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Sanctimony, n.

Etym. [L. sanctimonia, fr. sanctus holy: cf.

OF. sanctimonie.

See Saint.] Def.: Holiness; devoutness; scrupulous austerity; sanctity; especially, outward or artificial saintliness; assumed or pretended holiness; hypocritical devoutness. Her pretense is a pilgrimage; . . .

Which holy undertaking with most austere sanctimony she accomplished. Shak. Sanction, n.

Etym. [L. sanctio, from sancire, samctum to render sacred or inviolable, to fix unalternably: cf.

F. sanction.

See Saint.] 1. Def.: Solemn or ceremonious ratification; an official act of a superior by which he ratifies and gives validity to the act of some other person or body; establishment or furtherance of anything by authority to it; confirmation; approbation. The strictest professors of reason have added the sanction of their testimony. I.

Watts. 2. Def.: Anything done or said to enforce the will, law, or authority of another; as, legal sanctions. Syn. — Ratification; authorization; authoruty; countenance; support. Sanction, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sanctioned; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sanctioning.] Def.: To give sanction to; to ratify; to confirm; to approve. Would have counseled, or even sanctioned, such perilous experiments. De Quincey. Syn. — To ratify; confirm; authorize; countenance. Sanctionary, a.

Def.: Of, pertaining to, or giving, sanction. Sanctitude, a.

Etym. [L. sanctitudo.] Def.: Holiness; sacredness; sanctity. [R.] milton. Sanctity, n.; pl. Sanctities .

Etym. [L. sanctitas, from sanctus holy.

See Saint.] 1. Def.: The state or quality of being sacred or holy; holiness; saintliness; moral purity; godliness. To sanctity she made no pretense, and, indeed, narrowly escaped the imputation of irreligion. Macaulay. 2. Def.: Sacredness; solemnity; inviolability; religious binding force; as, the sanctity of an oath. 3. Def.: A saint or holy being. [R.] About him all the sanctities of heaven. Milton. Syn. — Holiness; godliness; piety; devotion; goodness; purity; religiousness;sacredness; solemnity.

See the Note under Religion. Sanctuarize, v.


Def.: To shelter by means of a sanctuary or sacred privileges. [Obs.] Shak. Sanctuary, n.; pl. Sanctuaries .

Etym. [OE. seintuare, OF. saintuaire, F. sanctuaire, fr.

L. sanctuarium, from sanctus sacred, holy.

See Saint.] Def.: A sacred place; a consecrated spot; a holy and inviolable site.

Hence, specifically: (a) Def.: The most retired part of the temple at Jerusalem, called the ‘Holy of Holies’, in which was kept the ark of the covenant, and into which no person was permitted to enter except the high priest, and he only once a year, to intercede for the people; also, the most sacred part of the tabernacle; also, the temple at Jerusalem. (b) (Arch.) Def.: The most sacred part of any religious building, esp.

That part of a Christian church in which the altar is placed. (c) Def.: A house consecrated to the worship of God; a place where divine service is performed; a church, temple, or other place of worship. (d) Def.: A sacred and inviolable asylum; a place of refuge and protection; shelter; refuge; protection. These laws, whoever made them, bestowed on temples the privelege of sanctuary. Milton. These admirable works of painting were made fuel for the fire; but some relics of it took sanctuary under ground, and escaped the common destiny. Dryden. <-- Wildlife sanctuary

, a tract of land set aside by law for the preservation of wildlife, in which no hunting is permitted. –> Sanctum, n.

Etym. [L., p.p.

Of sanctire to consecrate.] Def.: A sacred place; hence, a place of retreat; a room reserved for personal use; as, an editor’s sanctum.
\’d8Sanctum sanctorum

Etym. [L.] , the Holy of Holies; the most holy place, as in the Jewish temple. Sanctus, n.

Etym. [L. sanctus, p.p.

