; to cause to affect great numbers; as, to spread a disease. 5. Def.: To diffuse, as emanations or effluvia; to emit; as, odoriferous plants spread their fragrance. 6. Def.: To strew; to scatter over a surface; as, to spread manure; to spread lime on the ground. 7. Def.: To prepare; to set and furnish with provisions; as, to spread a table. Boiled the flesh, and spread the board. Tennyson.
To sprad cloth

, to unfurl sail. [Obs.] Evelyn. Syn. — To diffuse; propogate; disperse; publish; distribute; scatter; circulate; disseminate; dispense. Spread, v.

I. 1. Def.: To extend in length and breadth in all directions, or in breadth only; to be extended or stretched; to expand. Plants, if they spread much, are seldom tall. Bacon. Govrnor Winthrop, and his associates at Charlestown, had for a church a large, spreading tree. B.

Trumbull. 2. Def.: To be extended by drawing or beating; as, some metals spread with difficulty. 3. Def.: To be made known more extensively, as news. 4. Def.: To be propagated from one to another; as, the disease spread into all parts of the city. Shak. Spread, n. 1. Def.: Extent; compass. I have got a fine spread of improvable land. Addison. 2. Def.: Expansion of parts. No flower hath spread like that of the woodbine. Bacon. 3. Def.: A cloth used as a cover for a table or a bed. <-- bedspread --> 4. Def.: A table, as spread or furnished with a meal; hence, an entertainment of food; a feast. [Colloq.] 5. Def.: A privilege which one person buys of another, of demanding certain shares of stock at a certain price, or of delivering the same shares of stock at another price, within a time agreed upon. [Broker’s Cant] 6. (Geom.) Def.: An unlimited expanse of discontinuous points. Spread, Def.: imp. & p.


Of Spread, v.
Spread eagle

. (a) An eagle with outspread wings, the national emblem of the United States. (b) The figure of an eagle, with its wings elevated and its legs extended; often met as a device upon military ornaments, and the like. (c) (Her.) An eagle displayed; an eagle with the wings and legs extended on each side of the body, as in the double-headed eagle of Austria and Russia.

See Displayed, 2. Spread-eagle, a.

Def.: Characterized by a pretentious, boastful, exaggerated style; defiantly or extravagantly bombastic; as, a spread-eagle orator; a spread-eagle speech. [Colloq.& Humorous] <-- [MW10] esp.

Of the greatnes of the U.S. –> <-- Spread-eagle v.


To assume a spread-eagled position; — it may be done reclining, for relaxation, or momentarily, as an exhibitionary maneuver in a sport. Spread-eagled 2.

Being in a position with the arms and legs extended fully. –> Spreader, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, spreads, expands, or propogates. 2. Def.: A machine for combining and drawing fibers of flax to form a sliver preparatory to spinning. SpreadinglyDef.: , adv.

Increasingly. The best times were spreadingly infected. Milton. Sprechery, n.

Etym. [Cf.

Gael. spreidh catle.] Def.: Movables of an inferior description; especially, such as have been collected by depredation. [Scot] — Stirless, a.

Def.: Without stirring; very quiet; motionless. \’bdLying helpless and ‘stirless’.\’b8 Hare. Stirp, n.

Etym. [L. stirps, stirpis.] Def.: Stock; race; family. [Obs.] Bacon. Stirpiculture, n.

Etym. [L. stirps, stirpis, stem, stock, race + cultura culture.] Def.: The breeding of special stocks or races. \’d8Stirps, n.; pl. Stirpes .

Etym. [L., stem, stock.] 1. (Law) Def.: Stock; race; family. Blackstone. 2. (Bot.) Def.: A race, or a fixed and permanent variety. Stirrage, n.

Def.: The act of stirring; stir; commotion. [Obs.] T.

Granger. Stirrer, n.

Def.: One who, or that which, stirs something; also, one who moves about, especially after sleep; as, an early stirrer. Shak.
Stirrer up

, an instigator or inciter. Atterbury. Stirring, a.

Def.: Putting in motion, or being in motion; active; active in business; habitually employed in some kind of business; accustomed to a busy life. A more stirring and intellectual age than any which had gone before it. Southey. Syn. — Animating; arousing; awakening; stimulating; quickening; exciting. Stirrup, n.

Etym. [OE. stirop, AS. stigr\’bep; st\’c6gan to mount, ascend + r\’bep a rope; akin to G. stegreif a stirrup. \’fb164.

See Sty, v.

I., and Rope.] 1. Def.: A kind of ring, or bent piece of metal, wood, leather, or the like, horizontal in one part for receiving the foot of a rider, and attached by a strap to the saddle, — used to assist a person in mounting a horse, and to enable him to sit steadily in riding, as well as to relieve him by supporting a part of the weight of the body. Our host upon his stirpoes stood anon. Chaucer. 2. (Carp. & Mach.) Def.: Any piece resembling in shape the stirrup of a saddle, and used as a support, clamp, etc.

See Bridle iron. 3. (Naut.) Def.: A rope secured to a yard, with a thimble in its lower end for supporting a footrope. Totten.
Stirrup bone

(Anat.), the stapes.
Stirrup cup

, a parting cup taken after mounting.
Stirrup iron

, an iron stirrup.
Stirrup leather

, Stirrup strap

, the strap which attaches a stirrup to the saddle.

See Stirrup, 1. Stirt, obs. p.

P. of Start, v.

I. Def.: Started; leaped. They privily be stirt into a well. Chaucer. Stirte, obs. Def.: imp.

Of Start, v.

I. & t. Chaucer. Stitch, n.

Etym. [OE. stiche, AS. stice a pricking, akin to stician to prick.

See Stick, v.

I.] 1. Def.: A single pass of a needle in sewing; the loop or turn of the thread thus made. 2. Def.: A single turn of the thread round a needle in knitting; a link, or loop, of yarn; as, to let down, or drop, a stitch; to take up a stitch. 3. Etym. [Cf.

OE. sticche, stecche, stucche, a piece, AS. stycce.

Cf. Stock.] Def.: A space of work taken up, or gone over, in a single pass of the needle; hence, by extension, any space passed over; distance. You have gone a good stitch. Bunyan. In Syria the husbandmen go lightly over with their plow, and take no deep stitch in making their furrows. Holland. 4. Def.: A local sharp pain; an acute pain, like the piercing of a needle; as, a stitch in the side. He was taken with a cold and with stitches, which was, indeed, a pleurisy. Bp.

