The 4-H Horse Project The Horse 11 stands 14 to 15 hands high.
They usually have a heavy head, low withers, a wide chest, short back, and straight shoulders.
They can be any color.
The large herds of Mustangs that once roamed the West were reduced drastically in the early 1900s as ranchers shot them to leave more grazing for cattle.
The Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act, passed by Congress in 1971, now protects these animals.
The “Adopt-A-Horse” program began in 1973 as a way to control the growing population.
Individuals can adopt a captured Mustang for a fee, and after 1 year of demonstrating proper care, the horse becomes legally theirs.
Mustangs require an experienced handler, but they are strong, sure-footed, have remarkable endurance, and are highly intelligent. Norwegian Fjord The Norwegian Fjord is one of the the world’s oldest breeds.
It is believed that the original Fjord horse migrated to Norway and was domesticated over 4,000 years ago.
The gentle disposition of the Fjord horse is its most outstanding quality.
They are hardy, long-lived, agile, surefooted, and willing.
They learn fast and have an amazing ability to retain what they learn, even after long periods of inactivity.
Their cool temperament and graceful, balanced gaits, both under saddle and in harness, make them the ideal family horse.
Approximately 90 percent of all Fjord horses are dun in color.
The other 10 percent are red dun, gray, white, or yellow dun.
The Fjord retains the “wild” dun color of the original horse as well as the primitive markings which include zebra stripes on the legs and a dorsal stripe that runs from the forelock down the neck and back and into the tail.
The center hair of the mane is dark (usually black) while the outer hair is white.
The mane is cut short so it will stand erect, and trimmed to emphasize the graceful curve of the neck.
The head is medium-size and well-defined with a broad, flat forehead and a straight or slightly dished face.
The eyes are large.
Ears are small and alert.
The neck of the Fjord is wellmuscled and crested.
The body is short-coupled with good depth, large heart girth, and well-developed muscles.
The legs are powerful, with substantial bone and excellent feet which are black in color.
Fjords generally range in size from 13-2 to 14-2 hands and weigh from 900 to 1,200 pounds at maturity. norwegian fjord.
Photo courtesy Robert M.
Envick Friesian The Friesian is one of the oldest domesticated European breeds.
It comes from the province of Friesland in northern Netherlands, where it was a popular war horse during the Middle Ages.
It is used for light agricultural work, in harness, and in circuses.
It is an excellent trotting horse and, together with the Hackney, has contributed to the development of all competitive trotting horses.
Today, the Friesian is often used as a dressage horse.
Its appearance and high action make it noticeable in the show ring.
Friesians are always black with only a white star allowed.
Their manes and tails are very long, often reaching to the ground.
They have a compact build with a short, low-set neck that is carried vertically.
They stand approximately 15 hands high and have feathering on the lower leg. 12 The Horse The 4-H Horse Project Hackney The Hackney originated in Great Britain.
It is a spirited harness horse, known for its high-stepping trot and far-reaching action.
Hackneys have small heads, long muscular necks, low withers, long quarters, slender legs, and tucked-up abdomens.
Their tails are high-set and often are cropped.
They can be bay, brown, black, or chestnut, and frequently have white head and leg markings.
Hackney ponies look just like the horses except for their size: if the animal is 14-2 hands or under, it is registered as a Hackney pony. — The Horse The 4-H Horse Project Colors C olors and Markings Dun—To be in the family of dun horses, the color must be buckskin, dun, red dun, or grulla (grew-ya).
Following are descriptions of these colors.
Points on a dun horse refers to mane, tail, legs, and ear frames. Buckskin.
The body coat is some shade of tan, from very light (creme) to very dark (bronze).
Points are black or dark brown.
A dorsal stripe is not required. Dun.
The body coat is some shade of tan, from very light (creme) to a dull or smutty brown (earth tone).
Points, dorsal stripe, and other dun factor markings (see below) are dirty black or smutty brown.
A dorsal stripe is required. Red Dun.
The body coat is a reddish tan without the range of shade seen in the other colors.
Mane and tail are red or reddish brown, cream, or mixed.
Points and dun factor markings are a reddish brown and must show a contrast with the body coat.
A dorsal stripe is required. Grulla.
The body coat is slate color (bluish gray like the blue heron) from light blue gray to a brownish shade.
Points and dun factor markings are black.
A dorsal stripe is required.
Dun factor markings Dun horses exhibit some or all of primitive markings known as dun factors.
These include dark ear frames, frosted forelock, cobwebbing under forelock, face masking, mottled or striped neck, frosted mane, shoulder stripe and rib barring, shoulder mottling, dorsal stripe, leg barring and mottling, and frosted tail.
Consult the ABHRA for details. The five basic coat colors of horses are: Bay—Mixture of red and tan.
It includes many shades, from a light tan (light bay) to a dark, rich shade that is almost brown (dark bay).
A bay horse has black points (mane, tail, and lower portion of the legs).
Black—Completely black, including the muzzle and flanks.
Fine tan or brown hairs indicate the horse is not a true black but a seal brown.
Brown—Almost black but has fine tan or brown hairs on the muzzle or flanks.
Chestnut (sorrel)—Basically red, from a light yellow (light chestnut) to a dark liver color (dark chestnut).
Between these come the brilliant red-gold and copper shades.
The mane and tail are usually the same color as the body.
If they are light, they are called flaxen.
White—Horse is born white and remains white throughout life.
Has pink skin and brown eyes (rarely blue).
Five major variations to these coat colors are: Gray—Mixture of white and black hairs on black skin.
They may appear black at birth, but lighten with age.
Grays are often dappled.
Dapples are small spots of a lighter or darker color.
Palomino—Golden color with white, silver, or ivory manes and tails.
Pinto—May be any of the coat colors, but it has irregular colored and white areas.
Two color patterns are recognized: tobiano and overo. The tobiano’s head is usually marked like a solid color horse with a blaze, star, etc.
All four legs are white, spots are regular and distinct, and there is usually dark color in the flank area.
It may be predominantly white or colored. The overo usually has at least one dark leg, a bald face, a one-color tail, and a calico (splashy) coat pattern with no white crossing the back.
It, too, may be mainly white or colored.
Roan—Mixture of white hairs with one or more base colors.
White with bay is red roan, white with chestnut is strawberry roan, and white with black is blue roan. M arki ngs White markings on the horse’s head and/ or legs are a good way to identify individual animals.
Descriptions of markings are used on registration papers and veterinary documents.
Therefore, it is important to use proper terminology when describing markings. The 4-H Horse Project The Horse 15 The five basic head markings Star— Any white mark on the forehead above a line drawn from eye to eye
Read more about Dorsal Stripe : The Fjord retains the wild dun color of the original….: