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Soft Mouth : A great deal of that excess saliva just slobbers out….

GIFT VOUCHER Horses-store.comSoft Mouth : A great deal of that excess saliva just slobbers out….

BITLESS RIDING: A Presentation at Cornell Horse Expo By Christine Trutmann I.

Opening a.

I’m here representing Bitless Bridle, a company that offers horsepeople a way to retain precise communication and control while riding their horses without a bit: the cross over bridle.

Which I will tell you about at length a little further on.


Here at the start I want to emphasize that I’m promoting bitless riding first, and the cross-over bridle second.

Bits are inherently harmful tools, which can be made even more harmful through misuse.

My first priority is to encourage people to stop using bits on their horses.

Since the cross-over bitless is the most effective and humane alternative to a bit I’ve used, I’m happy to advocate it not as some company employee, but as a personally satisfied customer and user of the bridle.


Bitless riding isn’t just a fun thing to try with an easy-going backyard pony: it’s a humane upgrade from a bit…for any discipline, any breed, or any level of horse or rider training.

I’ve been transparently implying that horses are relieved to lose their bits, that their behavior and performance tends to improve when they are ridden with a bit-free mouth…this is because bits are harmful to horses, particularly in imperfect hands.


Most people concede that without fine, independent hands, a rider can hurt a horse with the bit.

But how many of us can honestly claim that we never make mistakes, or never deliberately put more pressure on the horse’s mouth than he is plainly comfortable with? Increased pressure for a hard downward transition… A quick jab on the rein for not responding appropriately to a cue, or to attempt to sensitize a hard mouth.

Or what if the horse spooks or we misjudge a distance at a fence and get left behind? We punish the horse’s mouth—accidentally or deliberately.


But beyond the consideration that almost none of us are master riders our entire equestrian career, there’s another problem: the bit is inherently at odds with the horse’s physiology, and therefore inherently harmful.

That means that even in the hands of a master, bits cause problems for the horse.


Let me go over how bits inevitably interfere with a horse’s athleticism and comfort first.

Then I’ll talk about a few of the other health problems bits and their misuse can cause, as well as training problems for horse and rider.

Finally, I’ll tell you about the crossover bridle, how it works, and why it’s a superior alternative to any kind of bit. II. III. Bits: Inherently Harmful a.

A horse exercising at liberty breathes in rhythm; at the gallop he takes a breath for every stride.

He has a dry, closed mouth.

Even if he has just been grazing, he’ll stop chewing.

Many of us have seen that: something catches a horse’s attention while he’s grazing, and he looks up as his jaw goes still, in preparation for flight.


Put a metal rod in a horse’s mouth, and immediately that natural athletic state is disturbed.


The horse’s body is programmed to produce saliva if there is something in his mouth, just like we humans do.

The body assumes we intend to digest whatever we’ve put into our mouths, and so it sends out enzyme rich saliva to begin the breakdown process and lubricate the swallowing process.

Personally, I’ve drooled over my car keys an unfortunate number of times, holding them in my teeth while my hands were preoccupied.

You all could probably attest to similar experiences.


A great deal of that excess saliva just slobbers out of the horse’s mouth as he exercises, which is often mistakenly considered an indication of a soft mouth.

This might all be no problem, because horses breathe through their noses, not their mouths.

But the horse also needs to swallow some of that liquid, like we do when we run.

And every time he swallows, he needs to stop breathing.

This can cost him at high levels of exercise.

He’s deprived of that rhythmic flow of air he has at liberty, and the interrupted rhythm can even have an effect on the horse’s regularity and length of stride.

Lactic acid builds up in his muscles faster than it would if he could breathe steadily; he tires more easily.

The pressure on him to breathe and swallow at the same time might cause him to inhale saliva or swallow air…both potentially harmful occurrences.


Aside from innately interfering with the horse’s respiratory system at exercise, the bit has a painful position in the horse’s mouth.

It rests on the bars of the mouth, conveniently teeth-less ridges of the jaw thinly covered with nerve-filled gum.

The mouth is one of the most sensitive parts of the horse’s body.

If you take a close look at this jaw…this is where the bit sits…the bars of the mouth are extremely narrow.

With a two or three pound bit on top of them, the nerve-filled gum is pressed into this edge of bone.

It’s your judgment on whether that might hurt or not.

Bear in mind that added to the bit’s own slight weight, there’s the pressure of the reins in the rider’s hands… say an average three pounds in each hand…only enough to have contact.

Most people use significantly more.

Other Health Problems a.

We’ve looked at why the bit is inherently harmful, even in the best of hands.

If used improperly, it can cause a multitude of health and b. c. d. e. training problems.

I’ve a full list of such problems at my booth if anyone would care to peruse it.

There are slightly over a hundred so far: many kinds of resistances and aversions to the bit, respiratory problems, musculoskeletal problems, problems directly affecting the horse’s mouth…For now I’d just like to point out a few of them.

The classic text Veterinary Notes for Horse Owners has an entry on head-shaking syndrome which is a good example of most medical description of the condition. [TEXT].

My understanding of scientific theory is that if you’re trying to figure out what’s causing something, you experiment with the variables.

So if a horse is ONLY displaying a condition when he is being lunged or ridden, it would seem logical to examine the variables singular to those experiences, like the tack.

Why this hasn’t occurred to most researchers I couldn’t tell you.

Maybe they’re not horsepeople and don’t know the first thing about lunging.

Notice the same is said, in various sources, for ‘roaring’, or laryngeal hemiplegia: it begins to affect horses between the ages of two and seven, after they have begun training.

This would again imply that something specific to the training is creating the problem.

But I must add that unfortunately, simply removing the cause of these problems alone won’t cure them once the damage has been done to the horse.

Just like taking your hand out of the fire won’t make the burn on your skin go away.

Corrective treatment is often necessary, and in the case of head-shaking, which is believed to be a symptom of facial neuralgia, treatment is often ineffective.

Often, though, time is enough for the horse to heal himself.


My pony, Mr.

Right, had both head-shaking syndrome and a perpetually mis-diagnosed respiratory ailment…Out of ignorance and bad guidance I did nothing more to help him than to adopt a halter as our official riding bridle…and over time the respiratory problem stopped recurring.

The headshaking also stopped.

This pony who had never been able to hold a steady canter suddenly could, from one day to the next.

That all changed when I sold him to a lady who used a bit on him.

His breathing began to worsen again, his headshaking came back, his canter fell apart and returned to its previous runny shuffle.

I asked her to ride him in a halter or a cross-over bridle—which I’d discovered by that time—and he hasn’t had a problem since.

What is it that causes these numerous health problems? Various things: Again, the bit simply sitting in the horse’s mouth interferes with breathing in more ways than I have discussed.

For full descriptions come look through or buy Metal in the Mouth: the Harmful Effects of Bitted Bridles, by Dr.

Robert Cook.

The excessive pressure the rider puts on the bit causes many IV. V.

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    Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse….

    Co-Flex Self Adhesive Flexible bandage - First Aid - For the Horse Horses-store.comXenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse….

    EVILMERODACHUS. NAbuchodonosore rebus humanis exempto, Babylonici imperii dominium in filium eius transiit Evilmerodachum, anno primae transmigrationis Iudaeorum “VII, secundae XXVI.

    Is miseratus captivitatem Iechoniae regis, qui olim deditione facta regni et urbis Ierosolymae, Babyloniorum fidei se permisisset, summis eum affecit honoribus, omnibusque aliis imperii sui regibus anteposuit.

    At ipse ob iniquitates et libidines in odium adductus subditorum, a sororis suae marito Neriglissoro, fraude peremptus est, cum annos regnasset duos.

    Iosephus ponit XVIII, Sulpitius Severus e libro perveteri XII, connumeratis haud dubie annis, quos pater mente captus vacuos filio reliquerat, ac restitutus communes secum fecerat.

    Neriglissorus iste seu Niglisar, sicut eum nominat Iosephus, quattuor annis, ut Beroso et Megastheni placet, praefuit nomine filii sui Laborosordachi, qui cum ineptissimus imperio haberetur, defuncto patre, nono regni mense oppressus ab aulicis et exstinctus est, suffecto in regnum Nabonito, (quem Herodotus vocat Labynitum, Daniel Balschazarum cognominat) filio Nabuchodonosoris natu minimo, matre Nitocri, quemadmodum memorat Herodotus.

    Is fuit annus transmigrationis Hebraeorum praecipuae quadragesimus quartus, cum Olympias ageretur quinta et quinquagesima, in quem page 53, image: s053 annum Cyri Persarum regis, exordia collocant, qui diligentius Olympiadas scrutantur.

    Dum enim Babylonii, potentiae securi, voluptatibus indulgent, seque mutuis caedibus perimunt, novi apud Medos Persasque imperii fundamenta iaciuntur.

    Medis iam multis annis praeerat Astyages, cuius patre Astibara, id est, Assuero seu Cyaxare (Nam Daniel Assuerum, Ctesias et Alexander Polyhistor Astibaren, Herodotus Cyaxaren, corrupto per graecanicam inflexionem, aut referentium imperitiam vocabulo, appellant) in Hebraeos commilitone usus erat Magnus Nabonitus.

    Illi Astyagie Mandane filia et Cambyse Persa nepos fuit Cyrus, vir omnibus bonis artibus, ac militari imprimis robore et magnanimitate praestans, quem infantulum, si Herodoto fides, avus exponi iusserat, quod Asiae dominatum fatis ei destinari, per somnia cognovisset.

    At Cyrus Dei provisu servatus, comperta per Harpagum Medum Astyagis iniuria, Persas ab Astyage alienos, facile ad res novandas incitavit, sumendaeque libertatis auctor factus, avum eo redegit, ut precarium a nepote imperium vitamque habere videretur.

    Interim Laborosordachus, Niglisaris filius, peractis nuptiis, quasi per venationem depraedatus Mediam, consultu Cyri ab Astyage repellitur, magnique belli semina sparguntur.

    Paulo post Astyages, dum ad Cyrum molitur iter, a Petesaca Eunucho in desertis occiditur, anno regni 35, cuius percussor a filia occisi Mandane cruci suffixus, suasorque sceleris Oebaras fame exstinctus est, Cyaxare Astyagis filio in regnum Medorum succedente. Iuxta haec tempora fuit sextus Romanorum Rex, a patre Tullius, servitute matris Servius dictus, atque in familia Tarquinii Prisci genitus, qua cum se dignum gereret, filiae eius coniugio honoratus est.

    Occiso socero, Tanaquil socrus ad populum despiciens ait; Priscum regem gravi quidem, sed non letali vulnere accepto, petere ut interim dum convalescit, Servio Tullio dicto audientes essent.

    Sic ille quasi precario regnare inceptans, anno quarto Olympiadis L, tam industrie regnum egit, ut etiam iure id adeptus videretur.

    Etruscos saepe domuit, collem Quirinalem et Viminalem et Esquilias urbi addidit.

    Ab eo populus Romanus relatus in censum, digestus in classes, curiis atque collegiis distributus.

    Latinis populis persuasum, ut exemplo Ephesiorum, qui a Croeso obsessi, Dianae se devovissent, et ipsi aedem Dianae in Aventino dedicarent.

    Censu acto, reperta civium Romanorum L”IV milia, cum his qui in agris degebant.

    Periit anno regni xIV, Cyro iam universam Asiam tenente, cuius prudentiam, si in historia opinari licet, in ordinanda Republica aemulatum esse dixerim Servium.

    Idem primus signavit aes, cum antea rudi uterentur Romani, signatumque est nota pecudum, unde et pecunia appellata. BALTHAZAR. REgnabat temporibus Cyri ac Tullii Balthazar, a Babyloniorum Belo cognominatus, illustris apud auctores alios patris nomine; quod Nabonitus, Labynitus, Nabuchodonosor, varia litterarum commutatione, fecerunt scriptores.

    Hic conspicatus Cyri et Medorum potentiam coalescere, Croesum ad infringendas eorum vires incitat, quod Croesi tum praecipua per Asiam gloria erat.

    Etenim Croesus, praeter paternum Lydorum regnum, Ionas, Aeolesque, et omnes reliquos intra Halyn fluvium populos, exceptis tantum Lyciis, ac Cilicibus subegerat, Insulanos Pittaci inductus festivitate socios adsciverat.

    Accensus igitur a Babylonio et Amasi Aegyptiorum rege, consulit oracula, Apollinem praesertim Delphicum, quem bello adversus Persas eventum destinarent.

    Apollinem immensis donariis veneratus audit, si Halyn transeat, magnam potestatem eversurum.

    Id ambigue dictum, pro se interpretatus, mittit page 54, image: s054 ad Athenienses et Lacedaemonios foedus auxiliaque oratum.

    Athenas antea exitio vicinas ob divitum in pauperes insolentiam, Solon aequissimis latis legibus conservarat, introducta etiam aeris alieni levatione, quam [Gap desc: Greek word] appellavit.

    Cum regnare potuisset, noluerat, professus tyrannidem praedium esse pulchrum, sed ex quo egredi non liceat.

    In ius rapere iniurium, etiam non laesis permiserat, communes ratus iniurias, quae singulis contigissent.

    In seditione neutram partem secutus omni honore arcuerat, ignavum arbitratus eum et malum, qui otiosus spectaret turbas patriae.

    Sponsas sine ulla dote nubere iusserat, ne quis lucrosas potius quam liberales nuptias faceret, sed ut uxores per se, non per nummos ducerentur.

    Filius nothus et artium rudis ne patrem aleret, atque ut rationem, unde quisque viveret, Areopagitarum senatui redderet, sanxerat.

    Quam quidem legem in Aegypto observarat.

    Latis legibus, ut Pisistratum caverent cives, monuerat, spretusque in voluntarium exilium ierat.

    Eo digresso, Pisistratus, vulneribus sibi sua manu inflictis, persuasit Atheniensibus, ut 400 ei corporis custodes darent, iisque assumptis arcem occupavit, ac civibus libertatem eripuit.

    Is tunc Athenis praesidebat, Croesoque per legatos roganti auxilia est pollicitus.

    Lacedaemoniis Chilon Ephorus erat, rex Euthydemus.

    Chilonis verbum ferebatur, cotibus lapideis aurum, auro homines explorari, aliaque eiusmodi, ob quae septem Sapientibus connumeratus est.

    Etiam Lacedaemonii cum Croeso societatem pacti sunt, qui tunc victis tandem Arcadum Tegeatibus, quibuscum anceps bellum gesserant, pleraeque Peloponneso dominabantur.

    Periander vero Corinthi traditam a Cypselo patre tyrannidem tenebat, Corinthiis semper facessens negotium, ne sibi ab ipsis fieret, senatu etiam constituto, qui provideret ne quis plus absumeret, quam proprii reditus ferrent.

    Contra Thales Milesius auctor exstitit, ne Croeso in Cyrum opem ferrent.

    Cyrus itidem, consulto Daniele principe Chaldaeorum, victoriam sibi a summo Numine praeparatam didicit, fidenterque in Lydos duxit.

    Ac primum sane proelium in Cappadocibus dubii Martis visum, Lydis equitatu praevalentibus.

    Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum, solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse memorat, qui partim venia impetrata domum redierunt, partim etiam Cyro commilitones facti sint.

    Herodotus auctor est, Croesum exautoratis mercenariis militibus, Sardes refugisse, ut novam ex sociis Babyloniis, Graecis atque Aegyptiis aciem, sequentem in annum pararet.

    At Graecos, priusquam promissa mitterent auxilia, captum Croesum regnoque eversum accepisse.

    Consentiunt scriptores, victorem Cyrum mox Sardes ipsas, contra quam Croesus crediderat, adortum.