Of sancire.] 1. (Eccl.) Def.: A part of the Mass, or, in Protestant churches, a part of the communion service, of which the first words in Latin are ‘Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus’ [Holy, holy, holy]; — called also Tersanctus. 2. (Mus.) Def.: An anthem composed for these words.
Sanctus bell

, a small bell usually suspended in a bell cot at the apex of the nave roof, over the chancel arch, in medioeval churches, but a hand bell is now often used; — so called because rung at the singing of the ‘sanctus’, at the conclusion of the ordinary of the Mass, and again at the elevation of the host.

Called also Mass bell, sacring bell, saints’ bell, sance-bell, sancte bell. Sand, n.

Etym. [AS. sand; akin to D. zand, G. sand, OHG. sant, Icel. sandr, Dan. & Sw. sand, Gr. 1. Def.: Fine particles of stone, esp.

Of siliceous stone, but not reduced to dust; comminuted stone in the form of loose grains, which are not coherent when wet. That finer matter, called sand, is no other than very small pebbles. Woodsward. 2. Def.: A single particle of such stone. [R.] Shak. 3. Def.: The sand in the hourglass; hence, a moment or interval of time; the term or extent of one’s life. The sands are numbered that make up my life. Shak. 4. pl. Def.: Tracts of land consisting of sand, like the deserts of Arabia and Africa; also, extensive tracts of sand exposed by the ebb of the tide. \’bdThe Libyan ‘sands’.\’b8 Milton. \’bdThe ‘sands’ o’Dee.\’b8 C.

Kingsley. 5. Def.: Courage; pluck; grit. [Slang]
Sand badger

(Zool.), the Japanese badger (Meles ankuma).
Sand bag

(a) A bag filled with sand or earth, used for various purposes, as in fortification, for ballast, etc. (b) A long bag filled with sand, used as a club by assassins.
Sand ball

, soap mixed with sand, made into a ball for use at the toilet.
Sand bath

. (a) (Chem.) A vessel of hot sand in a laboratory, in which vessels that are to be heated are partially immersed. (b) A bath in which the body is immersed in hot sand.
Sand bed

, a thick layer of sand, whether deposited naturally or artificially; specifically, a thick layer of sand into which molten metal is run in casting, or from a reducing furnace.
Sand birds

(Zool.), a collective name for numerous species of limicoline birds, such as the sandpipers, plovers, tattlers, and many others; — called also shore birds.
Sand blast

, a process of engraving and cutting glass and other hard substances by driving sand against them by a steam jet or otherwise; also, the apparatus used in the process.
Sand box

. (a) A box with a perforated top or cover, for sprinkling paper with sand. (b) A box carried on locomotives, from which sand runs on the rails in front of the driving wheel, to prevent slipping.
Sand-box tree

(Bot.), a tropical American tree (Hura crepitans).

Its fruit is a depressed many-celled woody capsule which, when completely dry, bursts with a loud report and scatters the seeds.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Regma. —
Sand bug

(Zool.), an American anomuran crustacean (Hippa talpoidea) which burrows in sandy seabeaches.

It is often used as bait by fishermen.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Anomura. —
Sand canal

(Zool.), a tubular vessel having a calcareous coating, and connecting the oral ambulacral ring with the madreporic tubercle.

It appears to be excretory in function. —
Sand cock

(Zool.), the redshank. [Prov.

Eng.] —
Sand collar

. (Zool.) Same as Sand saucer, below.
Sand crab

. (Zool.) (a) The lady crab. (b) A land crab, or ocypodian.
Sand crack

(Far.), a crack extending downward from the coronet, in the wall of a horse’s hoof, which often causes lameness.
Sand cricket

(Zool.), any one of several species of large terrestrial crickets of the genus Stenophelmatus and allied genera, native of the sandy plains of the Western United States.
Sand cusk

(Zool.), any ophidiod fish.

See Illust.

Under Ophidiod. —
Sand dab

(Zool.), a small American flounder (Limanda ferruginea); — called also rusty dab.

The name is also applied locally to other allied species. —
Sand darter

(Zool.), a small etheostomoid fish of the Ohio valley (Ammocrypta pellucida).
Sand dollar

(Zool.), any one of several species of small flat circular sea urchins, which live on sandy bottoms, especially ‘Echinarachnius parma’ of the American coast.
Sand drift

, drifting sand; also, a mound or bank of drifted sand.
Sand eel

. (Zool.) (a) A lant, or launce. (b) A slender Pacific Ocean fish of the genus Gonorhynchus, having barbels about the mouth.
Sand flag

, sandstone which splits up into flagstones.
Sand flea

. (Zool.) (a) Any species of flea which inhabits, or breeds in, sandy places, especially the common dog flea. (b) the chigoe. (c) Any leaping amphipod crustacean; a beach flea, or orchestian.

See Beach flea, under Beach. —
Sand flood

, a vast body of sand borne along by the wind. James Bruce.
Sand fluke

. (Zool.) (a) The sandnecker. (b) The European smooth dab (Pleuronectes microcephalus); — called also kitt, marysole, smear dab, town dab.
Sand fly

(Zool.), any one of several species of small dipterous flies of the genus Simulium, abounding on sandy shores, especially Simulium nocivum of the United States.

They are very troublesome on account of their biting habits.

Called also no-see-um, punky, and midge. —
Sand gall

(Geol.) See Sand pipe, below.
Sand grass

(Bot.), any species of grass which grows in sand; especially, a tufted grass (Triplasis purpurea) with numerous bearded joints, and acid awl-shaped leaves, growing on the Atlantic coast. <-- p. 1274 --> —
Sand grouse

(Zool.), any one of many species of Old World birds belonging to the suborder Pterocletes, and resembling both grouse and pigeons.

Called also rock grouse, rock pigeon, and ganga.

They mostly belong to the genus Pterocles, as the common Indian species (P.


The large sand grouse (P.

Arenarius), the painted sand grouse (P.

Fasciatus), and the pintail sand grouse (P.

Alchata) are also found in India.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Pterocletes. —
Sand hill

, a hill of sand; a dune.
Sand-hill crane

(Zool.), the American brown crane (Grus Mexicana).
Sand hopper

(Zool.), a beach flea; an orchestian.
Sand hornet

(Zool.), a sand wasp.
Sand lark

. (Zool.) (a) A small lark (Alaudala raytal), native of India. (b) A small sandpiper, or plover, as the ringneck, the sanderling, and the common European sandpiper. (c) The Australian red-capped dotterel (Aegialophilus ruficapillus); — called also red-necked plover.
Sand launce

(Zool.), a lant, or launce.
Sand lizard

(Zool.), a common European lizard (Lacerta agilis).
Sand martin

(Zool.), the bank swallow.
Sand mole

(Zool.), the coast rat.
Sand monitor

(Zool.), a large Egyptian lizard (Monitor arenarius) which inhabits dry localities.
Sand mouse

(Zool.), the dunlin. [Prov.

Eng.] —
Sand myrtle

. (Bot.) See under Myrtle.
Sand partridge

(Zool.), either of two small Asiatic partridges of the genus Ammoperdix.

The wings are long and the tarsus is spurless.

One species (A.

Heeji) inhabits Palestine and Arabia.

The other species (A.

Bonhami), inhabiting Central Asia, is called also seesee partridge, and teehoo. —
Sand picture

, a picture made by putting sand of different colors on an adhesive surface.
Sand pike

. (Zool.) (a) The sauger. (b) The lizard fish.
Sand pillar

, a sand storm which takes the form of a whirling pillar in its progress in desert tracts like those of the Sahara and Mongolia.
Sand pipe

(Geol.), a tubular cavity, from a few inches to several feet in dept, occurring especially in calcareous rocks, and often filled with gravel, sand, etc.; — called also sand gall.
Sand pride

(Zool.), a small british lamprey now considered to be the young of larger species; — called also sand prey.
Sand pump

, in artesian well boring, a long, slender bucket with a valve at the bottom for raising sand from the well.
Sand rat

(Zool.), the pocket gopher.
Sand rock

, a rock made of cemented sand.
Sand runner

(Zool.), the turnstone.
Sand saucer

(Zool.), the mass of egg capsules, or oothecoe, of any mollusk of the genus Natica and allied genera.