Burnet. 5. Def.: A contortion, or twist. [Obs.] If you talk, Or pull your face into a stitch again, I shall be angry. Marston. 6. Def.: Any least part of a fabric or dress; as, to wet every stitch of clothes. [Colloq.] 7. Def.: A furrow. Chapman.
Chain stitch

Lock stitch

. See in the Vocabulary.

, Purl stitch

. See 2nd Purl, 2. Stitch, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stitched; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stitching.] 1. Def.: To form stitches in; especially, to sew in such a manner as to show on the surface a continuous line of stitches; as, to stitch a shirt bosom. 2. Def.: To sew, or unite together by stitches; as, to stitch printed sheets in making a book or a pamphlet. 3. (Agric.) Def.: To form land into ridges.
To stitch up

, to mend or unite with a needle and thread; as, to stitch up a rent; to stitch up an artery. Stitch, v.


Def.: To practice stitching, or needlework. Stitchel, n.

Def.: A kind of hairy wool. [Prov.] Stitcher, n.

Def.: One who stitches; a seamstress. Stitchery, n.

Def.: Needlework; — in comtempt. Shak. Stitching, n. 1. Def.: The act of one who stitches. 2. Def.: Work done by sewing, esp.

When a continuous line of stitches is shown on the surface; stitches, collectively. Stitchwort, n. (Bot.) Def.: See Stichwort. Stith, a.

Etym. [AS. st\’c6.] Def.: Strong; stiff; rigid. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] Stith, n.

Etym. [Icel. ste an anvil, akin to sta place.

See Stead.] Def.: An anvil; a stithy. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] He invented also pincers, hammers, iron crows, and the anvil, or stith. Holland. Stithy, n.

Etym. [See Stith, and cf. Stiddy.] 1. Def.: An anvil. Sir W.

Scott. 2. Def.: A smith’s shop; a smithy; a smithery; a forge. \’bdAs foul as Vulcan’s ‘stithy’.\’b8 Shak. Stithy, v.


Def.: To forge on an anvil. The forge that stithied Mars his helm. Shak. Stive, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stived; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stiving.] Etym. [Probably fr.

F. estiver to compress, stow, L. stipare: cf.

It. stivare, Sp. estivar.

Cf. Stevedore, Stiff.] Def.: To stuff; to crowd; to fill full; hence, to make hot and close; to render stifling. Sandys. His chamber was commonly stived with friends or suitors of one kind or other. Sir H.

Wotton. Stive, v.


Def.: To be stifled or suffocated. Stive, n.

Def.: The floating dust in flour mills caused by the operation or grinding. De Colange. Stiver, n.

Etym. [D. stuiver; akin to G. st\’81ber, Dan. styver, Sw. styfver.] Def.: A Dutch coin, and money of account, of the value of two cents, or about one penny sterling; hence, figuratively, anything of little worth. — Stokey, a.

Def.: Close; sultry. [Prov.

Eng.] <-- p. 1418 --> \’d8Stola, n.; pl. Stoloe .

Etym. [L.

See Stole a garment.] (Rom.

Antiq.) Def.: A long garment, descending to the ankles, worn by Roman women. The stola was not allowed to be worn by courtesans, or by women who had been divorced from their husbands. Fairholt. Stole, Def.: imp.

Of Steal. Stole, n.

Etym. [L. stolo, -onis.] (Bot.) Def.: A stolon. Stole, n.

Etym. [AS. stole, L. stola, Gr. stall.

See Stall.] 1. Def.: A long, loose garment reaching to the feet. Spenser. But when mild morn, in saffron stole, First issues from her eastern goal. T.

Warton. 2. (Eccl.) Def.: A narrow band of silk or stuff, sometimes enriched with embroidery and jewels, worn on the left shoulder of deacons, and across both shoulders of bishops and priests, pendent on each side nearly to the ground.

At Mass, it is worn crossed on the breast by priests.

It is used in various sacred functions.
Groom of the stole

, the first lord of the bedchamber in the royal household. [Eng.] Brande & C. Stoled, a.

Def.: Having or wearing a stole. After them flew the prophets, brightly stoled In shining lawn. G.

Fletcher. Stolen, Def.: p.


Of Steal. Stolid, a.

Etym. [L. stolidus.] Def.: Hopelessly insensible or stupid; not easily aroused or excited; dull; impassive; foolish. Stolidity, n.

Etym. [L. stoliditas.] Def.: The state or quality of being stolid; dullness of intellect; obtuseness; stupidity. Indocile, intractable fools, whose stolidity can baffle all arguments, and be proof against demonstration itself. Bentley. Stolidness, n.

Def.: Same as Stolidity. Stolon, n.

Etym. [L. stolo, -onis: cf.

F. stolon.

Cf. Stole a stolon, 1st Stool.] 1. (Bot.) Def.: A trailing branch which is disposed to take root at the end or at the joints; a stole. 2. (Zool.) Def.: An extension of the integument of the body, or of the body wall, from which buds are developed, giving rise to new zooids, and thus forming a compound animal in which the zooids usually remain united by the stolons.

Such stolons are often present in Anthozoa, Hydroidea, Bryozoa, and social ascidians.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Scyphistoma. Stoloniferous, a.

Etym. [Stolon + -ferous: cf.

F. stolonif\’8are.] Def.: Producing stolons; putting forth suckers. \’d8Stoma, n.; pl. Stomata .

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. 1. (Anat.) Def.: One of the minute apertures between the cells in many serous membranes. 2. (Bot.) (a) Def.: The minute breathing pores of leaves or other organs opening into the intercellular spaces, and usually bordered by two contractile cells. (b) Def.: The line of dehiscence of the sporangium of a fern.

It is usually marked by two transversely elongated cells.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Sporangium. 3. (Zool.) Def.: A stigma.

See Stigma, n., 6 (a) & (b). Stomach, n.

Etym. [OE. stomak, F. estomac, L. stomachus, fr.

Gr. stomachos stomach, throat, gullet, fr. stoma a mouth, any outlet or entrance.] 1. (Anat.) Def.: An enlargement, or series of enlargements, in the anterior part of the alimentary canal, in which food is digested; any cavity in which digestion takes place in an animal; a digestive cavity.

See Digestion, and Gastric juice, under Gastric. 2. Def.: The desire for food caused by hunger; appetite; as, a good stomach for roast beef. Shak. 3. Def.: Hence appetite in general; inclination; desire. He which hath no stomach to this fight, Let him depart. Shak. 4. Def.: Violence of temper; anger; sullenness; resentment; willful obstinacy; stubbornness. [Obs.] Stern was his look, and full of stomach vain. Spenser. This sort of crying proceeding from pride, obstinacy, and stomach, the will, where the fault lies, must be bent. Locke. 5. Def.: Pride; haughtiness; arrogance. [Obs.] He was a man Of an unbounded stomach. Shak.
Stomach pump

(Med.), a small pump or syringe with a flexible tube, for drawing liquids from the stomach, or for injecting them into it.
Stomach tube

(Med.), a long flexible tube for introduction into the stomach.
Stomach worm

(Zool.), the common roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) found in the human intestine, and rarely in the stomach. Stomach, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stomached; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stomaching.] Etym. [Cf.

L. stomachari, v.t. & i., to be angry or vexed at a thing.] 1. Def.: To resent; to remember with anger; to dislike. Shak. The lion began to show his teeth, and to stomach the affront. L’Estrange. The Parliament sit in that body . . .

To be his counselors and dictators, though he stomach it. Milton. 2. Def.: To bear without repugnance; to brook. [Colloq.] Stomach, v.


Def.: To be angry. [Obs.] Hooker. Stomachal, a.

Etym. [Cf.

F. stomacal.] 1. Def.: Of or pertaining to the stomach; gastric. 2. Def.: Helping the stomach; stomachic; cordial. Stomachal, n.

Def.: A stomachic. Dunglison. Stomacher, n. 1. Def.: One who stomachs. 2. ( Def.: An ornamental covering for the breast, worn originally both by men and women.

Those worn by women were often richly decorated. A stately lady in a diamond stomacher. Johnson. Stomachful, a.

Def.: Willfully obstinate; stubborn; perverse. [Obs.]Stomachfully, adv. [Obs.]Stomachfulness, n. [Obs.] { Stomachic, Stomachical (?), } a.

Etym. [L. stomachicus, Gr. F. stomachique.] 1. Def.: Of or pertaining to the stomach; as, stomachic vessels. 2. Def.: Strengthening to the stomach; exciting the action of the stomach; stomachal; cordial. Stomachic, n. (Med.) Def.: A medicine that strengthens the stomach and excites its action. Stomaching, n.

Def.: Resentment. [Obs.] Stomachless, a. 1. Def.: Being without a stomach. 2. Def.: Having no appetite. [R.] Bp.

Hall. Stomachous, a.

Etym. [L. stomachosus angry, peexish.

See Stomach.] Def.: Stout; sullen; obstinate. [Obs.] With stern looks and stomachous disdain. Spenser. — \’d8Strepsorhina, n.


Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Zool.) Def.: Same as Lemuroidea. Strepsorhine, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having twisted nostrils; — said of the lemurs. — n. (Zool.) Def.: One of the Strepsorhina; a lemur.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Monkey. \’d8Streptobacteria, n.

Pl.; sing. Streptobracterium (.

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. bacteria.] (Biol.) Def.: A so-called variety of bacterium, consisting in reality of several bacteria linked together in the form of a chain. \’d8Streptococcus, n.; pl. Streptococci .

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Biol.) Def.: A long or short chain of micrococci, more or less curved. <-- Streptomyces.

A genus of gram-positive bacteria growing in long filamentous, often branched chains.

They are plentiful in soil and produce the characteristic odor of soils.

Some of the species have proved to be useful as sources of important pharmaceutical agents.

Of these, the best known are streptomycin, chloramphenicaol, and tetracycline. –> <-- Streptomycete.

Any member of the family of bacteria called Streptomycetaceae, including the genus Streptomyces.

They are typically aerobic saprophytes producing begetative areial mycelium. –> \’d8Streptoneura, n.


Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Zool.) Def.: An extensive division of gastropod Mollusca in which the loop or visceral nerves is twisted, and the sexes separate.

It is nearly to equivalent to Prosobranchiata. \’d8Streptothrix, n.

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Biol.) Def.: A genus of bacilli occurring of the form of long, smooth and apparently branched threads, either straight or twisted. Stress, n.

Etym. [Abbrev.

Fr. distress; or cf.

OF. estrecier to press, pinch, (assumed) LL. strictiare, fr.

L. strictus.

See Distress.] 1. Def.: Distress. [Obs.] Sad hersal of his heavy stress. Spenser. 2. Def.: Pressure, strain; — used chiefly of immaterial things; except in mechanics; hence, urgency; importance; weight; significance. The faculties of the mind are improved by exercise, yet they must not be put to a stress beyond their strength. Locke. A body may as well lay too little as too much stress upon a dream. L’Estrange. 3. (Mech. & Physics) Def.: The force, or combination of forces, which produces a strain; force exerted in any direction or manner between contiguous bodies, or parts of bodies, and taking specific names according to its direction, or mode of action, as ‘thrust’ or ‘pressure’, ‘pull’ or ‘tension’, ‘shear’ or ‘tangential stress’. Rankine. Stress is the mutual action between portions of matter. Clerk Maxwell. 4. (Pron.) Def.: Force of utterance expended upon words or syllables.

Stress is in English the chief element in accent and is one of the most important in emphasis.

See Guide to pronunciation, 5. (Scots Law) Def.: Distress; the act of distraining; also, the thing distrained.
Stress of voice

, unusual exertion of the voice.
Stress of weather

, constraint imposed by continued bad weather; as, to be driven back to port by stress of weather.
To lay stress upon

, to attach great importance to; to emphasize. \’bdConsider how great a ‘stress’ is ‘laid upon’ this duty.\’b8 Atterbury. —
To put stress upon

, To put to a stress

, to strain. <-- p. 1425 --> Stress, v.

T. 1. Def.: To press; to urge; to distress; to put to difficulties. [R.] Spenser. 2. Def.: To subject to stress, pressure, or strain. Stressful, a.

Def.: Having much stress. Rush. Stretch, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stretched (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stretching.] Etym. [OE. strecchen, AS. streccan; akin to D. strekken, G. strecken, OHG. strecchen, Sw. sträcka, Dan. stroekke; cf.