    Itaque Lydos iterum contractos in unum, Cyrus in fugam vertit, equis eorum insolenti camelorum adspectu exterritis.

    Inde Sardes captae, Croesus se Cyro dedidit.

    Fama est pyrae admotum, cum magna voce Solonem invocasset, restincto igni veniam meruisse, quod incerta humanorum casuum a Solone sibi commemorata Cyro recitaret, qui verissimum esse professus est Solonis dictum, olim Croeso ingratum, cum divitias suas ostentanti suggereret, neminem ante obitum beatum esse appellandum.

    Veritatem dicti Croesus suopte casu cognovit, a Cyro tamen deinceps inter praecipuos amicos habitus, et Barce Susianes provinciae urbe donatus.

    Ceterum Apollo Delphicus per nuntios a Croeso increpatus, quod benefactorem suum tanta in re fefellisset, mendax ut erat respondit, fatis nec Deum quidem posse obsistere.

    Templum eius paulo post incensum a Pisistratidis, Alcmaeonidae alterius factionis cives instaurarunt, Amasi Aegyptio impensas sublevante.

    Sic Mermnadum in Lydia Regnum desiit, Olympiade sexagesima, cum referente Alexandrino Clemente, auspicatus id esset Nyges Olympiade XVIII.

    Duravit annos 170.

    Paulo post Lydis, page 55, image: s055 Pactya auctore, rebellantibus, Cyrus per Mazarem Medum arma ademit, permissisque deliciis in mollitiem vertit gentem.

    Pactyas a Chiis, ad quos confugerat, Persis auro traditus.

    Inde Harpagus Ionas omnes subegit, exceptis Phocaeensibus, qui in Corsicam Rhegiumque, et Teiis, qui Abderam Thraciae, profugerunt.

    Milesii vero ex Thaletis consilio foederati Cyro, libertate illibata fruebantur.

    Reliqui lones Biantis sententiam aspernati, qui iunctis viribus alias petere sedes suaserat, libertati patriam posthabuere.

    Redacti et Cares in servitutem.

    Lycii autem libertatis tenentissimi, non prius eam quam vitam ipsam posuere.

    Dum ita inferiorem Asiam Harpagus perdomat, Cyrus superiorem aggreditur, in quam Babylonii adhuc opibus animisque praeeminebant, sustentati etiam subditorum atque clientum ingentibus opibus atque copiis.

    Artacamas eis magnae Phrygiae Rex, Gabaeus Hellesponti, Arybaeus Cappadociae, Maragdus Arabum, aliique non pauci suppetias ferebant.

    Cyrus Medos rege Cyaxare, Persas item populares Susianosque ducens, (quorum rex Abradates in conflictu perierat) subiugavit in itinere offensos sibi quosque populos, ac Babylonios acie victos in urbem compulit.

    Ei Nabonitus, qui et Balthazar, pridem de XX annorum commeatu prospexerat, civitatemque seu vi, seu fame fecerat inexpugnabilem.

    Itaque Cyrus longo tempore mops consilii, ab obsessis ridebatur, donec tandem astu eos superavit, superiores cunctis sibi viribus visos humanis.

    Strategema eiusmodi fuit.

    Nitocris olim regina lacum immensi operis, ambitu 420 stadiorum foderat, in quem derivata parte Euphratis, et aquas eius diminuerat, et ex egesto limo vallum utrique fluminis ripae obduxerat.

    Huc Cyrus deducta parte exercitus imbecilliori, iubet renovare fossas, reliquasque copias in procinctu stare, ut simul Euphrates deflueret, in urbem nocturnae irrumperent.

    Babylonii interim festos dies agitabant, Rex ipse ganeae vacabat et luxui, feralis eos hostium contemptus incesserat.

    Dum helluantur, Deosque fusiles honorant, productis in contumeliam vasis Deo sacris, quae Magnus ille Nabonitus Ierosolymis asportaverat, en tibi derepente manum in pariete palatii conspicuam, regis regnique fata ductis litteris describentem.

    Eas cum nemo legeret, monitu reginae matris Daniel accitus, legit statim et interpretatus est; scilicet ob delicta regi temeratamque religionem exitium imminere, regnumque inter Medos ac Persas partiendum.

    Et mox factum est.

    Persae Medique eadem nocte femorum tenus aquis immersi, in urbem penetrarunt, Babyloniosque somno vinoque sepultos confertim trucidarunt.

    Gadatas, et Gobrias tribuni, oppressis arcis excubitoribus, regem ipsum, districto acinace nequiquam se defendentem, obtruncant, cum XVII annos regnasset, anno Babylonici imperii 70.

    Darius Medus, qui et Cyaxares, avito nomine dictus, permittente Cyro, opulentissimum regnum adiit, sexaginta duos annos natus.

    Ipse ut erat senex, otii amans, omnem regni curam in Medos Persasque consiliarios devolvit, Danielem illustri opinione compertum, additis duobus aliis, universo imperio praeposuit, secutus Cyri, superiorumque regum iudicium.

    Iis reliquos Satrapas, numero 120, rationes administrationum reddere praecepit.

    Sed Danieli, viro Hebraeo, invidiae statim fuit nimia apud exteros potentia, exitioque praesenti vertisset, nisi a Numine Opt.


    Cui totum se addixerat, mirabiliter esset protectus.

    Dario enim consueta regum arrogantia decepto, persuaserant aulici, ut se solum ad ” dies adorandum praeberet omnibus, lege lata, ut si quis intra illud tempus alium quemcumque, seu Deum, seu hominem precaretur, bestiis obiceretur laniandus.

    Danieli pluris pietas quam vita erat.

    In genua ter prostratum coram Deo, versa Ierosolymam facie, deprehendunt facile aemuli, statimque reum faciunt, page 56, image: s056 magna contentione, ut supplicium nupera lege sancitum luat efflagitantes, ac rege nequiquam obluctante, in lacum eum leonum abiciunt.

    Sed postridie obstructum sigillo suo antrum aperiens Darius, ut incolumem Danielem reperit, egredi magna voce innocentem, accusatores praecipitari imperat, qui continuo laniati, exemplum dedere omnibus populis, tam benignum piis Deum Opt.


    Quam infestum improbis habendum.

    Id cum publico edicto omnibus invulgasset Darius, relictisque superstitionibus Deum Danielis ubique colendum praecepisset, aliquanto post obiit, Cyro Sororis filio et genero, omnium, quas subegerant terrarum, solo herede relicto.

    Daniel clarus ante, clarior haberi coepit.

    Exstant aeternae visiones eius, quibus consequentium saeculorum ordinem, divinitus sibi revelatum, satis manifeste exposuit, quas et anno primo tertioque Balthazaris, Susiana nondum devicta, vidisse sese memorat.

    Sub Dario Deum precatus, ut Ierosolymam templumque, septuagesimum pene annum deserta, clemens respiceret, annorum etiam numerum ab Angelo accepit, intra quem Christus, sicut factum est, e caelo ad terras descenderet, et Iudaei iacentem rem publicam instaurarent. Eius aetatis Sapientes novum Poetarum agmen recutum est.

    Arion Methymnaeus Dithyrambum reperit.

    Renavigans e Silicia Corinthum, mortis adiit periculum ob pecunias, arte musica lucrifactas.

    Eum vero cum cantu in mare desilientem, Delphinus citharae suavitate demulsus, dorso excepisse traditur, et in Taenarum insulam deportasse; unde ad Periandrum incolumis redierit.

    Eo paulo inferiores narrantur Ibycus, Stesichorus, Phocylides, Theognis, Simonides, et Anacreon Lyrici.

    Eodem tempore Pherecyden Syrum prosaicam condidisse orationem, Historiae scriptionem Cadmum Milesium et Anaxilaum, referunt Plinius et Iosephus.

    Epimenidem vero Cretensium vatem, aestu et itinere fessum, multi tradunt in specu VII et L dormiisse annis, rerumque faciem et mutationes admiratum, veluti postero experrectum die.

    Hinc pari numero dierum, senio ingruente, centum et quinquaginta septem annos durasse.

    Hic e Creta evocatus Athenas lustravit, positisque ignoto Deo aris, pestem Attica urbe profligavit. IMPERIUM PERSICUM CYRUS. ANo post abductum Iechoniam septuagesimo, regni sui vicesimo septimo, Cyrus Persa solus toto Oriente potitus est.

    Babylonii quoque, defuncto Dario Medo, in potestatem ditionemque eius concessere.

    Id ante ducentos annos per Esaiam Hebraeorum Vatem clarissime praenuntiatum, Danielis indicio comperit.

    Igitur Deum Israelis supra omnia gentium numina extollens, initio imperii propositis publice edictis, dat potestatem Iudaeis in Solum patrium redeundi: sacra etiam vasa, quae Nebucadnezar templo Ierosolymae abstulerat, reddidit, templumque summi Dei suo sumptu instaurandum praecipit.

    Illi magno numero (ultra XLII milia hominum fuere) ducibus Iesu sacerdote et Zorobabele, Iechoniae nepote, itineri se accingunt, altare Deo struunt Ierosolymae, sacrificiis eum sollemnibus placant.

    Sequenti anno templum moliuntur, cuius fundamenta, qui priscum illud non viderant, ingenti cum exsultatione; qui viderant, lacrimantes adspexere.

    Sed gentium vicinarum odiis vexati, plerique etiam rei familiari potius quam publicae intenti, parum proficiebant, Cyro page 57, image: s057 praesertim novis bellis implicito, per cuius absentiam accusati apud filium, subsidiis a patre decretis exciderunt.

    Cyrus enim ultra Araxen fluvium in Massagetas, gentem latrociniis et praedationibus infamem tendens, Cambysen filium regem pronuntiavit, addito ei Croeso amico et rectore.

    Cumque initio feliciter rem gessisset, allectis ad vinum et epulas barbaris, subitaque oppressione trucidatis, capto etiam Spargapise Tomyris reginae filio; tamen post, ut fit, versa fortuna, decem militum milia amisit.

    Equitatus ab Elephantis, quos Indi adduxerant, in fugam actus, Cyrus ipse equo excussus, ac vulnus ei grave ab Indo inflictum est: vicissentque Scythae, nisi Amorges Sacorum Rex antea devictus, iam Cyri socius, laborantibus Persis succurrisset.

    Illo enim viginti equitum milia opportune in auxilium rapiente, recollecti Persae hostem fuderunt, atque, ut ait Ctesias, Amoraeum regem Derbicum, cum duobus filiis, ac ” militum M concidere.

    Cyrus paulo post ex vulnere decessit et a filiis in Parasgadis humatus est, anno vitae, ut Cicero ex Dione refert, LXX, regni tricesimo. Fatis vicinus Tanyoxarem, minorem filium, Mediae, Armeniae, Bactrianae, Carmaniaeque regem constituit, imperium Cambysi dederat.

    Herodotus praecisum Cyro caput a Tomyri, atque in utrem sanguine plenum humano mersum memorat, additis ludibriis, ut saturaretur tandem sanguine, cuius sitientissimus fuisset.

    Diodorus crucifixum scribit.

    Sed et Herodotus fatetur, alios de Cyri morte sermones fuisse.

    Et Xenophon atque Ctesias, immo ipsum Cyri sepulcrum a Strabone, Curtio, aliisque auctoribus descriptum, documento sunt, eum haud ex alieno arbitrio mortem habuisse.

    Regnavit a Ponto Euxino usque ad mare rubrum, et ab Indis usque in AEgyptum, rex veri Dei imbutus notitia, foederum et iuris servantissimus, in subditos affectu paterno, in amicos militesque liberalissimus. Tertio imperii eius anno, Daniel ab angelo Gabriele Dei arcana edoctus, inter alia comperit, tres fore post Cyrum reges Persidis, et quartum potentissimum omnem vim in Graecos conversurum.

    Is Xerxes fuit, ut suo loco dicetur.

    Idem Daniel Alexandri Magni, et successorum eius fata tam accurate praedixit, ut vel hoc solo redargui testimonio possint, qui vel de veritate religionis Hebraeorum, vel divina providentia haesitant.

    Mortuus est Cyrus Olympiade LXII, florente per Italiam Pythagora Philosopho, qui Zaleucum Locrorum, et Charondam Thuriorum, egregios Legumlatores fecit.

    Luxuriantes, post cladem e Locris acceptam, Crotoniatas ad frugalitatis usum revocavit.

    Feminis persuasit, vera matronarum ornamenta pudicitiam, non vestes esse.

    Quo tempore Carthaginenses Liparam occuparunt, Tarquinius Superbus Romae regnum iniit. CAMBYSES, qui et ASSUERUS. UBi Cyrus e vivis excessit, Cambyses iam ante imperio praepositus, licentius se gerere coepit, parum memor paternae moderationis monitusque.

    Erat enim laxiori disciplina domi habitus, cum pater, per continuata fere bella absens, educationi liberorum minus posset attendere.

    Ei scripserunt praesides Syriae, non esse dandam Iudaeis restituendae urbis copiam, ne pro contumaci ingenio, resumptis viribus, aliis gentibus imperare soliti, non paterentur sub alieno imperio degere.

    Ita cessavit templi urbisque Ierosolymae aedificatio.

    Cambyses ab avo paterno Cambysis, ab avunculo avisque maternis Assueri nomen traxit. Ceterum persuasus de Aegyptiarum mulierum praestantia Cambyses, ab Amasi rege filiam petit.

    Amasis ad pellicatum, non ad coniugium postulari filiam ratus, aliam ei Virginem, praedecessore suo Apria genitam, mittit, simulans, suam prolem esse.

    Erat enim page 58, image: s058 Amasis rex scommatibus deditus, et poculis, furtis etiam ante regnum, quam natalibus nobilior.

    Quamobrem spernentibus eum Aegyptiis, idolum e pelluvio conflatum erexit, eoque a praetereuntibus adorato, rem iniquam, inquit, Aurum, quo pedes lavabam, cum consecratum est, veneramini, regem ex ignobili factum contemnitis.

    Aegyptum, hic bellis Babylonicis et intestinis misere exhaustam, restituerat, exstructis aut reparatis ad vicies mille urbibus; Cyprios quoque primus subegerat.

    At a Cambyse, ob fraudem matrimonio factam, bello petitus interiit, priusquam Persae Aegyptum attingerent, cum regnasset annos XLIV.

    Successor eius filius, nomine Psammenitus, sexto cum regnare coeperat, mense vincitur, cadunt acie Aegyptiorum LM, expugnatur Memphis, tota Aegyptus in servitutem redigitur.

    Cadaver Amasis effossum, post verborum ludibria, flammis exussit Cambyses.

    Psammenitus procuratione Aegypti honorandus, quod regis filius esset, mox ob attentatam rebellionem damnatus, epoto cruore taurino exspiravit animam. Dum haec in Oriente et Aegypto geruntur, Lacedaemonii ab exulibus Samiorum incitati, Polycrati bellum intulerant, quod ille praeter Samum, Lesbum quoque, et alias Graecorum insulas oppidaque occupasset.

    Sed et Lacedaemoniorum fuit irrita expeditio, et Polycrates, nimiae iam felicitati metuens, cum pretiosissimam Smaragdum mari mersisset, in pisce eam donato recepit.

    Hanc rem edoctus Amasis, amicitiam cum Polycrate cultam dissolvit, praesagus fore, ut rara et iugis felicitas maximo Tyranni infortunio terminaretur.

    Id quod accidit.

    Nam Oraetes [Reg: Oroetes] Sardium praefectus, fraudibus allectum ad se Polycratem, tamquam ingentibus instruendum opibus, quibus [Orig: queis] Persarum imperio insidiaretur, cruci suffixit improbissime, maximasque eius spes tetro exitio abrupit, ipse vicissim a Dario rege ob scelera occidendus. Interea temporis Afri, Cyrenaei, et Aethiopes Ichthyophagi, clade Aegyptiorum consternati, ultro Persicum iugum accepere.

    Carthaginensibus quo minus id imponeretur, Phoenices obstiterunt, qui, postulante commilitium Cambyse, in posteros suos bellare recusabant.

    Nec suppetebant aliunde navales copiae, ad tantam rem idoneae.

    Ibi in Aethiopas Longaevos properanter ducens Cambyses, commeatus penuria corrupit exercitum, milites, fame in furorem stimulati, sorte legerunt decimum quemque, et, horrendum dictu, commilitones suos devorarunt.

    Ita tandem retro egit Cambyses copias.

    Memphin reversus, laetantes invenit Aegyptios et ferias celebrantes ob repertum Apim.

    Bos erat Apis, certis maculis distinctus, pro Deo Aegyptiis habitus.

    Fremens igitur importunitate gaudii Cambyses, deductum ad se bovem occidit, reliquaque Aegyptiorum numina partim irrisit, partim igni delevit.

    Nec mitior in iudices iniustos, quam in falsa numina.

    Sisamnem, corrupti iudicii convictum, cute nudari, eaque, instrato tribunali, Otanem filium imponi praecepit, ut domesticae exemplo vindictae studiosior iuris aequique efficeretur.

    Dum haec fiunt a Cambyse, frater eius Artaxerxes, quem Xenophon Tanyoxarem, Cresias Tanyoxerxen, Herodotus Smerdin nominat, superiori Asiae praesidens, calumniis oneratur, tamquam imperio insidias strueret.

    Vocatus cum non compareret, roboratur obtrectatio.

    Tertia demum vice accitus ut venit, clam mortis damnatus est, suppositusque pro eo Magus, intersecti nomen et speciem ad miraculum usque repraesentans.

    Ita matrem et amicos quinquennium, caedes facta latuit.

    Quam ut tandem rescivit mater, dira imprecata Cambysi maiori filio, prae dolore mortem sumpsit.

    Soror eundem casum miserata, comes funeri, Cambyse imperante, data.

    Prexaspes ebrietatem heri castigans, in filio experiri coactus est, Cambysen etiam ebrium bene torquere page 59, image: s059 iacula.

    Croesus quoque ob liberiora monita in periculo vitae suit.

    Tantopere efferatum principis ingenium haud diu Deus tulit.

    Ecce enim, dum Ecbatanis Syriae moratur Cambyses, Caduceator Susis venit, missus a Mago Oropaste, qui magna voce omnibus a Cambyse deficere, fratrique eius, quem Magus se esse fingebat, parere imperat.

    Ad comprimendam seditionem festinans Cambyses, gladio forte e vagina delapso se ipsum vulnerat, ex eoque ictu perit, cum solus (ut recte Iosephus annotat) sexennium regnasset.

    Primum enim imperii annum cum patre communem habuerat, quae causa est, ut ab Herodoto septem Cambysi, Cyro XXIX assignentur, quem tamen alii “XI annos regnasse consentiunt.

    Ctesias dum XXII Cambysi annos tribuit, haud dubie a prima eius ad regnum destinatione tempus computat. ARTAXERXES MAGUS DUm ita Cambyses perit, Magi duo fratres sese in imperio confirmant.

    Regnantis nomen Iustino Oropastes est, Esdrae Artasastes, aliis aliud.

    Eius fraus tanto efficacior fuit, quod persona regis apud Persas sub specie Maiestatis occulebatur.

    Ipse relaxatis in triennium tributis, indulgentia et largitionibus subditorum animos facile sibi acquirit, arbitrantium Cyri se beneficentissimi regis filio oboedire.

    Ad eum litterae venerunt e Syria, atrocius accusantes Iudaeos, qui ad templum reparandum Cyri iussu confluxerant.

    Magus approbata praesidum sententia, prohibuit aedificationem, priscam Iudaeorum felicitatem, Deique illorum potentiam extimescens.

    Iamque ipsi Persarum principes credebant, fratrem Cambysis regnare, cum Otanes vir nobilis, et in coniecturis sagacissimus, quod principes excludi animadvertit e regia, dolum odoratus, per filiam, quae inter regias pellices erat, rei veritatem cognoscit.

    Mago olim privato Cyrus aurem utramque praeciderat.

    Contrectatus hic per somnum a pellice, sine auribus esse proditur.

    Res hoc indicio prodita, defertur ad Optimates, in caedem falsi regis coniuratur.

    Septem tantum conscios fuisse constat, qui ex continenti, non dato in paenitentiam spatio, occultato sub veste ferro, ad regiam pergunt, interfectisque, si qui impedire cuperent, ad Magos fratres penetrant.

    Illi stricto ferro Aspatinis femur, Intaphernis oculum sauciant, at mox a reliquis conciduntur, ubi Gobriae imprimis et Darii Hystaspis robur enituit.

    Re ad populum delata, reliqui Magi pari sorte mactantur, festumque Magophonias annuum instituitur.

    Sic Persicum imperium a fictitii regis fraude liberatum eodem tempore, quo Cumani in Italia ab Umbris, Hetruscis, aliisque Barbaris suam Rem publ.


    Illorum enim divitiis insidiantes Hetrusci, peditum quingenta milia, equitum duo de viginti contraxerant, quam multitudinem securissime irruentem sex milia Cumanorum, intra vallem montibus paludibusque clausam adorti, in fugam coniecerunt, Olympiade 64. DARIUS HYSTASPIS. SUblato Mago, principes Persarum deliberatione habita paciscuntur, ut rex sit, cuius equus inter solis ortum primus hinniisset.

    Nam et solem Persae Deum credunt, et equos eidem sacratos.

    Ibi equus Darii desiderio equae, cui admissus fuerat eo loco pridie, propero hinnitu auspicium regni dedit.

    Darius patruele Cyri genitus, rex a collegis salutatur, qui ducta Cyri filia, regalibus nuptiis regni initia firmavit Primus ipse imperium totum XX satrapiis, regionibus 127 descripsit, annuosque exinde census in fiscum intulit; Persiam regum matrem, cui pater pro Praeside fuisset, liberam esse iussit.

    Hinc subditi Cyrum patrem, Cambysen dominum, Darium institorem appellarunt, quod regnum quaestui habere videretur.

    Mox gratitudo regis in bene meritos eluxit.

    Silosonti fratri Polycratis, a quo amiculo page 60, image: s060 erat olim donatus purpureo, Samum insulam restituit.

    Addita in Deum pietas, quae in praedecessore eius Cyro fulserat.

    Regulis enim suis praesidibusque imperavit, ut aedificationem sacrae aedis Hierosolymitanae, praebitis impendiis maturarent.

    Itaque hortantibus id ipsum Prophetis, Aggaeo et Zacharia, templum quadriennio consummatum est, sexto post anno quam Darius regnare coeperat.

    Eodemque fere tempore Babylon destructa, Ierosolyma restituta est.

    Templum enim Dei, cum LXX annis in favillis iacuisset, secundo Darii anno novum surrexit.

    Tam accurate divinae praedictiones per omnia eventis consonant.

    Erantque superstites non pauci, qui Ieremiam Vatem haec olim praecinentem audierant, aedemque priorem cum secunda non sine fletu comparabant.

    Iudaeis Zorobabel, vir stemmatis Davidici, et Iesus sacerdotes de stirpe Aaronis praeerant, iidem qui populum ante XI annos e Babylonia in patriam reduxerant.

    Babylonii vero per id temporis rebellantes, graviorem, quam a Cyro antea, cladem acceperunt.

    Ipsi obsidionis metu mulieres suas, paucis exceptis, omnes strangulaverant, ut viris militaribus uberior commeatus suppeteret; excubias strenue obibant, omnia ad sufferenda diuturnae obsidionis incommoda pridem comparaverant.

    Darius contractis in unum copiis, vigesimum iam mensem inexpugnabilem urbem circumsedebat.

    Ibi Zopyrus Megabyzi filius, unius e Magicidis, dolo urbem capit, viribus cunctis superiorem.

    Naso auribusque praecisis fidem facit Babyloniis, a Dario se contumelia ista affectum.

    Mox trucidatis, ex composito, aliquot Persarum turmis, transfugio adiungit gloriam: Sic custodiae urbis praefectus, Dario eam prodit; capta Babylon denuo, diruitur, muri portaeque eius destruuntur, nobiliorum civium tria milia suffiguntur crucibus, novi habitatores e vicinia in eam immigrant, fitque pago deinceps quam urbi similior, quae orbi terrarum imperaverat.

    Ita impletum Babyloni, quod continuata Hebraeorum Vatum oracula a tribus iam saeculis praedixerant. Melior Atheniensium sors fuit eo tempore, quos Tyrannide Pisistratidarum Harmodius et Aristogiton, audaces duo iuvenes, coeperunt liberare.

    Hipparchus, qui et Diocles, Pisistrato genitus, Harmodii sororem, cum ipsum non posset, violarat.

    Harmodius, adiuncto sibi Aristogitone, amasio suo, tyrannum obtruncat, et dum caedem facit, ipse occiditur.

    Aristogiton comprehensus ab Hippia, interfecti fratre, et per tormenta conscios caedis edere iussus, omnes tyranni amicos nominavit.

    Quibus interfectis, quaerenti tyranno, an adhuc aliqui superessent? Nemo, inquit, praeter te, quem amplius mori gestiam.

    Eius virtute admonita libertatis civitas, Lacedaemoniorum ope captis Pisistratidarum liberis, Hippiam excedere ex urbe coegit, qui, profectus ad Persas, ducem se Dario adversus patriam suam obtulit. Antequam vero pelleretur Hippias, Darius deleturus ignominiam, quam regnante Cyaxare Asiae intulerant Scythae, in fines eorum septingenta armatorum milia duxit, navesque sexcentas.

    Transgressus fretum, Asiam ab Europa disterminares, primum Thraces Getasque subegit, Scythae sui copiam non fecere.

    Eorum regiones latissimas, iuncto ponte Danubio, pervagatus, omnium rerum inopiam extimuit, et pontis Ionibus crediti rescissionem, trepidusque refugit in Asiam, relictis ad detinendos hostes, amissisque octoginta hominum milibus; quae iactura, abundante multitudine, inter damna numerata non est.

    Inde Perinthios, Paeonasque per Megabyzum domuit.

    Amyntas Macedonum rex legatis se suaque dedidit, quos mox Alexander regis filius, ob lascivius attrectatas feminas, in convivio trucidavit, submissis iuvenibus femineum in modum comtis, quos mulieres rati Persae, nimium page 61, image: s061 viros experti sunt.

    Facinusque impunitum mansit, delinitis vel argento, vel nuptiis regis filiae inquisitoribus.

    Explorato deinde Oriente Darius, qua flumen Indus miscetur Oceano, Indiam missis ducibus in potestatem redegit.

    Quin et in Africam fines imperii longius extendit. — Is casu Iasonem Pheraeum in spes fortuna sua altiores pellexit.

    Eversa enim Heraclea, Thessalorum se ducem facit, descriptoque oppidis tributo VIII equitum, ” peditum milia cogit, atque imperium Graeciae animo agitat, iunctis cum Amynta Macedoniae rege consiliis.

    Sed unus annus mox ambos abstulit, magnumque incussum Graeciae terrorem subita regum fata dissiparunt. Secuta et mors Agesipolidis Spartae regis, et novum pro Arcadum factionibus bellum, quarum una Thebanos, altera Lacedaemonios imploraverat.

    Mantinenses iterum a Lacedaemoniis muros reparere vetiti, Thebanorum fulciuntur opibus.

    Hisce ergo suppetias ituri Epaminondas et Pelopidas, adscitis Locris, Argivis et Eleis, cum L milibus militum page 87, image: s087 in Laconiam irrumpunt, Spartaeque occupandae spe deiecti, quod eam cives heroice defenderent, et Iphicrates Atheniensium dux auxilia eis adduceret, universam terram hostiliter depopulantur, inque Arcadiam revertuntur praeda graves.

    Inde Messenen quondam a Lacedaemoniis dirutam instaurant, urbem irreconciliabili Spartae odio flagrantem.

    Lacedaemoniis vero ab Artaxerxe, Dionysio et Atheniensibus auxiliares veniunt copiae, quibus suffulti, dum Boeoti Thessalis opem serunt, novo se de summa rerum certamini parant.

    Pelopidas a Boeotis ad Alexandrum Pheraeum, quem arce quadam antea spoliarat, ablegatus, inopinato vinculis constringitur.

    Eum expedire volentes Boeoti, ab Alexandri equitatu circumfunduntur.

    Inque extremo versantes periculo, Epaminondam, ex suspicione aliqua imperio motum, de gregario milite iterum ducem creant, eiusque peritia militari statim liberati, Pelopidam quoque Pheraeo extorquent.

    Pelopidas, postmodum sumpto exercitu, dum acie Alexandrum vincit, cadit ipse, libertate Thessalis conciliata, qui funus eius exquisitissimis honoribus affecere.

    Tyrannus paulo post, a propriae uxoris fratribus in thalamum introductis iugulatus, saevitiae poenas exsolvit.

    Timophanes quoque Corinthi tyrannidem spe complexus, in ipso conatu a germano fratre Timoleonte perimitur. Alius tyrannus senex Dionysius, e crapula aeger, soporifero potionatus medicamento animam exspiravit, non invito filio iuniore Dionysio, qui regno potius quam moribus successit paternis, otium ratus imperium, quo nihil est in mundo negotiosius.

    Necdum erat finis Thebanorum Spartanorumque odii.

    Arcades grandi strage consternati, Megalopolin condiderant.

    Inde Mantinenses paci inter Eleos et Pisanos factae obluctantes, reliquos in se Arcades accendunt.

    Decurritur iterum ad Thebanos et Lacedaemonios: Iterum Epaminondas Spartae ipsi inhiat, pueris et senibus aegre eam tuentibus, donec Agis a Tegeatibus robur exercitus reduceret.

    Itaque ad Mantineam occupandam festinans Epaminondas, sequentibus validissimis hostium copiis, arduum proelium facit, in quo dum non ducis tantum, sed fortissimi etiam militis officio fungitur, suo sanguine parta Thebanis victoria laetus decedit. Hoc velut mucrone teli ablato, Thebanae reip.

    Vires hebetatae sunt, ut non tam illum amisisse, quam cum illo cecidisse viderentur.

    Fuerat enim vir patriae quam sui studiosior, pecuniae summus contemptor, litterarum meliorum scientissimus.

    Eo defuncto, pax tandem Graeciae malis fessae arrisit, exclusis tamen Lacedaemoniis, quod antiquos hostes Messenios patria frui non sinerent.

    Ob id etiam Artaxerxi regi, pacis promotori, succensentes Lacedaemonii cum Tacho Aegyptiorum rege, aliisque rebellibus Satrapis in Persas iungunt arma.

    Ii erant Ariobarzanes Phrygiae, Mausolus Cariae, Orontes Mysiae, Autophradates Lydiae principes: Et Ionum Lycii, Pisidae, Pamphilii et Cilices: Syri quoque et Phoenices.

    Immo istis omnibus fortior bellator Datames, qui nuper Aspim Cataoniae regulum vivum ceperat, et e summa Artaxerxis benevolentia non minorem erat aulicorum invidiam consecutus.

    Itaque livoris praevertendum ratus ictum, Ariobarzanis se partibus clam applicavit, coniunctamque Cappadociae intercepit Paphlagoniam.

    Mithribarzanem socerum suum, qui ad Artabazum profugerat, prius assecutus exercitu est, et vicit, quam proditionem ille meditatam exsequeretur.

    Sed qui multos consilio et celeritate superaverat, simulata tandem Mithridatis amicitia captus periit.

    Idemque reliquis defectoribus casus accidit; quibusdam illorum muneribus, quibusdam armis, aliis aliorum insidiis oppressis.

    Tachon Aegyptium in Phoenicia iam stativa habentem, praefectus in Aegypto relictus, regno deiecit, eiusque Nectanebum page 88, image: s088 filium ad impiam patris proditionem impulit.

    Nectanebus ab Artaxerxe praepositus militi Aegyptio, insidiasque genitori struens, eo illum indignationis perpulit, ut irato se Domino, quam scelerato filio mallet tradere.

    Et respondit praecipiti consilio eventus.

    Tachos enim ad Artaxerxem profectus, non tantum defectionis impetravit veniam, sed et copias ad recuperandum de filio regnum, quod mox etiam virtute et consilio Agesilai, Lacedaemoniorum regis, quem belli habebat socium, inopinatus recepit.

    Nihilo meliorem rex ipse Artaxerxes in Dario filio pietatem est expertus, quem regem iam pronuntiaverat.

    Cum enim datam ei temere pellicem Aspasiam, qua et ipse et frater Cyrus usi fuerant, sacerdotem solis creasset, ut ab incesto filium amore abduceret, amentibus amantis Darii insidiis petitur.

    Quibus derectis, occidit quidem furentem amore filium, sed paulo post ipse maerore confectus obiit, rex quam pater fortunatior.

    Egisse regnum scribitur annos 43, pacis, si quisquam regum, studiosissimus. Sub eo liberalibus studiis scholae effloruerunt.

    In Iudaea summo sacerdote Ionatha, qui et Iohannes, legis Divinae Doctores et scribae erant in pretio.

    Apud Graecos Philosophi Plato, Xenophon, Diogenes, Parmenides, Anaximenes Lampsacenus, Aristippus, Antisthenes: Rhetores item Isocrates eiusque discipuli: Mathematici quoque Eudoxus Cnidius, Archytas Tarentinus: Historiographi, praeter Xenophontem, memorantur Hermias Methymnaeus, Duris Samius, Anaximenes Lampsacenus, Philistus Siculus, Dionysiodorus et Anaxis Boeoti, quos omnes Diodorus Siculus et citat, et huius aevi condidisse historias indicat. Hoc rerum statu apud Romanos subactis iam Praenestinis et Latinis securiores, parva (ut plerumque solet) rem ingentem moliundi causa intervenit.


    Fabii Ambusti filiam malo arbitrio, quo a proximis quisque minime anteiri vult, plebeiae domus, in qu nupta erat, paenituit, quod risui sorori suisset, dum honorum insueta lictorem virga fores percutientem tremit.

    Itaque socer cum genero C.

    Licinio, consilia inire coepit, de magistratibus patriciorum cum plebe communicandis.

    Fiunt ergo Tribuni plebis Licinius et L.

    Sextius, deciesque refecti, pervicacibus studiis tandem rogationem perferunt, ut alterum e plebe Cos.

    Habere liceat.

    Concessum vicissim, annitente Camillo, patribus, de praetore uno, qui ius in urbe diceret, e nobilitate creando: additique aediles Curules e patriciis, qui maximis ludis praeessent.

    Primus consulatus L.

    Sextio, cuius lege partus erat, datus, honoris populo adstructi praemium. ARTAEXEXES OCHUS. ARtaxerxi Mnemoni e 360 pellicibus centum et quindecim filii fuere, sed tres tantum iusto matrimonio suscepti, Darius, Ariarathes et Ochus.

    Darius cum L fratribus in caput patris horrendo scelere coniuraverat, deprehensusque cum sociis, poenas Deo maiestatis paternae ultori dederat.

    Coniuges quoque omnium cum liberis interierant, ne quod vestigium tantae superesset impietatis.

    Hereditas imperii Persici Ocho tradita, qui ob patris laudes Artaxerxis quidem nomen assumpsit, at mores contempsit.

    Omnes enim Persarum reges crudelitate et saevitia superavit.

    Initio statim metu paris coniurationis, cognatorum caede, et strage principum replevit regiam, non sexus, non aetatis permotus misericordia, quasi data opera id ageret, ne innocentior fratribus parricidis haberetur. Eo regnante novum ex Europa imperium emersit, tum Persis, tum Graecis plerisque futurum exitiale.

    Dum enim utrique in segnitiem ac torporem resoluti, non ut olim in iustitiam et virtutem, sed in voluptates et ganeam incumbunt, frequentius scenam et ludos, quam castra visunt et curiam, coquosque et Versificatores pluris, quam consiliarios et duces faciunt, inter ipsorum otia sordidum et page 89, image: s089 obscurum antea Macedonum nomen promicuit, et Philippus obses triennio Thebis habitus, Philosophorum disciplinis, et Epaminondae atque Pelopidae eruditus virtutibus, regnum Macedoniae velut iugum, Asiae Graeciaeque cervicibus imponendum fabricavit.

    Genitus erat Amynta rege, matre Eurydice, quae ut genero regnum, sibi pellicatum filiae acquireret, non exhorruit insidiis necare filios proprios, Alexandrum et Perdiccam.

    Tanto maior scelestae libidinis, quam materni apud eam amoris vis fuit.

    Exstinctis ergo fratribus, Philippo inopinanter obvenit regnum, sed tenue admodum, et Illyriorum servituti, multorumque insuper populorum conspirationi obnoxium.

    Verum illas difficultates prudentia et moderatione sagacissimus princeps brevi discussit, excogitataque e confertis clypeis phalange, et exercitis in bello Macedonibus, regnum non modo liberum, sed totius etiam Europae maximum effecit, viginti quattuor annorum spatio. Athenienses primum ad recuperandam Amphipolin, Argaeo noverca Philippi genito regnum quaerentes, tradita Amphipoli studuit placare: Poeonas et Thraces muneribus et blandimentis.

    Sed cum Mantias, quem Athenienses Metonae praefecerant, in reducendo Argaeo perseveraret, victor acie Philippus etsi obsessos in colle Athenienses interficere posset, metu gravioris belli ultro dimisit incolumes.

    Post haec confirmatior in dies, Illyriorum VII milia caedit, et Macedonum civitates eorum praesidiis liberat.

    Urbem etiam nobilissimam capit Amphipolin, et Olynthios data Pydna sibi devincit, Crenidas amplificatos de suo nomine Philippos appellat.

    Aurifodinas circa eam urbem, antea pertenues, operum structuris eo provehit, ut plus quam mille talenta inde fisco inferret annua. His ille artibus Macedoniae regnum erigebat, cum contrariis, id est, socordia et timiditate, Dionysius iunior luculentissimum Siciliae principatum, et adamante, ut aiebat, revinctum solvit ac pessumdedit. Erat ei affinis Dion Hipparini, quem ut superiorem ingenio, auctoritate et amore populi, quod metueret, Corinthum, amandavit auditoque eum in Peloponneso manum comparare, qua sibi bellum faceret, Areten eius coniugem, suaeque uxoris germanam, alii nuptum dedit, filiumque ipsius indulgendo turpissimis imbuit cupiditatibus; a quibus dum postmodum vi deduceretur, se de superiore aedium parte deiecit, misereque interiit.

    Hisce iniuriis irritatus Dion, nec tam suis fretus copiis, quam odio tyranni, maximo animo, duabus onerariis navibus, L annorum imperium, munitum quingentis longis navibus, decem equitum, centumque peditum milibus profectus oppugnatum (quod omnibus gentibus admirabile videbatur) adeo facile perculit, ut post diem tertium, quam Siciliam attigerat, Syracusas introierit. Ex quo intelligi potest nullum esse dominium tutum, nisi munitum benevolentia.

    Aberat eo tempore Dionysius apud oppida in Adria condita, ratus neminem ad se sine magnis copiis venturum.

    Quae res eum opinioque fefellit.

    Nam Dion his ipsis, quae sub adversarii fuerant potestate, regios spiritus repressit, acieque victum amovit dominio, postea quoque, se absente, Syracusas iam recuperatas depraedantem; celerrimo superventu exturbavit iterum, et Dictator creatus omni eum Sicilia exuit.

    Tam improvisam Dionis prosperitatem subita excepit commutatio, solita fortunae mobilitate, quae quem repente extulit, demergere solet velle.

    Orta enim inter Dionem et Heraclidem, periculorum antea socium et classis praefectum, dissensione, cum declarasset Dion, haud bene Remp.

    Multorum imperiis geri, cumque offensum ea oratione Heraclidem occidisset, mox etiam in adversariorum involaret bona, vulgus, a quo paulo ante in caelum page 90, image: s090 elatus erat laudibus, non ferendum tyrannum coepit dictitare.

    Ille insuetis male audiendi, ut in magno se periculo esse intellexit, Calippi (Nepos Callicratidem nominat) amici sui callidissima proditione subversus est.

    Persuaserat is, simulandam esse ab familiarium aliquo Dionis inimicitiam, ut sic apertis hominum animis diversa sentientes e medio tollerentur.

    Eius consilii exsecutionem, qui dederat, suscepit, simulataque coniuratione, verissimos Dionis inimicos clam sibi conciliat, iisdemque aggregatus amicum sibi firmiter fidentem trucidat, quarto post anno quam Corintho in Siciliam redierat.

    Mox interfecti Dionis ex odio miseratio incessit populum, quemque necatum optaverant, suo sanguine ab Acheronte redemptum cupierunt: Sed frustra.

    Calippus heri interfector invasit dominatum, eoque vicissim, vertente anno ab Hipparino Dionis fratre excussus est.

    Inde cum seditionibus agitaretur Sicilia, Dionysius sexennio libidinose et crudeliter apud Locrenses exacto, ad modicum tempus Syracusas recuperavit, iterumque ab Icetae factione expulsus est, Olympiade CIX. Simili quadam vulgi Atheniensis levitate, Chares dux lectus adversu Chios et Byzantios, criminando alios obtinuit, ut Iphicrates et Timotheus, qui res magnas gesserant, centum talentis damnarentur, et potestate egregie administrata exciderent; quoniam praeceps imperiti hominis consilium de invadendo Byzantio impedissent, tempestatibus deterriti, quibus nullus non sapiens modeste fateatur cedendum.

    At paulo post idem Chares, cum Artabazum Ocho rebellantem adiuvans, LXX hostium M multo inferioribus copiis inopinato profligasset, honoribus affectus Athenis, mox accusantibus eiusdem Ochi legatis, notatus ignominia est: bellumque sociale, quod Athenienses adversus deficientes insulanos gesserant, metu Persarum sepultum.

    Read more about Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse….:

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  • NZ Horse & Pony magazine | extensive coverage of events …
  • Pony For SALE!!! SUPER GENTLE ONLY $700 – YouTube
  • HORSE (poker) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra, Learn more about Co-Flex Self Adhesive Flexible bandage – First Aid – For the Horse HERE: and Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse…. - Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse…. and Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse…. - Xenophon : Xenophon autem vicisse Cyrum solosque exercitus Croesiani Aegyptios egregie pugnasse….

    Novice : Age Level of training Health Temperament Conformation Quality Location Where….

    Equi.Linn Sports Bra Athens - Equi.Linn sports Lingerie - For the Rider Horses-store.comNovice : Age Level of training Health Temperament Conformation Quality Location Where….

    Age Level of training Health Temperament Conformation Quality Location Where to look for a horse: Auctions… can make comparisons, see what the “going rate” is Private owners… buy directly from the “factory”, can talk to current owner In either case, make sure you are dealing with a reputable company or person and if you are a novice, get expert help Rewards of owning a horse: Young people can learn responsibility Development of skills, greater coordination, strength, agility, & self-confidence Promotes family unity, stronger bonds & relationships, improved social skills Provides relaxation, decreases stress, and improved personal discipline Equine Industry $112 billion total impact on US economy (GNP) 6.9 million horses in the US… 54,000 donkeys & 28,000 mules 7 million people in the US involved with horses Most amount of horses are in Brazil 27%-Asia 25%-S.

    America 10%-Mexico 8%-USA 8%-Africa 7%-Europe World population today is about 58 million (61 million in 1960) Value of goods and services in US is $25.3 billion Full-time horse-related jobs in the US: 338,500

    Read more about Novice : Age Level of training Health Temperament Conformation Quality Location Where….:

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  • American Horse Council
  • Horse Racing Games – Play Free Online Games at
  • Horses, Horse Pictures, Horse Facts – National Geographic
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    Stirrups : junior common knowledge Q When bridling your horse which ear….

    Guardian Stable Bedding - For the Horse Horses-store.comStirrups : junior common knowledge Q When bridling your horse which ear….

    (junior) common knowledge Q: When bridling your horse, which ear is last to be pulled under the crownpiece? A: Left (junior) HH20 Q: When mounting a horse, on what side do you generally mount? A: Left (junior) HSG2-22 Q: Immediately upon dismounting from an English saddle, what should the rider do? A: Run up the stirrups (junior) HSG2-28 Q: How can you judge what is a safe distance between you & the horse in front of you? A: You should be able to see the hind heels of the horse in front of you (stay a horse length away) (junior) HH20 Q: The legs, hands, weight & voice as used in controlling a horse are called what? A: Aids (junior) common knowledge Q: What direction should the horse’s nose be pointing when loping in a circle? A: To the inside (junior) HH20 Q: When riding in groups, what kind of distance should you keep between horses? — A: A horse responds readily to shifts in the rider’s weight.

    Exaggerated weight shifts can throw the horse off balance and/or confuse it Hard (Hard) LTJ35 Q: What causes a chair seat? A: Sitting behind the motion of the horse (Hard) LTJ11 Q: What is excellent for building a good, secure seat and leg position and also helping you relax & build balance & confidence? A: Gymnastic exercises (can be done on a longe line without reins or stirrups) (hard) HSG 8 Q: How can you keep your horse from being head shy while bridling? A: Fold each ear individually under the crownpiece, make sure the bridle is big enough before putting it on & don’t hurt his mouth when putting the bit in (hard) HIH1100-1 Q: Name an English riding activity that a saddle seat rider does not participate in? A: Jumping (Hard) HH Q: While sitting properly on a horse, perpendicular lines may be drawn through a rider’s shoulder and hip and between what other 2 parts of the body? A: Knee to toe (Hard) HIH1100-1 Q: The term “perched” refers to what type of English saddle & rider? — (Medium) LTJ22 Q: For a 2-1/2 foot jump, how far away should the horse take off & land? A: 2-1/2 to 3 feet (Medium) LTJ6 Q: What can happen to a jumper who has not done his homework? A: Crashes, refusals or runouts (Medium) LTJ15 Q: When learning to jump, in order to give security to the rider & freedom for the horse, should the stirrups be long, short or medium? A: Medium (Medium) LTJ5 Q: If you have a new or green horse, what should you do before starting jumping training? A: Finish basic training (Medium) LTJ17 Q: What should a rider who is learning to jump do if he is given the command “legs”? A: Squeeze, or if necessary, kick (Medium) LTJ22 Q: Ideally, when jumping, the horse should take off how close to the jump? A: As close to the jump as it is high (Medium) LTJ17 — (Medium) LTJ22 Q: At what height should you start new jumps? A: 12 – 15” (Medium) LTJ12 Q: Why do you use poles instead of boards for jumping? A: Boards split & can injure the horse (Medium) LTJ12 Q: What gait or gaits should be ridden without stirrups in order to be ready to jump? A: All 3 gaits – including posting trot (Medium) LTJ18 Q: When doing cavaletti work, how should the horse approach & proceed over the cavaletti? A: Over the middle in a straight line (Medium) LTJ5 Q: At what gait should you start practicing the jumping position? A: Walk (Medium) LTJ Q: When working more than one horse on the cavaletti, why would you possibly have a problem? A: Space problems due to different strides (Medium) LTJ12 — (Medium) LTJ8 Q: When would you use a Kimberwicke for jumping? A: When you need a bit more control than a snaffle gives (Medium) LTJ6 Q: Why should you wait until your horse is 4 – 5 years old before jumping him? A: Before then, his joints – esp.