AS. stroeck, strec, strong, violent, G. strack straight; of uncertain origin, perhaps akin to E. strong.

Cf. Straight.] 1. Def.: To reach out; to extend; to put forth. And stretch forth his neck long and small. Chaucer. I in conquest stretched mine arm. Shak. 2. Def.: To draw out to the full length; to cause to extend in a straight line; as, to stretch a cord or rope. 3. Def.: To cause to extend in breadth; to spread; to expand; as, to stretch cloth; to stretch the wings. 4. Def.: To make tense; to tighten; to distend forcibly. The ox hath therefore stretched his yoke in vain. Shak. 5. Def.: To draw or pull out to greater length; to strain; as, to stretch a tendon or muscle. Awake, my soul, stretch every nerve. Doddridge. 6. Def.: To exaggerate; to extend too far; as, to stretch the truth; to stretch one’s credit. They take up, one day, the most violent and stretched prerogative. Burke. Stretch, v.

I. 1. Def.: To be extended; to be drawn out in length or in breadth, or both; to spread; to reach; as, the iron road stretches across the continent; the lake stretches over fifty square miles. As far as stretcheth any ground. Gower. 2. Def.: To extend or spread one’s self, or one’s limbs; as, the lazy man yawns and stretches. 3. Def.: To be extended, or to bear extension, without breaking, as elastic or ductile substances. The inner membrane . . .

Because it would stretch and yield, remained umbroken. Boyle. 4. Def.: To strain the truth; to exaggerate; as, a man apt to stretch in his report of facts. [Obs.

Or Colloq.] 5. (Naut.) Def.: To sail by the wind under press of canvas; as, the ship stretched to the eastward. Ham.


Stretch out

, an order to rowers to extend themselves forward in dipping the oar. Stretch, n. 1. Def.: Act of stretching, or state of being stretched; reach; effort; struggle; strain; as, a stretch of the limbs; a stretch of the imagination. By stretch of arms the distant shore to gain. Dryden. Those put a lawful authority upon the stretch, to the abuse of yower, under the color of prerogative. L’Estrange. 2. Def.: A continuous line or surface; a continuous space of time; as, grassy stretches of land. A great stretch of cultivated country. W.

Black. But all of them left me a week at a stretch. E.

Eggleston. 3. Def.: The extent to which anything may be stretched. Quotations, in their utmost stretch, can signify no more than that Luther lay under severe agonies of mind. Atterbury. This is the utmost stretch that nature can. Granville. 4. (Naut.) Def.: The reach or extent of a vessel’s progress on one tack; a tack or board. 5. Def.: Course; direction; as, the stretch of seams of coal.
To be on the stretch

, to be obliged to use one’s utmost powers.
Home stretch

. See under Home, a. Stretcher, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, stretches. 2. (Masonry) Def.: A brick or stone laid with its longer dimension in the line of direction of the wall. Gwilt. 3. (Arch.) Def.: A piece of timber used in building. 4. (Naut.) (a) Def.: A narrow crosspiece of the bottom of a boat against which a rower braces his feet. (b) Def.: A crosspiece placed between the sides of a boat to keep them apart when hoisted up and griped. Dana. 5. Def.: A litter, or frame, for carrying disabled, wounded, or dead persons. 6. Def.: An overstretching of the truth; a lie. [Slang] 7. Def.: One of the rods in an umbrella, attached at one end to one of the ribs, and at the other to the tube sliding upon the handle. 8. Def.: An instrument for stretching boots or gloves. 9. Def.: The frame upon which canvas is stretched for a painting. Stretching, a. & n.

Def.: from Stretch, v.
Stretching course

(Masonry), a course or series of stretchers.

See Stretcher, 2. Britton. \’d8Stretto, n.

Etym. [It., close or contacted, pressed.] (Mus.) (a) Def.: The crowding of answer upon subject near the end of a fugue. (b) Def.: In an opera or oratorio, a coda, or winding up, in an accelerated time. [Written also stretta.] Strew, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Strewed (?); p.

P. strewn; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Strewing.] Etym. [OE. strewen, strawen, AS. strewian, stre\’a2wian; akin to Ofries. strewa, OS. strewian, D. strooijen, G. streuen, OHG. strewen, Icel. str\’be, Sw. stro, Dan. stroe, Goth. straujan, L. sternere, stratum, Gr. st. \’fb166.

Cf. Stratum, Straw, Street.] 1. Def.: To scatter; to spread by scattering; to cast or to throw loosely apart; — used of solids, separated or separable into parts or particles; as, to strew seed in beds; to strew sand on or over a floor; to strew flowers over a grave. And strewed his mangled limbs about the field. Dryden. On a principal table a desk was open and many papers [were] strewn about. Beaconsfield. 2. Def.: To cover more or less thickly by scattering something over or upon; to cover, or lie upon, by having been scattered; as, they strewed the ground with leaves; leaves strewed the ground. The snow which does the top of Pindus strew. Spenser. Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain? Pope. 3. Def.: To spread abroad; to disseminate. She may strew dangerous conjectures. Shak. Strewing, n. 1. Def.: The act of scattering or spreading. 2. Def.: Anything that is, or may be, strewed; — used chiefly in the plural. Shak. Strewment, n.

Def.: Anything scattered, as flowers for decoration. [Obs.] Shak. Strewn, Def.: p.


Of Strew. Stria, n.; pl. Strioe .

Etym. [L., a furrow, channel, hollow.] 1. Def.: A minute groove, or channel; a threadlike line, as of color; a narrow structural band or line; a striation; as, the strioe, or groovings, produced on a rock by a glacier passing over it; the strioe on the surface of a shell; a stria of nervous matter in the brain. 2. (Arch.) Def.: A fillet between the flutes of columns, pilasters, or the like. Oxf.

Gloss. Striate, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Striated (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Striating.] Etym. [See Striate, a.] Def.: To mark with striaoe. \’bd’Striated’ longitudinally.\’b8 Owen. { Striate, Striated (?), } a.

Etym. [L. striatus, p.p.

Of striare to furnish with channels, from stria a channel.] Def.: Marked with striaoe, or fine grooves, or lines of color; showing narrow structural bands or lines; as, a striated crystal; striated muscular fiber. Striation, n. 1. Def.: The quality or condition of being striated. 2. Def.: A stria; as, the striations on a shell. \’d8Striatum, n.