    The knees – are not mature enough to take the stress of jumping (knees aren’t “closed”) (Medium) LTJ15 Q: While mounted, what is a quick way to determine if your stirrups are the correct length for jumping? A: The stirrup iron should touch the anklebone when foot is out of stirrup (Medium) LTJ16 Q: What is another name for the jumping position? A: Two point (Medium) LTJ18 Q: What causes a horse to stop when a rider looks down at the jump? A: Rider’s balance changes & horse feels it & will stop to see what you’re looking at (Medium) LTJ21 Q: What is the purpose of a ground pole? A: Helps the horse judge the distance for takeoff & height of jump (Medium) LTJ37 — (Bonus) LTJ15 Q: Name the 4 parts of a horse’s jump A: Approach, take-off, suspension, landing (Bonus) LTJ37-38 Q: Name 3 ways to be eliminated from a jumping class A: Going off course, 3 accumulated refusals fall of horse or rider (Bonus) LTJ17 Q: Name 3 benefits of standing in stirrups while riding A: Develops balance, strengthen & stretch proper leg muscles, develop an independent seat (Bonus) LTJ30 Q: Name 4 results of banging the horse on the back when landing after a jump A: Horse will rush, horse will want to refuse, horse will get nervous, horse will run out (Bonus) LTJ12 Q: Name 2 ground conditions that would indicate that you should not jump A: Hard, wet, slippery, rocky (Bonus) LTJ 30 Q: Name 3 things that may result from a rider not having enough weight in the stirrups? A: Insecure seat, feet banging side of horse, gripping with knees, heels going up, horse will want to rush, horse will get nervous, horse may refuse or run out (Bonus) LTJ24 Q: Name 3 examples of materials that could be used for variety in making jumps A: Tires, oil barrels straw bales, solid planks – not boards (accept other reasonable answers) (Bonus) LTJ15-21 Q: Other than basic riding skill, name the first 3 steps in learning to jump A: Jumping position, cavaletti, cavaletti & jump (Bonus) LTJ10 Q: Name the 4 basic pieces of equipment for horse & rider when jumping A: Snaffle bit (or pelham, kimberwicke), jump saddle, helmet, tall hunt boots or jodhpur boots (Bonus) LTJ29-35 Q: Name 4 common mistakes made by the rider when jumping A: Banging back when landing, not enough weight in stirrups, ineffective use of legs, gripping too tight with knees, reins too long or too short, uncertain about jumping, not enough warm-up, hands out of position, jumping ahead of horse, looking down, hitting mouth, swinging legs, knees out, elbows flopping, jumping too much (Bonus) LTJ5 Q: Name 3 benefits of jumping for the rider A: Develop a more secure seat, improve horsemanship, develop self-confidence, gain a sense of accomplishment (Bonus) LTJ5 Q: List 2 benefits of jumping for the horse A: Makes horse more balanced, collected & agile Great for conditioning when started slowly (Bonus) LTJ15 Q: Gripping or tightening with your legs can cause what 3 things? A: Make you stiff & lead to problems such as heels forced out, rotating off the knees, letting leg fly up (Bonus) LTJ26 Q: Name 3 obstacles that are prohibited in Hunt Seat Over Fences classes — A: Make sure ties have panic or quick release snaps, make sure ties are breakable (bonus) HSG2-1 Q: Name 3 general preventative measures that are vital to the prevention of riding injuries A: Safety education, selection of a mount that matches rider’s capabilities, use protective equipment, adequate instruction & adequate supervision (bonus) HSG/LTJ Q: Give 3 reasons why English riders should run up the irons when dismounted A: Dangling irons may startle or annoy the horse, stirrups may catch on doorways or other projections, horse may catch cheek piece of bit when turning head, horse may catch hind foot in stirrup (bonus) HSG2-38 Q: Give the 3 basic steps of a barn escape plan A: Escape plan posted in barn, fire drills, firefighters/emergency personnel trained in horse behavior & handling, horses accustomed to simulated smoke & emergency situations, necessary equipment & knowledge of its operation STABLE & PASTURE MANAGEMENT – SENIOR STUDY Junior (junior) HIH 320-3 Q: What is the minimum size recommended for a box stall? A: 10’ x 10’ — (medium) HH31 Q: What is a Liverpool bit? A: Curb bit commonly used for driving (old info said for heavy harness horses) (medium) HH27 Q: What is a bitting rig used for? A: To teach a horse to flex at the poll HH 27 (Medium) HIH1100-3 Q: All stirrups should allow for how much space on each side of the rider’s foot? A: 1 / 4 inch (Medium) HIH1100-6 Q: What basic part of the bridle serves as a secondary means of communication as well as allowing you to manipulate the bit? A: Reins (Medium) HIH 1100-3 Q: What measurement is necessary to have a properly fitted girth? A: Heartgirth measurement – from girth buckle to girth buckle (Medium) HIH1100-3 Q: Where are most Western saddles produced? A: United States — (medium) HIH1100-11 Q: What does the term “mullen mouth” mean? A: Curved mouthpiece on a bit (Medium) HH29 Q: What does the term “slick” mean when referring to saddles? A: Describes the shape of the fork on a Western saddle (medium) HH32 Q: What is the effect of stirrups that are set too far back? A: Rider is thrown into the pommel or fork (medium) HH33 Q: Where do you measure the width of the withers? A: Two inches below the top of the withers (medium) HH33 Q: Where do you measure the width of a saddle tree? A: Across the bottom of the gullet (Medium) LTJ8 Q: For proper fit of an English saddle, how much room should there be both in front & in back of the rider? A: 3 inches

    Read more about Stirrups : junior common knowledge Q When bridling your horse which ear….:

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  • My Horse for iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad on the iTunes App Store
  • Equine Health – Ga Dept of Agriculture
  • Bridle – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    There were one-arm bandits, dodgem cars, spooky fun stuff in the dungeons, magic rooms

    Equestrian Concierge Shampoo travel pack There were one-arm bandits, dodgem cars, spooky fun stuff in the dungeons, magic rooms

    Denis Sligo also continued with the dairy farming on the Estate. Another great achievement during his time at Westport was the completion and publishing of his book in 1981 “ Westport House and The Brownes “.

    This book is the greatest referance available on the House and the Family involved since the beginning – the Bible so to speak. Jeremy – 11th and present Marquess of Sligo b. 1939 Jeremy attended agricultural college, probably because at that time that’s what the Estate was about, but in his heart he knew the only way of securing his Family Home in very hard times was to make some radical changes.

    Initially Jeremy worked with his father opening the doors of Westport House to visitors in 1960, but to him this was just the beginning of a totally new direction for the Estate. A combination of his sheer determination to save one of the countries most beautiful Heritage properties and his natural passion for product development and Marketing are the main reasons Westport House is still here in its entirety and is why today it has become one of the few remaining Heritage properties left in the country.

    Most Historic Homes of it’s nature were either burnt, knocked down or abandoned. Jeremy’s almost schoolboy’s delight in turning the somewhat boreing concept of the “Stately Home” on it’s head in the 70’s and 80’s, some of which he was highly criticised for at the time, is in actual fact the reason the House and the Family are still here today.

    He was a forward thinker, ahead of his time in many respects and totally unconservative. In the early seventies he added a Zoo and also brought a number of gimmicks and children’s entertainment into the basement of the House.

    There were one-arm bandits, dodgem cars, spooky fun stuff in the dungeons, magic rooms.

    There was also a giant Pink Rabbit that roamed the entire house who every child in the country fell in love with.

    By doing this it encouraged families to come, and prevented the children from being uterly bored.

    The Slippery Dip (Cannon Ball run) and the Miniature Railway (Westport House Express) were also added discreetly on the grounds. There was also a Camping and Caravan Park added and a large amount of Horse Drawn Caravans which attracted large numbers of French and Germans to the West Coast at that time.

    Gracy’s Restaurant situated at the Farmyard was created from what was literally a cow shed and a shop was developed from a similar situation. The Tennis Courts, Pitch and Putt, a Flume Ride (The Pirates Plunge), Jungle World (The Pirates Den), and of course The Giant Swans on the lake were also phased in.

    In 2008 The Ships Galleon (the Pirate Queen) was introduced as the latest adventure. Jeremy was continually concious that there are a wide variety of people in the world, all with very different interests.

    His aim was to have something for everybody- young/old/wild/cultural. To improve the visitors experience in Westport House from a cultural point of view, Jeremy introduced ten waxwork figures by Gems Display Figures of London in 2002.

    These are just a few of the West of Ireland’s great achievers in literature, music and the arts. In 2002 Jeremy commissioned Michael Cooper, his brother in law, to create a sculpture of Grace O’Malley – the original of Alibaster Stone is situated in the House and a Bronze casting is in the garden.

    This was the beginning of reinstateing her back where she belongs – in her home, with her family, and today where all of the rebranding of the estate in 2009 as – Westport House and Pirate’s Adventure Park – eminates from.

    Read more about There were one-arm bandits, dodgem cars, spooky fun stuff in the dungeons, magic rooms:

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  • equestrian – definition of equestrian by the Free Online Dictionary …
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    Pounding : But can Eddie trust that when the chips are down….

    Silver plated necklace with horse shoe Horses-store.comPounding : But can Eddie trust that when the chips are down….

    TURF #5 (OF 5) story JONATHAN ROSS art & cover TOMMY LEE EDWARDS 1 in 20 variant cover by MICHAEL KALUTA 1 in 50 variant cover by DAVE GIBBONS SEPTEMBER 29 32 PAGES / FC $2.99 “THE BLOODFATHER” – SERIES CONCLUSION! This is it.

    The final battle.

    The Vampire Family have swollen their ranks.

    Manhattan is nearly theirs.

    The cops have been transformed into a willing army of bloodthirsty footsoldiers.

    In the garden, the trees hang heavy with living victims, unwilling sacrifices, waiting to shed their life-blood onto the ancient and evil roots that feed The Old One–The First Vampire–The Bloodfather. Former gang boss Eddie Falco–no longer the man he once was — in fact, no longer a man at all — must lead his rag-tag army of reluctant heroes up against the might of their supernatural enemies. But can Eddie trust that when the chips are down, his uneasy alliance between Samual Kane and his Uptown Racketeers, the half-human/half-vampire Dragonmir brothers and Squeed, the alien with a powerful secret locked onboard his ship–will hold fast? Where will their loyalties lie in the final battle? It ain’t over ’til it’s over–pulse-pounding blood-thirsty action from start to finish! RETAILER WARNING: MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR ALL AGES THE WALKING DEAD #76 story ROBERT KIRKMAN art & cover CHARLIE ADLARD & CLIFF RATHBURN AUGUST 11 32 PAGES / BW $2.99 The conflict escalates. RETAILER WARNING: MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR ALL AGES WHATEVER HAPPENED TO BARON VON SHOCK? #4 story ROB ZOMBIE art & cover DONNY HADIWIDJAJA & VAL STAPLES AUGUST 25 32 PAGES / FC $3.99 — Sara has to make amends with an innocent man she sent to prison.

    Before young Sara Pezzini was called to bear the Witchblade she made a horrible mistake that destroyed a man’s life.

    Today that man is being released from prison and has to put the pieces of his life back together.

    In order to protect his family, this desperate father made a deal with demonic forces, and now it is time to pay.

    When Sara tries to reach out and make her past wrong right, she’s confronted by demonic forces.

    The stakes: a man’s very soul.

    Written by Phil Smith (Trinity: Blood on the Sands) with art by Alina Urusov (X-23, Young Avengers). 32pgs, FC $2.99 / one-shot WITCHBLADE #136—JG JONES WASHINGTON DC COMICON VARIANT COVER (W) Ron Marz (A) Stjepan Sejic (C) JG Jones Get this limited edition variant cover by master artist JG Jones (Wanted, Final Crisis), previously available exclusively at the Washington DC Comicon.

    Quantities are limited, allocations may occur. 32pgs, FC $10.00 / Convention Exclusive VELOCITY #4 (OF 4) (W) Ron Marz (A) Kenneth Rocafort (C) Kenneth Rocafort The Pilot Season Winner is Back! The clock counts down to zero as the taut, pulse pounding series races to its conclusion.

    Carin Taylor, the hero known as Velocity, has been infected with a deadly techno-virus.

    Thus far she has been successful in saving most of her teammates from the same virus, but now the exertion is taking its toil and the fastest girl in the world may not be able to win this race.

    The issue concludes the creative collaboration of writer Ron Marz (Witchblade, Angelus) and artist Kenneth Rocafort (Cyberforce/Hunter-Killer). 32pgs, FC $3.99 / limited series ANGELUS #3—STJEPAN SEJIC CALGARY EXPO VARIANT COVER (W) Ron Marz (A) Stjepan Sejic (C) Stjepan Sejic Get this limited edition sketch variant cover by series artist Stjepan Sejic, previously available exclusively at Calgary Comic & Entertainment Expo.

    Quantities are limited, allocations may occur. 32pgs, FC $10.00 / Convention Exclusive WITCHBLADE: REDEMPTION VOLUME 1 TP (W) Ron Marz (A) Stjepan Sejic (C) Stjepan Sejic Only $4.99 in Direct Market Stores! In the aftermath of “War of the Witchblades,” Sara Pezzini must reclaim the full mantle of the Witchblade and come to terms with her dark actions.

    In this first volume of the “Redemption” trade line, readers are reintroduced to Sara, boyfriend and partner, Patrick Gleason, and the strange, supernatural world of the Witchblade.

    Fans are also re-introduced to Aphrodite IV, the emerald haired cyborg assassin. This volume collects issues #131-135 by long time writer Ron Marz (Artifacts) and artistic partner Stjepan Sejic (Angelus) and is a perfect introductory volume for new readers.

    Also included in the volume is a cover gallery, behind the scenes sketches, designs, and more at a special introductory price point of $4.99 (only in comic shops)! SC, 7×10, 176pgs, FC $4.99 WIZARD ENTERTAINMENT — BOOM Kids! CARS: THE ADVENTURES OF TOW MATER #2 (W) Keith R.A.

    DeCandido (A) Travis Hill Bubba’s back, or at least he’s still here.

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    of Entrants = 1 Class 134 Half Draft Halter Class Mares/Geldings Place No

    Bridle Bijoux - Silver & Ruby of Entrants = 1 Class 134 Half Draft Halter Class Mares/Geldings Place No

    2012 L.A.

    County Fair International Draft Horse, Mule & Pleasure Driving Show Class 43.1 Open Grade Halter, Belgian – Geldings/Mares Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 148 Beulah Bay Jourdan McClure No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 94 Clydesdale Halter Geldings – All Ages Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 140 Tommy Grace Halpin 2nd 106 Belleau W.S.

    Raul (Rocky) Maria Batrez No.

    Of Entrants = 2 Class 95 Clydesdale Halter – Champion Gelding Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 140 Tommy Grace Halpin No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 96 Clydesdale Halter – Reserve Champion Gelding Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 106 Belleau W.S.

    Raul (Rocky) Maria Batrez No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 100 Shire Halter – Weanling Colts Place No.

    Horse Name 1st 117 Midnight Star’s Tally Horatio No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 114 Shire Halter – Yeld Mares (Open Mare) Four Years and Over Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name Owner Name 1st 228 Merseyside Aristocrat Maggie Mae Jessica Graves Stephen Graves No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 120 Shire Halter – Registered Geldings – 2 Years and Under Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 118 Midnight Star’s Easter Glory Brit McLin 2nd 131 Riverdale Travelling Salesman Antoinette De Paiva No.

    Of Entrants = 2 Handler Name Brit McLin Owner Name Brit & Sharon McLin Owner Name Maria Batrez Owner Name Janet Turgetto Owner Name Grace Halpin Maria Batrez Owner Name Grace Halpin Owner Name Brit & Sharon McLin Jennifer Cwagenberg page 8 2012 L.A.

    County Fair International Draft Horse, Mule & Pleasure Driving Show Class 121 Shire Halter – Registered Geldings – 3 Years and Over Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 198 Merseyside Cassanova Charlie Sally Griepsma No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 122 Shire Halter – Western Regional Champion Gelding Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 118 Midnight Star’s Easter Glory Brit McLin No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 123 Shire Halter – Western Regional Reserve Champion Gelding Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name Owner Name 1st 131 Riverdale Travelling Salesman Antoinette De Paiva Jennifer Cwagenberg No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 134 Half Draft Halter Class Mares/Geldings Place No.

    Horse Name Handler Name 1st 121 Big Bad Betsy Emma Cummings 2nd 137 Izabeulah Bay Janet Turgetto 3rd 143 Annie’s Got Guns August Decker-Curry 4th 122 Black Magic Sassy Caylynn Kennedy No.

    Of Entrants = 4 Owner Name Brit & Sharon McLin Owner Name Stephen Graves Owner Name Emma Cummings Paul Johnson Danielle Decker-Curry Caylynn Kennedy page 9 2012 L.A.

    County Fair International Draft Horse, Mule & Pleasure Driving Show Special Classes Class 127 Draft Horse Division – Tack Room Decorations Place 1st Arlin Wareing 2nd Maria Batrez 3rd Kirk Messenger Class 128 Pleasure Driving Horse and Pony Division – Tack Room Decorations Place 1st Pat Gesler 2nd Terri Griffin 3rd Patricia Demers Class 129 Friesian Division – Tack Room Decorations Place 1st Valerie Daidah 2nd Lora Walsh-Martin Class 130 Mule and Donkey Division – Tack Room Decorations Place 1st Sioux Munyon Ins. 2nd Kellie Shields 3rd Ladonne Hatley Class 131 Costume Class – Under Saddle / Bareback, Open to all Breeds Place No.

    Horse Name Rider Name Owner Name 1st 106 Belleau W.S.

    Raul (Rocky) Maria Batrez Maria Batrez 2nd 148 Beulah Bay Jourdan McClure Janet Turgetto 3rd 157 Golden Valley Sir Scottish Levi Becky Serrano Joe & Becky Serrano 4th 122 Black Magic Sassy Caylynn Kennedy Caylynn Kennedy 5th 143 Annie’s Got Guns Linda Lopez Danielle Decker-Curry No.

    Of Entrants = 5 Class 132 Costume Class – Driving, Open to all Breeds Place No.

    Horse Name Rider Name 1st 124 Clononeen Bree Alejandra Morales No.

    Of Entrants = 1 Class 133 Costume Class – In Hand, Open to all Breeds Place No.

    Horse Name Rider Name 1st 172 Bobby JoAnn Jackson 2nd 157 Golden Valley Sir Scottish Levi Becky Serrano 3rd 116 Aldorado MLF Christy Bakke No.

    Of Entrants = 3 page 10 Owner Name Linda Enger Owner Name Sioux Munyon Ins.

    Joe & Becky Serrano Christy Bakke 2012 L.A.

    County Fair International Draft Horse, Mule & Pleasure Driving Show Mules and Donkeys Judge: Chris Bugenig

    Read more about of Entrants = 1 Class 134 Half Draft Halter Class Mares/Geldings Place No:

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    Roaring : The laryngeal cartilages often can be compressed causing inspiratory noise….

    Horse Shoe Key Chain Horses-store.comRoaring : The laryngeal cartilages often can be compressed causing inspiratory noise….

    Unlike other consumer products that one might purchase, horses rarely come with a guarantee.

    Therefore, the buyer must make the best possible attempt to select an animal that is suitable and capable of performing a given function.

    The final determination, of course, is the price.

    The combination of function capability, suitability, and price enter into the ultimate decision of whether or not a prospective buyer should purchase a given animal.

    The purchase examination or prepurchase examination, done by a qualified veterinarian, is perhaps one of the best ways to help the prospective buyer determine serviceability.

    It is the veterinarian’s responsibility to look for physical and medical evidence to determine whether or not the horse will withstand a particular use for the prospective buyer.

    The term “purchase examination” implies a complete clinical examination that includes consideration of the pertinent medical history and environmental factors.

    All other terms that have been associated with this type of examination should be abandoned, for they are either incomplete or cause confusion about the type of examination that has been done.

    The role of the veterinarian is to find medical problems on the date of the exam, evaluating conformation defects in light of future problems that they may cause, as well as evaluating overall health.

    Even though the procedure is applicable to all classes of horses, the veterinarian involved should have a thorough knowledge of the class and use of the horse to be examined.

    Serviceability is not synonymous with soundness.

    Perfectly sound animals—those with no physical faults—are rarely found.

    A horse may have minor alterations from “perfection” and still be able to perform the given task.

    Whether these alterations are too numerous or severe to limit usefulness is the question to be answered.

    It is the veterinarian’s responsibility to note the existing problems and assist the buyer in determining which ones can be overlooked and which will limit present use or have potential to cause future problems.

    The future can often be accurately predicted, but not guaranteed.

    It is inadvisable to examine and determine the potential of an animal that is not on a regulated work schedule.

    The immature animal which is not in training must be given extended paddock exercise in order to completely evaluate the musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary systems.

    It is not the domain of the examining veterinarian to determine the presence of undesirable traits or vices.

    The disclosure of this information is dependent upon the integrity of the seller. An oral or written report is permissible, depending on the desires of both the veterinarian and the prospective buyer.

    However, it is imperative that the animal examined is completely identified.

    In addition, a record of all clinical findings, including radiographs (X-rays) if taken, must be maintained in the permanent office files of the examining veterinarian.

    It is important that each veterinarian develop a standardized basic procedure in the examination of the horse for purchase.

    More detailed diagnostic techniques are performed in the event of suspicious disease problems or on client request.

    In these cases, consultation with a specialist may be required.

    Before the examination is begun, any history of preventive medicine programs and previous medical problems is obtained.

    The horse’s markings and other means of identification are noted.

    Ideally, the horse has been worked by the prospective buyer before the examination so it is known that horse and rider are suited for each other.

    Findings should be recorded in the order noted so that the entire examination is not trusted to memory.

    The horse is viewed in its stall for evidence of abnormal stance or posture and temperament.

    The horse’s eyes are then examined with a direct ophthalmoscope.

    An indirect, aspheric viewing lens with a halogen-illuminated light source is excellent for a panoramic view of the ocular fundus (rear portion of the eye).

    Ophthalmic abnormalities are interpreted in terms of the horse’s intended use.

    The transilluminator of the ophthalmoscope is used to examine the nasolacrimal puncta and external ear canals.

    The mouth is rinsed and examined, manually and with the transilluminator, for dental disease, malocclusion, or other abnormalities of the oral cavity.

    With the horse still in the stall, the rectal temperature is measured and the respiratory rate and pattern noted.

    The heart is auscultated (monitored using a stethoscope) from both sides while palpating (feeling) the transverse facial or facial artery for irregularities of rate or rhythm.

    Occluding Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources • Oklahoma State University (blocking) the horse’s nostrils for at least 30 seconds often accentuates respiratory problems as indicated by subsequent coughing or dyspnea (difficult breathing).

    This also causes the horse to breathe deeply for thorough auscultation of the lungs.

    The trachea and larynx are auscultated carefully and the nasal sinuses percussed (tapping the area as an aid in diagnosing the condition of the underlying parts by the sound obtained).

    The horse is then taken to a well-lit, level, firm surface, and made to stand with its weight equally distributed on all four legs.

    The horse’s conformation, balance, and symmetry, from all views, are carefully evaluated, with faults predisposing to lameness or gait abnormalities noted.

    Next, the head is observed for symmetry, carriage, and coordination of movement, and any cranial nerve defects noted.

    The mandibular lymph nodes, parotid glands, and guttural pouch areas are palpated.

    The larynx is palpated for atrophy of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle or signs of previous surgery.

    The laryngeal cartilages often can be compressed, causing inspiratory noise in horses with laryngeal hemiplegia (roaring).

    The ventral neck muscles are palpated and the patency (the condition of being wide open) of both jugular veins determined.

    The cervical vertebrae are palpated, beginning at the poll.

    Symmetry of the wings of the atlas (first cervical vertebra) and the horse’s response to cervical vertebral palpation and manipulation are noted.

    Examination of the body begins on the left side with palpation of the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade), point of the shoulder, and muscles of the shoulder and chest.

    Working posteriorly on the topline, the withers, dorsal spinous processes of the vertebra, tuber sacrale, and point of the hip are palpated.

    The muscles of the back, loin, and croup are palpated and evidence of muscle guarding noted.

    The girth region and ventral abdomen are examined for midline dermatitis, absence of the umbilicus (navel), or signs of previous abdominal surgery.

    Several breeds of horses will not allow the exhibition of horses with altered tail function.

    An electromyogram may be necessary to prove normal tail function.

    Normal tail tone and function should be determined by manipulation and careful observation when the horse is worked.

    Evidence of coccygeal muscle atrophy (wasting away) and surgical or medical alteration of normal tail function should be noted; the gluteal and caudal thigh muscles are palpated and compared for symmetry.

    Unilateral muscle atrophy may indicate chronic rear-leg lameness.

    The external genitalia (reproductive organs) are also examined at this time.

    Examination of the body is then repeated on the right side.

    Next, each limb is inspected, beginning with palpation of the structures of the left forelimb.

    The digital pulse (pulse at the posterior fetlock) is taken before the sulci and the frog are cleaned and the sole pared, if necessary.

    The comparative size, balance, wear, and quality of each hoof are noted.

    A flat sole, atrophied frog, divergent growth rings, sheared heels, improper hoof-pastern angle, and dished cranial (dorsal) hoof wall may indicate previous or existing foot disease.

    The type of shoe, presence of pads, and shoe wear may also provide useful information.

    The pliability of the collateral cartilages of the coffin bone and presence of coffin joint effusion (excess fluid) are determined.

    The posterior pastern region is examined for neurectomy scars, painful neuromas, digital sheath effusion, thickening of the distal sesamoidean ligaments, and ringbone.

    Firm pressure applied to either side of the exten- sor tendon on the face of the fetlock may reveal villonodular lesions (proliferative nodules), extensor process fractures, or osselets (bony protrusions).

    Fetlock joint effusion, “windpuffs,” and annular ligament constriction are conditions commonly encountered.

    With the leg flexed at the carpus (knee), each sesamoid bone and its branch of the suspensory ligament is palpated for thickening, enlargement, or pain.

    Moving anteriorly (to the front), the suspensory ligament is palpated to its origin and the flexor tendons palpated for thickening, pain, and loss of separation along their lengths.

    While palpating the suspensory ligament, abnormal enlargements of the splint bones (short bone along each side of the cannon bone) are often encountered.

    With the limb still flexed, each splint bone should be palpated from its distal end (farthest point from attachment) to its proximal attachment.

    Pain on palpation of splint bone enlargements and degree of impingement on the suspensory ligament should be carefully considered.

    With the leg flexed, the carpal bones are palpated for thickening, or rents (tears) of the fibrous joint capsule and synovial effusion.

    The accessory carpal bone and carpal canal are also palpated.

    Proceeding from the carpus, the muscles of the forearm, distal radius, chestnut, and olecranon are inspected.

    After palpation of the forelimb, the range of motion and response to forced flexion or rotation of the digit, pastern, fetlock, and carpus are determined.

    The shoulder and elbow usually are not manipulated.

    Decreased range of motion and abnormal response to manipulation are noted and reevaluated when the horse is examined in motion.

    Examination of the hindlimb below the hock is similar to that of the forelimb.

    At the hock, effusion of the tarsal sheath, tibiotarsal joint, and tendon sheaths over the face of the hock are evaluated.

    The bony structures of the hock, point of the hock, and plantar ligament are palpated.

    The surgical sites for cunean tenotomy and lateral digital extensor tenotomy are examined.

    Proceeding to the stifle joint, the tibial crest, patellar ligaments, patella, and lateral trochlea of the femur are palpated.

    Horses with chronic upward fixation of the patella often resent palpation of the lateral trochlea of the femur and attempts to fix the patella.

    By this time, the horse’s temperament should be known.

    Most horses permit the examiner to stand behind them and palpate both stifle joints simultaneously, allowing comparison of synovial effusion and joint capsule thickening.

    The medial collateral ligament of the stifle should also be palpated.

    After the structures of the hindlimb are examined, the digit, pastern, fetlock, hock, and stifle are manipulated for range of motion and pain.

    When the body and legs have been examined, hoof testers can be applied to the feet.

    Occasionally, a seller may implicate the hoof testers as causing lameness.

    For this reason, examination with hoof testers is done after the horse has been observed at work.

    The next phase of the examination is to observe the horse in motion.

    Initially, the horse should be observed at a walk toward and away from the examiner.

    The length of stride, arc of the foot in flight, and how the foot lands should be related to conformation and suspected problems.

    The horse should be backed and turned in tight circles to detect subtle neurologic deficits.

    On a longe line, the horse is worked in both directions at a trot.

    Work is started in large circles that are gradually VTMD-9114-2 tightened.

    This provides the examiner a good opportunity to evaluate length of stride, fetlock over extension, toe stabbing or dragging, and other gait abnormalities.

    Timed flexion or other manipulative tests are performed after work on the longe line, with emphasis on areas with suspected problems.

    The response to forced flexion, rotation, or digital pressure varies greatly between individuals and must be considered carefully, along with the history and clinical findings.

    The horse is then watched at work under saddle.

    After a warm-up period, the horse is observed at a walk, trot, and canter.

    Trotting in a tight figure-8 pattern frequently reveals subtle lameness.

    Lead changes and length of stride can be evaluated at a canter. Though it is the trainer’s job to determine whether the horse’s disposition and athletic ability are suited to the rider and intended use, it is very informative to watch the horse perform as intended.

    Tail-wringing, ear-pinning, unwillingness to work in one direction, cross-cantering, failure to pick up leads or other inappropriate behavior often indicate problems.

    After the horse is worked hard, the larynx and heart are auscultated.

    Heart and respiratory rates are determined during recovery from exercise.

    Once the physical examination is completed, other diagnostic procedures may be done.

    Radiography is probably the most common ancillary (secondary or follow-up) procedure performed.

    Radiographs are not routinely obtained in the ab- The Horse External Features: (marked with letters) A.













    Croup Point of hip Loin Back Withers Poll Hock Stifle Cannon Elbow Chestnut Point of shoulder Pastern Skeletal Structure: (marked with numbers) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. VTMD9114-3

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    SECTION E – HORSES – Continued Wentworth Show Horse Committee Pre Show will be held on Sunday, 12th August, 2012 No fires to be lit on the show grounds except in the designated areas.

    See Secretary for more information.

    Horse Exhibitors are expected to rake up their horse area after use.

    Please remove all hay bands.



    Please make sure that you complete the correct indemnity forms, they must be the ones for the horse section.

    Copy of EA and/or Breed and Society Registrations are to accompany entries.