Etym. [NL.] (Anat.) Def.: The corpus striatum. Striature, n.

Etym. [L. striatura.] Def.: A stria. — Strobilaceous, a.

Etym. [See Strobila.] (Bot.) (a) Def.: Of or pertaining to a strobile or cone. (b) Def.: Producing strobiles. Strobilation, n. (Zool.) Def.: The act or phenomenon of spontaneously dividing transversely, as do certain species of annelids and helminths; transverse fission.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Syllidian. Strobile, n.

Etym. [L. strobilus a pine cone, Gr. F. strobole.] [Written also strobil.] 1. (Bot.) Def.: A scaly multiple fruit resulting from the ripening of an ament in certain plants, as the hop or pine; a cone.

See Cone, n., 3. 2. (Biol.) Def.: An individual asexually producing sexual individuals differing from itself also in other respects, as the tapeworm, — one of the forms that occur in metagenesis. 3. (Zool.) Def.: Same as Strobila. Strobiliform, a.

Def.: Shaped like a strobile. Strobiline, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to a strobile; strobilaceous; strobiliform; as, strobiline fruits. Stroboscope, n.

Etym. [Gr. -scope.] 1. Def.: An instrument for studying or observing the successive phases of a periodic or varying motion by means of light which is periodically interrupted. 2. Def.: An optical toy similar to the phenakistoscope.

See Phenakistoscope. Strockle, n. (Glass Manuf.) Def.: A shovel with a turned-up edge, for frit, sand, etc. [Written also strocal, strocle, strokal.] Strode, n.

Def.: See Strude. [Obs.] Strode, Def.: imp.

Of Stride. Stroke, obs. imp. of Strike.

Def.: Struck. Stroke, n.

Etym. [OE. strok, strook, strak, fr. striken.

See Strike, v.

T.] 1. Def.: The act of striking; a blow; a hit; a knock; esp., a violent or hostile attack made with the arm or hand, or with an instrument or weapon. His hand fetcheth a stroke with the ax to cut down the tree. Deut.

Xix. 5. A fool’s lips enter into contention and his mouth calleth for strokes. Prov.

Xviii. 6. He entered and won the whole kingdom of Naples without striking a stroke. Bacon. 2. Def.: The result of effect of a striking; injury or affliction; soreness. In the day that Lord bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound. Isa.

“. 26. 3. Def.: The striking of the clock to tell the hour. Well, but what’s o’clock? – Upon the stroke of ten. — Well, let is strike. Shak. 4. Def.: A gentle, caressing touch or movement upon something; a stroking. Dryden. 5. Def.: A mark or dash in writing or printing; a line; the touch of a pen or pencil; as, an up stroke; a firm stroke. O, lasting as those colors may they shine, Free as thy stroke, yet faultless as thy line. Pope. 6. Def.: Hence, by extension, an addition or amandment to a written composition; a touch; as, to give some finishing strokes to an essay. Addison. 7. Def.: A sudden attack of disease; especially, a fatal attack; a severe disaster; any affliction or calamity, especially a sudden one; as, a stroke of apoplexy; the stroke of death. At this one stroke the man looked dead in law. Harte. 8. Def.: A throb or beat, as of the heart. Tennyson. 9. Def.: One of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished; as, the stroke of a bird’s wing in flying, or an oar in rowing, of a skater, swimmer, etc.; also: (Rowing) (a) Def.: The rate of succession of stroke; as, a quick stroke. (b) Def.: The oar nearest the stern of a boat, by which the other oars are guided; — called also stroke oar. (c) Def.: The rower who pulls the stroke oar; the strokesman. 10. Def.: A powerful or sudden effort by which something is done, produced, or accomplished; also, something done or accomplished by such an effort; as, a stroke of genius; a stroke of business; a master stroke of policy. 11. (Mach.) Def.: The movement, in either direction, of the piston plunger, piston rod, crosshead, etc., as of a steam engine or a pump, in which these parts have a reciprocating motion; as, the forward stroke of a piston; also, the entire distance passed through, as by a piston, in such a movement; as, the piston is at half stroke. 12. Def.: Power; influence. [Obs.] \’bdWhere money beareth [hath] all the ‘stroke’.\’b8 Robynson (More’s Utopia). He has a great stroke with the reader. Dryden. 13. Def.: Appetite. [Obs.] Swift.
To keep stroke

, to make strokes in unison. The oars where silver, Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke. Shak. Stroke, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Strokeed (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Strokeing.] Etym. [OE. stroken, straken, AS. str\’becian, fr. str\’c6can to go over, pass.

See Strike, v.

T., and cf. Straggle.] 1. Def.: To strike. [Obs.] Ye mote with the plat sword again Stroken him in the wound, and it will close. Chaucer. 2. Def.: To rib gently in one direction; especially, to pass the hand gently over by way of expressing kindness or tenderness; to caress; to soothe. He dried the falling drops, and, yet more kind, He stroked her cheeks. Dryden. 3. Def.: To make smooth by rubbing. Longfellow. 4. (Masonry) Def.: To give a finely fluted surface to. 5. Def.: To row the stroke oar of; as, to stroke a boat. Stroker, n.

Def.: One who strokes; also, one who pretends to cure by stroking. Cures worked by Greatrix the stroker. Bp.

Warburton. Strokesman, n.; pl. Strokesman (. (Rowing) Def.: The man who rows the aftermost oar, and whose stroke is to be followed by the rest. Totten. Stroking, n. 1. Def.: The act of rubbing gently with the hand, or of smoothing; a stroke. I doubt not with one gentle stroking to wipe away ten thousand tears. Milton. 2. (Needlework) Def.: The act of laying small gathers in cloth in regular order. 3. pl. Def.: See Stripping, 2. Smollett. Stroll, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Strolled (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Strolling.] Etym. [Cf.

Dan. stryge to stroll, Sw. stryka to stroke, to ramble, dial.

Sw. strykel one who strolls about, Icel. strj to stroke, D. struikelen to stumble, G. straucheln.

Cf. Struggle.] Def.: To wander on foot; to ramble idly or leisurely; to rove. These mothers stroll to beg sustenance for their helpless infants. Swift. Syn. — To rove; roam; range; stray. Stroll, n.

Def.: A wandering on foot; an idle and leisurely walk; a ramble. Stroller, n.

Def.: One who strolls; a vagrant. \’d8Stroma, n.; pl. Stromata .