    Biosecurity record of attendance to be completed for every horse on the ground. 1. ENTRY FEE: Unless otherwise stated entry is $4.00 per class. Late Entry – additional Fee: $8.00 per event. 2. STABLING: To be confirmed with Chief Horse Steward.

    There are a limited number of Stables in the Stockman’s Memorial Shed that will be allocated to stallions only.

    These stables will be allocated at a cost of $25.00 per stallion to be paid to the secretary with entries. $15.00 will be refunded at the completion of the show if satisfactorily cleaned.

    No horse is to be put in this shed or the stables without prior sanction of the Stabling Marshall.

    Other stables $10.

    A limited number of standing “tie-in” stalls are available for horses at the show grounds at a fee of $5.00 per stall.

    Payment to be made with entries.

    Payment does not necessarily guarantee a stall and should be confirmed prior to the show.

    A list of stall holders will be displayed at Horse Shed.

    Preference will be given to long distance travelers.

    Any extenuating circumstances will be dealt with by the Marshall.

    Stalls should be left clean at the end of show.

    Failure to do this could incur loss of allocation at the next show.

    There is plenty of room to construct temporary stalls.

    These MUST be of solid construction as per EA ruling 2010. Please leave all areas clean and tidy.

    You are expected to rake your area after use. 3. All events will be conducted in accordance with the E.A Show Horse Handbook and Jumping rules and amendments, FEI, HRCAV, AMG, and PC International Mounted Games Rules 4. MEASURING: All horses must be measured.

    Proof of measurement must be supplied in the form of a current Wentworth Show Ag Society or in the form of a current height certificate from the RASV or EA.

    Measuring Certificate to be produced on demand.

    The measuring steward will be in attendance for measuring between 8.00 am and 9.00 am…

    Saturday and Sunday.

    Alternative times can be arranged with the measuring steward.

    Enquiries at the horse shed. NOTICE TO ALL HORSE EXHIBITORS 115 Peter Bezzina Farrier – Mobile Service Hot / Cold Shoeing or Hoof Trimming Clipping Boeill Creek Road Via Buronga MILDURA, VIC., 3500 Phone: 03 5023 3018 Mobile: 0417 346 343 Ω Available 7 Days Experienced Horse Handler Problem Horse Specialist Float Stubbornness Solved Agistment Facilities 116 SECTION E – HORSES – Continued 5. All STALLIONS and COLTS (2 years and over) must be bitted, led and/ or ridden by an adult over 18 years.

    Stallions permitted in stallion classes only unless otherwise stated.

    Guidelines developed by the E.A for the code of conduct for stallion owners will be followed.

    For a copy of these guidelines contact the secretary. 6. The Committee reserves the right to alter, cancel, change or combine classes without prior notice to competitors 7. The Wentworth Show Society will not be responsible for any accident that may be caused through or by an exhibit.

    It shall be the condition of entry that each exhibitor shall hold the society blameless or indemnified against any legal proceedings that may arise from such an accident. 8. THE JUDGES DECISION IS FINAL. 9. PROTESTS must be lodged in writing with the secretary within two (2) hours from the completion of the event in question.

    Protests in all cases must be accompanied by the deposit of $50.00.

    The deposit will be forfeited to the society should the protest be deemed frivolous.

    All protests will be heard by the Show Society Disputes Committee and the Chief Horse Steward. 10. The society reserves the right to exclude from competition any entry that behaves in an unruly or dangerous manner.

    They may be asked to be removed and no refund considered. 11. DRESS: All competitors must be correctly and suitably attired whilst in the arena.



    These are as follows AS/NZ38: 1998., EN 1384 European Standard ASTM F 1163.

    American Standard.

    Riders under 18 years are not permitted to wear top boots or gaiters in riding classes.

    Please note – Mounted riders to wear approved footwear only when on the grounds. 12. AGE OF RIDERS: Birth certificates may be need to be supplied for riders 18 years and under.

    Age is at the day of the show. (See Show jumping Section for age requirements.) 13. OVER MOUNTING of small ponies will not be tolerated.

    Riders of small ponies deemed by the Judge to be too tall or too heavy will not be permitted.

    The Judge’s decision will be final. 14. NOVICE: Not to have won at an Agricultural Show. 15. INTERMEDIATE: Not to have won a first, second or third prize competing singularly at any Australian Royal Show. 16. CHAMPION: Pony, Galloway and Hack to be Champion in one ring only Saturday.

    No refund on entry.

    Sunday classifies as a new show.

    All Champions eligible for Supremes. 17. PRIZES: First prize money only paid if there are 4 or more entries.

    No prize money if 3 entries or less.

    All prize money paid out in Harness Classes. 18. RANDOM SWABBING: May take place in accordance with the EA and dealt with accordingly by the Wentworth Show Society and the EA.

    Shows retain the right to test horses for prohibited substances. 19. DISTRICT EVENTS: 80km from Wentworth Post Office. 20. AMBULANCE: Ambulance available in emergency.

    Ring 000.

    First Aid Kit in Horse Shed available for Horse Competitors if required. 117 The Sunnyland Press is proud to support The Wentworth Show. providing print solutions 3 Scott Crescent Mildura P 03 5023 4199 F 03 5023 4299

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    TACK, ATTIRE AND SAFETY GUIDELINES **************************************** A QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE – PLEASE REFER TO COMPLETE RULES IN PNW574 – 4-H HORSE CONTEST GUIDE YAKIMA COUNTY 4-H EQUINE GUIDELINES PNW 587 – THE 4-H HORSE PROJECT 4-H 1311 – 4-H DRESSAGE PROJECT MANUAL 1 This manual includes a compilation of tack requirements, safety recommendations, attire requirements and other references regarding appropriate tack, clothing selection and adjustments from the following documents: Yakima County 4-H Equine Guidelines, PNW 574, PNW 587 and the 4-H Dressage Manual (4-H 1311). 4-H “Safe Equine Riding Boots” (Yakima County Equine Guidelines) A.

    Boot must fit flat in the stirrup with the ball of the foot on the flat of the iron or stirrup.


    Boot must be able to move freely in the stirrup and be able to slide out.


    Boot heel must have an adequate heel stop to prevent the forward movement of the boot through the stirrup. (Exposed toed shoes are NOT ALLOWED at any 4-H Equine event by anyone handling, or that may handle, equines.) The 4-H Equestrian Headgear Policy (PNW574, pg 6) A 4-H member participating in any 4-H equestrian activity, regardless of riding seat, WILL WEAR a properly fitted equestrian helmet which meets the minimum performance standards imposed by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) F1163 and includes certification and labeling required by the Safety Equipment Institute (SEI).

    Such headgear will be secured with the harness engaged and be properly fastened when mounted on an equine or in a vehicle (cart, wagon, buggy, etc.) being pulled by one or more equines.

    It is recommended that 4-H’ers wear their ASTM/SEI helmets any time they are around the horses.

    It is highly recommended that non 4-H members also wear an approved helmet.

    Exhibitor Numbers Numbers must be clearly visible on the rider’s back or may be on both sides of the saddle pad in performance (exhibitor is responsible for supplying the second number).

    An exhibitor’s hair must be worn in nets, braids, or other means to present a neat appearance and a clear view of the show number.

    Clothing and Equipment for Showing (PNW 574, Pg 5) Equipment must be safe, clean, properly adjusted and suitable for the class being shown.

    Members and attendants should be neat, clean and dressed with hard-soled shoes or boots, long-sleeved shirts and long pants.

    It is recommended that show clothes are clean and pressed.

    Boots are required for exhibitors in all classes.

    Boots are defined as high-topped (above the ankle), leather or leather-like riding shoes with adequate heels.

    An exhibitor’s hair must be worn in nets, braids, or other means to present a neat appearance and a clear view of the show number.

    Equipment must be safe, clean, properly adjusted (see PNW 587, pg 85-103 for more details), and suitable for the class in which you show.

    Members not meeting these standards may lose points or possibly be eliminated.

    Age of or cost of equipment is not considered, as long as it is safe equipment.

    Aged equipment needs checked for excess wear and cracks.

    Each member must have equipment for the specific classes entered.

    Refer to the appropriate divisions.

    Adjustments to tack and attire for valid medical reasons are permitted, provided show management is notified prior to the class.

    Bandages are allowed for medical reasons only and a letter signed by the horse’s veterinarian must be presented.

    State 4-H Fair Dress Code For any 4-H members who exhibit at the Washington State 4-H Fair, Puyallup, the following attire will be required for all western classes (fitting and showing, stock seat equitation, bareback equitation, trail, western games and driving): SHIRT – must be a long-sleeved, button or snap-down with turn-down or button-down collar and anon metallic in nature (no lamé).

    Embellishments are not allowed outside of stitching or piping along yoke or pocket.

    Stitching or piping cannot be of metallic thread or fabric.

    Shirts are to be 2 tucked in and the sleeves rolled down.

    The following embellishments are not allowed: sequins, beads, embroidery, crystals, rhinestones, studs, decorative pins, etc.

    BELT – (optional for western games) TIE – kerchief, necktie, bolo tie, scarf or bandana BOOTS – must fit flat in the stirrup with the ball of the foot on the flat of the iron or stirrup; must be able to move freely in the stirrup and be able to slide out.

    Boot heel must have an adequate heel stop to prevent the forward movement of the boot through the stirrup.

    HELMET – ASTM-SEI equestrian approved (refer to 4-H Horse Contest Guide for exact helmet/hat requirement for fitting and showing class).

    The following items are optional: GLOVES JACKET OR VESTS – with no embellishments (as stated above for shirts).

    They may be zip, button or snap-down.

    Jacket or vest may not take the place of the shirt requirement.

    The following items are not allowed: CHAPS PINS, BROOCHES, NECKLACES, ROSETTES OR NECKLIN EMBELLISDHMENTS (in addition to or in place of the required tie).


    Because hunt seat equitation, saddle seat equitation and equitation over fences class participants are already restricted to an acceptable code of dress, there are no other restrictions.

    Saddle seat equitation participants are reminded that if a saddle suit is worn, it must be of conservative colors.

    Halters and Leading (PNW 587, Pg 110) 1.

    Crown directly behind the ear. 2.

    Noseband halfway between eye and nostril 3.

    Chin strap – 1 – 1 1/2” below jaw 4.

    Throatlatch not snug but no looser than 1” When leading, you should walk ear-to-ear with the horse and about an arm’s length from the horse’s side.

    The horse should not lag behind you or surge in front of you.

    Look where you are going, not back at the horse or down at the ground.

    Hold the lead shank 8 to 18 inches from the halter with the excess lead shank folded in a figure eight.

    When leading from the near side, the lead is in your right hand and the excess in your left hand.

    When leading from the off-side, the lead is in your left hand and the excess in your right hand.

    Never coil the lead, and do not fasten it with a rubber band in a figure eight.

    The horse needs to move briskly beside you and travel in a straight line.

    If the horse rears up, release the hand nearest to the halter so you can stay on the ground and no have your shoulder or hand injured.

    Showmanship (PNW 574, pg 12) The horse may be shown with a safe, properly fitted halter or show bridle, each complete with a throatlatch.

    Bridles may be used when appropriate to breed and/or attire.

    If you show with a double bridle, you may use either the snaffle or curb reins for leading.

    The other set of reins is put over the neck near the withers.

    The halter and lead should be leather, rope or webbing.

    The lead should be 6 to 10 feet (about 2-3 m) long.

    Be sure the lead is long enough to allow picking up a hind foot. 3 If used properly, lead shanks with chains attached are permissible for safety or control.

    A chain approximately 15-24 inches is long enough.

    The chain may be run through the ring on the side of the halter or through the ring on the bottom, then over the nose or under the chin to the other side.

    With a very long chain, you may run the excess up the off cheek.

    If your chain is too long, it may be doubled back through the bottom ring and snapped back to itself.

    In all cases, the snap should face out.

    When leading your horse do not put your hand on the chain.

    Whips and/or bats are not allowed.

    Western Tack for Showmanship – Horses must be shown in a halter.

    Hunt Seat or Saddle Seat Tack for Showmanship – Horses may be shown in halter or show bridle when appropriate to breed and/or attire.

    Western Clothing & Equipment (PNW 587, pg 95-99, PNW 574, pgs 6-8) Western clothing and equipment is appropriate in western classes including, but not limited to, trail; stock seat; showmanship; ground training; western games; driving and bareback.

    Required: 1) Long-sleeved western shirt with collar; shirt tucked in; sleeves rolled down and buttoned. 2) Jeans, trousers or western pants. 3) Belt; unless loops are covered with another garment (except in western games). 4) Western boots (see “safe 4-H equine riding boots” section). 5) ASTM-SEI equestrian-approved helmet.

    Optional: 1) Vest, jacket, coat, sweater, and/or jacket with a collar. 2) Gloves 3) Ties, pins 4) Chaps in pleasure and trail only.

    Not Allowed: 1) Whips or riding crops except for Western Games and Driving. 2) Spurs are NOT allowed in Showmanship or Driving.

    Saddle and Pad Any standard Western saddle, with a horn, may be used, but must fit the rider and the horse.

    Any clean saddle pad, blanket or combination is allowed and should provide sufficient padding for horse and rider.

    Silver is not to be given preference by the judge.

    Tapaderos (stirrup covers) are not allowed.

    The cinch should be snug but still allow a flat hand to slip underneath.

    Check it several times; after saddling, before mounting, and after riding a short distance.

    Some horses expand their girth area when saddled and relax later.

    The back cinch, if used, should be snug enough to barely touch the horse’s body when it inhales, but not so loose that a back foot might catch in it.

    There must be a connecting strap between the front and back cinches.

    If back cinch is not used, it should be removed with all associated hardware.

    Always follow good safety practices.

    Clean any mud or dirt from the horses back and hearth girth, and brush down all the hair.

    Be sure the saddle blanket or pad and the cinch are clean. 4 For a western saddle with the rider mounted, allow about 2 inches of space between the withers and the top of the gullet of the saddle.

    A stock saddle should rest on the upper end of the shoulder blades to distribute the load and pressure correctly.

    Be sure the stirrup leathers can be shortened or lengthened enough to fit the rider.

    Stirrup length can be checked by having the rider seated in the saddle with feet hanging freely out of stirrups.

    The bottom of the stirrup should be at the ankle bone.

    When the stirrups have been adjusted correctly, it is required to attach stirrup keepers as a safety precaution.


    Stirrups should be wide enough to easily accommodate the width o f the rider’s boot, allowing the boot to freely move in and out of the stirrup.

    Bridle Any western bridle (including snaffles and bosals) that include a curb strap or curb chain may be used.

    This includes bridles with throatlatches and split-ear bridles.

    Throatlatches on all bridles are strongly recommended for safety purposes.

    Cavessons or nosebands are not allowed in performance.

    Refer to western games section for gaming bridle criteria.

    Curb Straps For western, snaffles must have a curb strap and it must be attached to the bit ring below the reins.

    All curb (shank) bits must have a curb strap.

    The curb strap or chinstrap must be at least ½ inch wide and lie flat against the horse’s jaw.

    It can be made of leather (not rolled) or flat chain.

    Bumpy chain links or narrow straps are too severe.

    The curb strap should not be snug with the shanks of the bit are in a normal position.

    There should be room to place two fingers under the strap without applying pressure.

    This may vary with the type of bit, but there should be contact with the chain/strap when the reins are used lightly.

    Check the bit position and the tightness of the chinstrap (two fingers between the horse and the chinstrap is a common measure of correctness).

    The throatlatch should have slack in it when the horse has its head in a normal position (use the same measurement of two fingers).

    Reins Split or romal reins are allowed; single piece or roping reins are allowed in western gaming only.

    Only one hand may be sued for reining when using any western bit with shanks.