Etym. [L., a bed covering, Gr. 1. (Anat.) (a) Def.: The connective tissue or supporting framework of an organ; as, the stroma of the kidney. (b) Def.: The spongy, colorless framework of a red blood corpuscle or other cell. 2. (Bot.) Def.: A layer or mass of cellular tissue, especially that part of the thallus of certain fungi which incloses the perithecia. Stromatic, a.

Etym. [Gr. miscellaneous writings, fr. Etym. [Gr. -logy.] (Geol.) Def.: The history of the formation of stratified rocks. Stromb, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any marine univalve mollusk of the genus Strombus and allied genera.

See Conch, and Strombus. Strombite, n. (Paleon.) Def.: A fossil shell of the genus Strombus. Stromboid, a.

Etym. [Strombus + -oid.] (Zool.) Def.: Of, pertaining to, or like, Strombus. Strombuliform, a.

Etym. [NL. strombulus, dim.

Of strombus + -form.

See Strombus.] 1. (Geol.) Def.: Formed or shaped like a top. 2. (Bot.) Def.: Coiled into the shape of a screw or a helix. \’d8Strombus, n.

Etym. [L., fr.

Gr. (Zool.) Def.: A genus of marine gastropods in which the shell has the outer lip dilated into a broad wing.

It includes many large and handsome species commonly called conch shells, or conchs.

See Conch. — Sucket, n.

Etym. [Cf. Suck, v.

T., Succades.] Def.: A sweetmeat; a dainty morsel. Jer.

Taylor. Suckfish, n. (Zool.) Def.: A sucker fish. Sucking, a.

Def.: Drawing milk from the mother or dam; hence, colloquially, young, inexperienced, as, a sucking infant; a sucking calf. I suppose you are a young barrister, sucking lawyer, or that sort of thing. Thackeray.
Sucking bottle

, a feeding bottle.

See under Bottle. —
Sucking fish

(Zool.), the remora.

See Remora. Baird. —
Sucking pump

, a suction pump.

See under Suction. —
Sucking stomach

(Zool.), the muscular first stomach of certain insects and other invertebrates which suck liquid food. Suckle, n.

Def.: A teat. [Obs.] Sir T.

Herbert. Suckle, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Suckled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Suckling.] Etym. [Freq.

Of suck.] Def.: To give suck to; to nurse at the breast. Addison. The breasts of Hecuba When she did suckle Hector, looked not lovelier. Shak. They are not weak, suckled by Wisdom. Landor. Suckle, v.


Def.: To nurse; to suck. [R.] Suckler, n. (Zool.) Def.: An animal that suckles its young; a mammal. Suckling, n.

Etym. [OE. sokeling.

See Suck, v.

T.] 1. Def.: A young child or animal nursed at the breast. 2. Def.: A small kind of yellow clover (Trifolium filiforme) common in Southern Europe. Sucrate, n. (Chem.) Def.: A compound of sucrose (or of some related carbohydrate) with some base, after the analogy of a salt; as, sodium sucrate. \’d8Sucre, n.

Def.: A silver coin of Ecuador, worth 68 cents. Sucrose, n.

Etym. [F. sucre sugar.

See Sugar.] (Chem.) Def.: A common variety of sugar found in the juices of many plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, sugar maple, beet root, etc.

It is extracted as a sweet, white crystalline substance which is valuable as a food product, and, being antiputrescent, is largely used in the preservation of fruit.

Called also saccharose, cane sugar, etc.

By extension, any one of the class of isomeric substances (as ‘lactose’, ‘maltose’, etc.) of which sucrose proper is the type. C12H22O11.

It does not reduce Fehling’s solution, and though not directly fermentable, yet on standing with yeast it is changed by the diastase present to invert sugar (‘dextrose’ and ‘levulose’), which then breaks down to alcohol and carbon dioxide.

It is also decomposed to invert sugar by heating with acids, whence it is also called a disaccharate<-- disaccharide-->.

Sucrose possesses at once the properties of an alcohol and a ketone, and also forms compounds (called ‘sucrates’) analogous to salts.

Cf. Sugar. Suction, n.

Etym. [L. sugere, suctum, to suck; cf.

OF. suction.

See Suck, v.

T.] Def.: The act or process of sucking; the act of drawing, as fluids, by exhausting the air.
Suction chamber

, the chamber of a pump into which the suction pipe delivers.
Suction pipe

Suction valve

, the induction pipe, and induction valve, of a pump, respectively.
Suction pump

, the common pump, in which the water is raised into the barrel by atmospheric pressure.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Pump. \’d8Suctoria, n.


Etym. [NL.

See Suction.] (Zool.) 1. Def.: An order of Infusoria having the body armed with somewhat stiff, tubular processes which they use as suckers in obtaining their food.

They are usually stalked. 2. Def.: Same as Rhizocephala. Suctorial, a.

Etym. [L. sugere, suctum, to suck.] 1. (Zool.) Def.: Adapted for sucking; living by sucking; as, the humming birds are suctorial birds. 2. (Zool.) Def.: Capable of adhering by suction; as, the suctorial fishes. Suctorian, n. 1. (Zool.) Def.: A cartilaginous fish with a mouth adapted for suction, as the lampery. 2. (Zool.) Def.: One of the Suctoria. Suctorious, a.

Def.: Suctorial. [R.] \’d8Sudamina, n.

Pl, sing. Sudamen (.

Etym. [NL. sudamen, -inis, fr. sudare to sweat.

See Sweat.] (Med.) Def.: Minute vesicles surrounded by an area of reddened skin, produced by excessive sweating. \’d8Sudarium, n.

Etym. [L., a handkerchief.] (Eccl.) Def.: The handkerchief upon which the Savior is said to have impressed his own portrait miraculously, when wiping his face with it, as he passed to the crucifixion.<-- = Veronica's veil. --> Sudary, n.

Etym. [L. sudarium, fr. sudare to sweat.

See Sweat.] Def.: A napkin or handkerchief. [Obs.

Or R.] Wyclif.


Browning. Sudation, n.

Etym. [L. sudatio, fr. sudare to sweat: cf.

F. sudation.] Def.: A sweating. [Obs.] \’d8Sudatorium, n.; pl. Sudatoria .

Etym. [L.] Def.: A sudatory. Dunglison. Sudatory, a.

Etym. [L. sudatorius, fr. sudare to sweat: cf.

F. sudatoire.

See Sweat.] Def.: Sweating; perspiring. Sudatory, n.; pl. Sudatories .

Etym. [L. sudatorium.] Def.: A bagnio; a sweating bath; a vapor bath. These sudatories are much in request for many infirmities. Evelyn. Sudden, a.

Etym. [OE. sodian, sodein, OF. sodain, sudain, F. soudain, L. subitaneus, fr. subitus sudden, that has come unexpectedly, p.p.

Of subire to come on, to steal upon; sub under, secretly + ire to go.

See Issue, and cf. Subitaneous.] 1. Def.: Happening without previous notice or with very brief notice; coming unexpectedly, or without the common preparation; immediate; instant; speedy. \’bdO ‘sudden’ wo!\’b8 Chaucer. \’bdFor fear of ‘sudden’ death.\’b8 Shak. Sudden fear troubleth thee. Job xxii. 10. 2. Def.: Hastly prepared or employed; quick; rapid. Never was such a sudden scholar made. Shak. The apples of Asphaltis, appearing goodly to the sudden eye. Milton. 3. Def.: Hasty; violent; rash; precipitate. [Obs.] Shak. Syn. — Unexpected; unusual; abrupt; unlooked-for.Suddenly, adv. — Suddenness, n. Sudden, adv.

Def.: Suddenly; unexpectedly. [R.] Herbs of every leaf that sudden flowered. Milton. Sudden, n.

Def.: An unexpected occurrence; a surprise.
All of a sudden

On a sudden

Of a sudden

, sooner than was expected; without the usual preparation; suddenly. How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost! Milton. He withdrew his opposition all of a sudden. Thackeray. — Suffruticous, a.

Def.: Suffruticose. Suffumigate, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Suffumigated (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Suffumigating.] Etym. [L. suffumigatus, p.p.

Of suffumigare to fumigate from below.

See Sub-, and Fumigate.] Def.: To apply fumes or smoke to the parts of, as to the body in medicine; to fumigate in part. Suffumigation, n.

Etym. [L. suffumigatio: cf.

F. suffumigation.] Def.: The operation of suffumigating. Suffumige, n.

Etym. [LL. suffumigium.] Def.: A medical fume. [Obs.] Harvey. Suffuse, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Suffused (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Suffusing.] Etym. [L. suffusus, p.p.

Of suffundere to overspread; sub under + fundere to pour.

See Fuse to melt.] Def.: To overspread, as with a fluid or tincture; to fill or cover, as with something fluid; as, eyes suffused with tears; cheeks suffused with blushes. When purple light shall next suffuse the skies. Pope. Suffusion, n.

Etym. [L. suffusio: cf.

F. suffusion.] 1. Def.: The act or process of suffusing, or state of being suffused; an overspreading. To those that have the jaundice, or like suffusion of eyes, objects appear of that color. Ray. 2. Def.: That with which a thing is suffused. 3. (Zool.) Def.: A blending of one color into another; the spreading of one color over another, as on the feathers of birds. Sufi, n.

Etym. [From the name of a dynasty of Persian kings, Saf\’c6, Safav\’c6; said to come from name Saf\’c6-ud-d\’c6n of an ancestor of the family, confused with s pious.] Def.: A title or surname of the king of Persia. Sufi, n.

Etym. [Ar. & Per. s, wise, pious, devout.] Def.: One of a certain order of religious men in Persia. [Written also sofi.] Sufism, n.

Def.: A refined mysticism among certain classes of Mohammedans, particularly in Persia, who hold to a kind of pantheism and practice extreme asceticism in their lives. [Written also sofism.] Sug, n.

Def.: A kind of worm or larva. Walton. Sugar, n.

Etym. [OE. sugre, F. sucre (cf.

It. zucchero, Sp. az\’a3car), fr.

Ar. sukkar, assukkar, fr.

Skr. \’87arkar\’be sugar, gravel; cf.

Per. shakar.

Cf. Saccharine, Sucrose.] 1. Def.: A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc.

It is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food and drink.

Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose.

See the Note below. In a more general sense, it includes several distinct chemical compounds, as the ‘glucoses’, or ‘grape sugars’ (including glucose proper, dextrose, and levulose), and the ‘sucroses’, or true sugars (as cane sugar).

All sugars are carbohydrates.

See Carbohydrate.

The ‘glucoses’, or ‘grape sugars’, are ketone alcohols of the formula C6H12O6, and they turn the plane of polarization to the right or the left.

They are produced from the amyloses and sucroses, as by the action of heat and acids of ferments, and are themselves decomposed by fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

The only sugar (called ‘acrose’) as yet produced artificially belongs to this class.

The ‘sucroses’, or ‘cane sugars’, are doubled glucose anhydrides of the formula C12H22O11.

They are usually not fermentable as such (cf. Sucrose), and they act on polarized light. 2. Def.: By extension, anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance; as, sugar of lead (lead acetate), a poisonous white crystalline substance having a sweet taste. 3. Def.: Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words. [Colloq.]
Acorn sugar

. See Quercite.
Cane sugar

, sugar made from the sugar cane; sucrose, or an isomeric sugar.

See Sucrose. —

, Diabetic



Chem.), a variety of sugar (probably grape sugar or dextrose) excreted in the urine in diabetes mellitus.
Fruit sugar

. See under Fruit, and Fructose.
Grape sugar

, a sirupy or white crystalline sugar (dextrose or glucose) found as a characteristic ingredient of ripe grapes, and also produced from many other sources.

See Dextrose, and Glucose. —
Invert sugar

. See under Invert.
Malt sugar

, a variety of sugar isomeric with sucrose, found in malt.

See Maltose. —
Manna sugar

, a substance found in manna, resembling, but distinct from, the sugars.

See Mannite. —
Milk sugar

, a variety of sugar characteristic of fresh milk, and isomeric with sucrose.

See Lactose. —
Muscle sugar

, a sweet white crystalline substance isomeric with, and formerly regarded to, the glucoses.

It is found in the tissue of muscle, the heart, liver, etc.

Called also heart sugar.

See Inosite. —
Pine sugar

. See Pinite.
Starch sugar


Chem.), a variety of dextrose made by the action of heat and acids on starch from corn, potatoes, etc.; — called also potato sugar, corn sugar, and, inaccurately, invert sugar.