    The rein hand cannot be changed, except during trail class.

    When romal reins are used, no finger between the reins is allowed.

    In these cases, the romal goes on the opposite side from the rein hand.

    The ends of the reins are usually held on the rider’s thigh with about 16 inches of rein between the two hands.

    When split reins are used with a curb, the rider may use a finger between the reins, but the bight of the reins must remain on the same side as the rein hand and the ends are not held.

    Ends must be a safe length (above the horse’s knee).

    Palm should be down.

    The position of the hand not used for reining is optional, but it should be kept free from the horse and saddle and held in a relaxed manner.

    Split reins when using a snaffle should be held by crossing the reins between hands so that both hands are holding both reins.

    The ends should hang down on the opposite sides of the horse with ends being a safe length (above the horse’s knee).

    When a bosal or snaffle bit is used, two hands must be used.

    Closed reins are allowed with a bosal. 5 To mount with romal reins, double the end in the left hand.

    After mounting, slide the bight under the rein hand to the opposite side.

    For a brief dismount, romal reins need not be taken down; the romal part may be looped behind the horn.

    When dismounting, both split reins, or the near rein only, may be taken down.

    Never let go of the reins, except in circumstances when injury may occur to equine or handler.

    Bit (PNW 587, pgs 88-89 and 97-98) Most types of western bits are acceptable.

    Mechanical hackamore, sidepulls, double wire snaffles, slip or gag bits are NOT allowed (see Western Games for specific exemptions to this rule).

    Overall bit length, as measured in the picture to the right, can be no longer than 8½ inches.

    Horses 5 years of age or younger may be ridden in a snaffle or bosal.

    For horses 6-years old or more, a curb bit is highly preferred.

    Therefore, members showing horses 6 or older in a snaffle or bosal for Western classes must have performance significantly better than a member showing a 6-year old or older horse in a curb bit to be placed above them.

    In Washington, such horses shall in ineligible to advance to state 4-H competitions.

    Mounting and Dismounting (PNW 587 pg 119) For both the safety of the rider and the comfort of the horse, it is important that mounting and dismounting be done correctly.

    Never mount in a barn, near a fence or under trees or overhangs.

    First, check the cinch and tighten it if necessary.

    Stand on the near side and balance the horse on all four feet.

    Turn slightly toward the horse’s tail or face the horse, but keep an eye on the horses’ eyes and ears to be ready for any movement.

    Facing forward when mounting is unwise as the horse can easily step off and leave the rider off balance or in a position to be kicked.

    Adjust the reins evenly in your left hand with just enough contact to keep the horse from moving ahead.

    Place this hand on the neck in front of the withers; grasp a lock of mane or the neck.

    Put your left foot in the stirrup; push the toe of your booth against the cinch, not the horse’s side, so you do not poke the horse with your toe.

    Brace your left knee against the saddle and grasp the saddle horn with your right hand.

    Your left leg and two hands form a triangle of support.

    Spring up from your right foot with the left as a lever.

    Try not to hop up and down or pull with the arms.

    Hopping might startle the horse and pulling may turn the saddle.

    Keep your body as upright as possible as your right leg clears the horse’s rump.

    Your left le and right hand support you enough to let you sit down lightly and smoothly.

    Adjust the reins and slip your right foot into the right stirrup immediately.

    Do not permit the horse to turn or move away until you are seated and ask the horse to move.

    Dismounting is exactly the reverse of mounting, except that to avoid getting hung up in the stirrup, your left foot first slides backward in the stirrup to clear it easily as your right leg hits the ground.

    For the same reason, shorter riders may swing the right leg over, lean across the saddle, slip the left foot out of the stirrup entirely, push back and slide or jump lightly down.

    Optional Tack and Equipment (PNW 574, pg 8) Hobbles, a lariat or riata, and breast collars are optional.

    Spurs if worn, must be used properly.

    If spurs are worn, they must be the proper type for the seat that is being ridden (Western or English).

    Tiedowns, martingales, draw reins, nosebands, splint boots, bell boots, bandages, etc., are NOT allowed, except in Western Games.

    Splint boots, bell boots and other protective gear may be allowed in medal, green horse, or other county classes. 6 Hunt Seat and Equitation over Fences Clothing and Equipment (PNW 754, pg 9, PNW 587, pgs 100-103) Hunt Seat or dressage equipment and clothing may be used appropriately in showmanship, driving, hunt seat equitation, equitation over fences, trail, ground training, dressage and bareback.

    Required: 1.

    Ratcatcher, long-sleeved tailored shirt, or a turtleneck (shirts tucked in and closed at the neck). 2.

    Hunt coat if short-sleeved ratcatcher is worn. 3.

    Pants, breeches or jodhpurs. 4.

    Tall hunt boots or jodhpur boots. 5.

    ASTM/SEI equestrian approved helmet. Optional: 1.

    Hunt coat (conservative colors). 2.

    Spurs – if used, must be English type and used appropriately. 3.

    Half-chaps. 4.

    Breast collars 5.

    Martingales and protective boots are ONLY allowed in Equitation over Fences (not allowed in flat classes). 6.

    Flash and Figure 8 nosebands are NOT allowed in flat classes except Dressage.

    Dropped, Flash and Figure 8 nosebands ARE allowed in Equitation over Fences and Dressage. 7.

    Whips or crops may no longer than 36” for hunt seat. 8.

    Gloves (traditional colors).

    Not Allowed: 1.

    Spurs are NOT allowed in showmanship or driving.

    Saddle Type of English saddle used is optional; however, a saddle seat type English saddle or a Western saddle is prohibited.

    Stirrup safety bars must be down in equitation over fences.

    Saddling Inspect all tack for wear and proper fit before saddling and bridling.

    Make sure that all stitching is secure and that the equipment and horse are clean of caked mud, sweat and dirt.

    Run up the stirrups before placing the saddle on the horse’s back to keep them from swinging.

    Push them up the stirrup leathers so they lay against the saddle and the stirrup bars.

    To keep them from slipping down, fold the end of the stirrup leathers through the irons and make a knot.

    Place the girth over the seat of the saddle.

    Working from the horse’s left side, gently place the saddle on the horse’s back, slightly ahead of the withers.

    Slide the saddle back into the proper position, allowing the horse’s back hair to lie down smoothly.

    Be sure the girth doesn’t fall off the saddle and startle the horse.

    Move to the off side and gently drop the girth down so it does not startle or spook the horse.

    Return to the near side and face the front of the horse.

    Reach under the horse’s belly and grasp the girth, bringing it slowly up onto the horse.

    Lift the skirt and fasten the billets to the girth buckles.

    Be sure to use adjacent billets.

    Tighten enough to keep the saddle on and be sure to check before mounting and after riding a short distance.

    Keep the stirrups run up until mounting.

    Bridle and Bit (PN 587, pg 101) An English bridle with cavesson is required.

    A snaffle, Pelham, kimberwick, full double bridle for Dressage or Saddle Seat, or any other English-type bit appropriate for the seat may be used.

    Double twisted wire and gag bits are not allowed.

    Bit converters are not allowed in Washington.

    Fasten the throatlatch enough to allow a three-finger distance between the strap and the horse’s neck.

    The 7 cavesson should lie underneath the cheek pieces and should be adjusted to allow one or two fingers between the cavesson and the horse’s jawbone.

    Dropped, flash and figure 8 nosebands are permitted in Washington for dressage and equitation over fences, but not for other English flat classes.

    If you use a curb chain or strap, it must lie flat and not be twisted.

    If you are using a double bridle, fasten the curb chain making sure it fits between the curb bit and the bridoon.

    The Weymouth fits just below the snaffle.

    Hunt Seat Equitation over Fences (PNW 574, pg 16) A horse should be at least 5-years old before going over jumps.

    Before taking any jumps, including the warm-up jump, a safety inspection should be done.

    The inspection will include, but is not limited to: making sure the stirrup bars are open, stitching on stress point of saddle is in good repair, girth is snug, bridle is properly fitted and in good repair.

    Jump height is not to exceed 3 feet.

    A supervised warm up jump must be available prior to the class.

    This warm up should be limited to one jump, preferably not a jump on the course or inside the arena or pattern area.

    The number of times a competitor can practice over the one warm up jump is to be specified by the local show committee.

    Specific to Dressage (see 4-H Dressage Manual, 4-H 1311) An English bridle made entirely of leather or leather-like material (except for buckles) is mandatory.

    At lower levels, an English snaffle bit is required; pelham, kimberwick or full bridle is NOT allowed in lower level dressage.

    For appropriate bits for upper level, refer to USA Equestrian Dressage rules.

    See the 4-H Dressage Manual, 4-H 1311, for types of acceptable bits.

    The mouthpiece of any bit must be metal or rigid plastic and may be covered with rubber.

    Flexible rubber bits are not permitted.

    Whips or crops may be not longer than 48” for dressage.

    In dressage, rowels must be free to rotate.

    Strictly forbidden, under penalty of elimination, are: martingales, bit guards, accessories (specifically bearing, side, running or balancing reins, etc), any type of boots (including “easy boots”), bandages, any form of blinkers, ear muffs or plugs, nose covers, seat covers and hoods.

    Saddle Seat Clothing and Equipment (PNW 574, pg 10, PNW 587 pg 104) Saddle seat equipment and clothing may be used appropriately in: showmanship, trail, ground training, bareback and driving.

    Required: 1.

    A long-sleeved tailored shirt, or short-sleeved shirt if wearing a coat. 2.

    Tie. 3.

    Jodhpur boots (short). 4.

    An ASTM-SEI equestrian-approved helmet. 5.

    Pants or Kentucky jodhpurs.

    Optional: 1.

    Saddle suit may be worn, but must be of conservative colors and will not be given preference by the judge. 2.

    Spurs, if used, must be English type and used in mounted classes only. 3.

    Whip no longer than 48” including lash. 4.

    Gloves, a four-in-hand tie, and a flower in the lapel are traditional, but not required.

    Saddle A saddle-seat type saddle is required (flat or cutback type designed especially for horses with an upright head carriage).

    Dressage, hunt type, all purpose and Western saddles are prohibited.

    Breast collars are optional. 8 Bridle and Bit(s) A full double bridle (curb and bridoon), pelham or breed appropriate bit is required.

    Martingales and tiedowns are prohibited.

    See PNW 587 pg 104 for more information.

    Western Games Riders required to wear safe 4-H boots and helmets. (See page 1) 4-H Western Games require the humane treatment of all animals entered in state and county competitions. 4-H exhibitors are expected to treat their animals with respect and provide for their continuous well-being through proper feeding, handling, disease prevention, sanitation and attention to the animal’s safety. 4-H officials should be prepared to dismiss 4-H exhibitors who abuse and mistreat their animals.

    The 4-H members must be wearing his/her exhibitor number on his/her back or both sides of the horse at all times while mounted.

    Horsemanship, sportsmanship and safety will be stressed in all Western Gaming classes.

    Exhibitors may be asked to submit to a close inspection.

    The purpose of the close inspection is to demonstrate an exhibitor’s ability to handle and control the horse in a safe manner.

    The close inspection will also provide the show management an opportunity to examine the tack and equipment being used by the 4-H member.

    Exhibitors failing the close inspection will not be allowed to make their scheduled run in that event.

    Safety of the exhibitor, horse and volunteers is the most important aspect of the program.

    Contestants may ride only once in each event (exception: re-rides).

    Riders may hold on to the saddle horn.

    Two hands may be used on the reins and hands maybe changed.

    The following general rules apply to all gaming events: Clothing and Tack Standard 4-H western clothing, including ASTM/SEI helmet and safe 4-H equine riding boots, is required.

    Belts, ties and pins are optional.

    A western saddle with a saddle horn is required.

    Westerntype equipment is to be used with the following exceptions: bridle must have a throat latch, running martingales with rein stops, martingales, tie-downs used with breast collar, nosebands, draw reins, splint boots, bell boots, bandages, mechanical hackamores and gagbits are permitted; whips under 36”, bats, quirts, crops and over-and-unders are allowed.

    Reins must be one piece (not knotted).

    Split reins are not allowed.

    Riders will be disqualified if the judge considers equipment inhumane or dangerous, or if equipment breaks and rider is unable to safely continue without repairs.

    Bats, spurs and over-andunders will be open to inspection by the judges.

    Spurs, if worn, must be western spurs and used properly.

    Should these properties be found to be abusive by nature (such as pronged, weighted or cutting), they shall be banned from use.

    Now warning will be required.

    Arena Safety  During the running of any event, all arena gates must be closed.  Contestants must enter the arena mounted in a controlled manner, and may leave the arena after judge’s final acknowledgement.

    After judge’s acknowledgement, exhibitor may dismount, reins off the neck for safety and exit.  It is recommended that only one horse be in the arena at one time.  Only contestants, ring crew and officials are allowed in the arena.  Horses may not be tied to arena fences, rails or any other hazardous place.  Horses that constitute a safety hazard may be disqualified.  In all events the ring crew resets downed equipment or repairs lines after a rider has completed the course.  Enter the arena without assistance from anyone other than a 4-H member who is also mounted.  Raking will be done as needed, but must be consistent within each age division.

    Penalties and General Disqualifications (See PNW 574, Horse Contest Guide, Pgs 31-36) 9 Reinsmanship – Equine Driving (PNW 574, pg 22) Appointments 1.

    Gentleman Driver.

    Sport coat and slacks, suit (western cut acceptable), or riding attire. 2.

    Lady Driver.

    Sport jacket, slacks, skirt, dress (not formal or semi-formal), pant suit or riding attire.

    Apron or lap rug required with street-length dress. 3.


    Traditional horse show attire or approximately knee-length duster.

    No apron, lap robe or whip.

    Vehicle A single animal hitched to an appropriate two-or four-wheeled vehicle is allowed that has a foot rest or basket, minimum of 10-inches front to back, securely fastened. (Racing sulkies or roadster bikes are prohibited.) Shafts should be equipped with trace carriers and single tree or trace hooks.

    Harness Recommend light harness (kay collar or breast collar), color and type suitable to vehicle.

    Required: 1.

    Cavesson or noseband. 2.

    Type of bit is optional according to the type of vehicle and/or breed of equine (for example: snaffle, Liverpool, elbow, buxton). 3.

    Whip Required.

    The driving whip must be long enough so the lash can reach the animal’s shoulder.

    The whip is held in the right hand at a 45-degree angle to the horse and the ground, at the most comfortable balance.

    The whip is only a method of communication.

    At o time should it interfere with another driver.

    A person who is unable to carry a whip may obtain special permission from show management.

    Optional: 1.

    Check rein (over or side), running martingale, and breeching (required on heavier vehicles).

    Prohibited: 1.

    Thimbles and trotting boots.

    Fallen Rider Procedures Recommended 4-H procedures on how to handle a fallen rider:  Contact parent/guardian  Contact in-house medical personnel  We are required to have at least one first aid trained person on grounds. 10 Excerpts from The 4-H Horse Project Ethics and Etiquette The dictionary defines ethics as “the study of human conduct, with emphasis on the determination of right and wrong.” Ethics are concerned with voluntary actions: that is, the things you choose to do.

    The decisions you make regarding your horse and showing events affect how others view you and reflect on your club, your county and the 4-H Program as a whole.

    Be sure the decisions you make are ethical ones.

    To help determine whether what you are doing is ethical, ask yourself the following questions:  Will I need to lie about this?  Does this harm the horse?  Is this against any rule?  If someone were watching me, would I not do this?  Does this misrepresent me or the horse?  Would I be unhappy if someone did this to me? If the answer to any of these questions is “yes”, don’t do it.

    It is not ethical.

    To maintain your integrity, and that of the 4-H Horse Program, follow these guidelines: 1,

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