See Dextrose, and Glucose. —
Sugar barek

, one who refines sugar.
Sugar beet

(Bot.), a variety of beet (Beta vulgaris) with very large white roots, extensively grown, esp.

In Europe, for the sugar obtained from them. —
Sugar berry

(Bot.), the hackberry.
Sugar bird

(Zool.), any one of several species of small South American singing birds of the genera C\’d2reba, Dacnis, and allied genera belonging to the family C\’d2rebidoe.

They are allied to the honey eaters. —
Sugar bush

. See Sugar orchard.
Sugar camp

, a place in or near a sugar orchard, where maple sugar is made.
Sugar candian

, sugar candy. [Obs.]
Sugar candy

, sugar clarified and concreted or crystallized; candy made from sugar.
Sugar cane

(Bot.), a tall perennial grass (Saccharum officinarium), with thick short-jointed stems.

It has been cultivated for ages as the principal source of sugar. —
Sugar loaf

. (a) A loaf or mass of refined sugar, usually in the form of a truncated cone. (b) A hat shaped like a sugar loaf. Why, do not or know you, grannam, and that sugar loaf? J.

Webster. —
Sugar maple

(Bot.), the rock maple (Acer saccharinum).

See Maple. —
Sugar mill

, a machine for pressing out the juice of the sugar cane, usually consisting of three or more rollers, between which the cane is passed.
Sugar mite

. (Zool.) (a) A small mite (Tyroglyphus sacchari), often found in great numbers in unrefined sugar. (b) The lepisma.
Sugar of lead

. See Sugar, 2, above.
Sugar of milk

. See under Milk.
Sugar orchard

, a collection of maple trees selected and preserved for purpose of obtaining sugar from them; — called also, sometimes, sugar bush. [U.S.] Bartlett. —
Sugar pine

(Bot.), an immense coniferous tree (Pinus Lambertiana) of California and Oregon, furnishing a soft and easily worked timber.

The resinous exudation from the stumps, etc., has a sweetish taste, and has been used as a substitute for sugar. —
Sugar squirrel

(Zool.), an Australian flying phalanger (Belideus sciureus), having a long bushy tail and a large parachute.

It resembles a flying squirrel.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Phlanger. —
Sugar tongs

, small tongs, as of silver, used at table for taking lumps of sugar from a sugar bowl.
Sugar tree

. (Bot.) See Sugar maple, above. Sugar, v.


Def.: In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the sirup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; — with the preposition ‘off’. [Local, U.S.]<-- field = sugar making --> Sugar, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sugared; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sugaring.] 1. Def.: To impregnate, season, cover, or sprinkle with sugar; to mix sugar with. \’bdWhen I ‘sugar’ my liquor.\’b8 G.

Eliot. 2. Def.: To cover with soft words; to disguise by flattery; to compliment; to sweeten; as, to sugar reproof. With devotion’s visage And pious action we do sugar o’er The devil himself. Shak. Sugared, a.

Def.: Sweetened. \’bdThe ‘sugared’ liquor.\’b8 Spenser.

Def.: Also used figuratively; as, sugared kisses. <-- p. 1442 --> Sugar-house, n.

Def.: A building in which sugar is made or refined; a sugar manufactory. Sugariness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being sugary, or sweet. Sugaring, n. 1. Def.: The act of covering or sweetening with sugar; also, the sugar thus used. 2. Def.: The act or process of making sugar. Sugarless, a.

Def.: Without sugar; free from sugar. Sugarplum, n.

Def.: A kind of candy or sweetneat made up in small balls or disks. Sugary, a. 1. Def.: Resembling or containing sugar; tasting of sugar; sweet. Spenser. 2. Def.: Fond of sugar or sweet things; as, a sugary palate. Sugescent, a.

Etym. [L. sugere to suck.] Def.: Of or pertaining to sucking. [R.] Paley. Suggest, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Suggested (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Suggesting.] Etym. [L. suggestus, p.p.

Of suggerere to put under, furnish, suggest; sub under + gerere to carry, to bring.

See Jest.] 1. Def.: To introduce indirectly to the thoughts; to cause to be thought of, usually by the agency of other objects. Some ideas . . .

Are suggested to the mind by all the ways of sensation and reflection. Locke. 2. Def.: To propose with difference or modesty; to hint; to intimate; as, to suggest a difficulty. 3. Def.: To seduce; to prompt to evil; to tempt. [Obs.] Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested. Shak. 4. Def.: To inform secretly. [Obs.] Syn. — To hint; allude to; refer to; insinuate. Suggest, v.


Def.: To make suggestions; to tempt. [Obs.] And ever weaker grows through acted crime, Or seeming-genial, venial fault, Recurring and suggesting still. Tennyson. Suggester, n.

Def.: One who suggests. Beau. & Fl. Suggestion, n.

Etym. [F. suggestion, L. suggestio.] 1. Def.: The act of suggesting; presentation of an idea. 2. Def.: That which is suggested; an intimation; an insinuation; a hint; a different proposal or mention; also, formerly, a secret incitement; temptation. Why do I yield to that suggestion? Shak. 3. Def.: Charge; complaint; accusation. [Obs.] \’bdA false ‘suggestion’.\’b8 Chaucer. 4. (Law) Def.: Information without oath; an entry of a material fact or circumstance on the record for the information of the court, at the death or insolvency of a party. 5. (Physiol. & Metaph.) Def.: The act or power of originating or recalling ideas or relations, distinguished as original and relative; — a term much used by Scottish metaphysicians from Hutcherson to Thomas Brown. Syn. — Hint; allusion; intimation; insinuation. Suggestion, Hint.

A ‘hint’ is the briefest or most indirect mode of calling one’s attention to a subject.

A ‘suggestion’ is a putting of something before the mind for consideration, an indirect or guarded mode of presenting argument or advice.

A ‘hint’ is usually something slight or covert, and may by merely negative in its character.

A ‘suggestion’ is ordinarily intended to furnish us with some practical assistance or direction. \’bdHe gave me a ‘hint’ of my danger, and added some ‘suggestions’ as to the means of avoiding it.\’b8 Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike, Just hint a fault, and hesitate dislike. Pope. Arthur, whom they say is killed to-night On your suggestion. Shak. Suggestive, a.

Def.: Containing a suggestion, hint, or intimation. — Suggestively, adv. — Suggestiveness, n.

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