It has the shape of a bottomless saucer, and is coated with fine sand; — called also sand collar. —
Sand screw

(Zool.), an amphipod crustacean (Lepidactylis arenarius), which burrows in the sandy seabeaches of Europe and America.
Sand shark

(Zool.), an American shark (Odontaspis littoralis) found on the sandy coasts of the Eastern United States; — called also gray shark, and dogfish shark.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Remora. —
Sand skink

(Zool.), any one of several species of Old World lizards belonging to the genus Seps; as, the ocellated sand skink (Seps ocellatus) of Southern Europe.
Sand skipper

(Zool.), a beach flea, or orchestian.
Sand smelt

(Zool.), a silverside.
Sand snake

. (Zool.) (a) Any one of several species of harmless burrowing snakes of the genus Eryx, native of Southern Europe, Africa, and Asia, especially E.

Jaculus of India and E.

Johnii, used by snake charmers. (b) Any innocuous South African snake of the genus Psammophis, especially P.

Sibilans. —
Sand snipe

(Zool.), the sandpiper.
Sand star

(Zool.), an ophiurioid starfish living on sandy sea bottoms; a brittle star.
Sand storm

, a cloud of sand driven violently by the wind.
Sand sucker

, the sandnecker.
Sand swallow

(Zool.), the bank swallow.

See under Bank. —
Sand tube

, a tube made of sand.

Especially: (a) Def.: A tube of vitrified sand, produced by a stroke of lightning; a fulgurite. (b) (Zool.) Def.: Any tube made of cemented sand. (c) (Zool.Def.: ) In starfishes, a tube having calcareous particles in its wall, which connects the oral water tube with the madreporic plate. —
Sand viper

. (Zool.) See Hognose snake.
Sand wasp

(Zool.), any one of numerous species of hymenopterous insects belonging to the families Pompilidoe and Spheridoe, which dig burrows in sand.

The female provisions the nest with insects or spiders which she paralyzes by stinging, and which serve as food for her young. Sand, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sanded; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sanding.] 1. Def.: To sprinkle or cover with sand. 2. Def.: To drive upon the sand. [Obs.] Burton. 3. Def.: To bury (oysters) beneath drifting sand or mud. 4. Def.: To mix with sand for purposes of fraud; as, to sand sugar. [Colloq.] <-- 5.

To grind down or make smooth by rubbing with an abrasive object, esp.

With sandpaper; to sand down –> Sandal, n.

Def.: Same as Sendal. Sails of silk and ropes of sandal. Longfellow. Sandal, n.

Def.: Sandalwood. \’bdFans of ‘sandal’.\’b8 Tennyson. Sandal, n.

Etym. [F. sandale, L. sandalium, Gr. Of sandal.] (a) Def.: A kind of shoe consisting of a sole strapped to the foot; a protection for the foot, covering its lower surface, but not its upper. (b) Def.: A kind of slipper. (c) Def.: An overshoe with parallel openings across the instep. Sandaled, a. 1. Def.: Wearing sandals. The measured footfalls of his sandaled feet. Longfellow. 2. Def.: Made like a sandal. Sandaliform, a.

Etym. [Sandal + -form.] (Bot.) Def.: Shaped like a sandal or slipper. Sandalwood, n.

Etym. [F. sandal, santal, fr.

Ar. , or Gr. santalon; both ultimately fr.

Skr. candana.

Cf. Sanders.] (Bot.) (a) Def.: The highly perfumed yellowish heartwood of an East Indian and Polynesian tree (Santalum album), and of several other trees of the same genus, as the Hawaiian Santalum Freycinetianum and S.

Pyrularium, the Australian S.

Latifolium, etc.

The name is extended to several other kinds of fragrant wood. (b) Def.: Any tree of the genus Santalum, or a tree which yields sandalwood. (c) Def.: The red wood of a kind of buckthorn, used in Russia for dyeing leather (Rhamnus Dahuricus).
False sandalwood

, the fragrant wood of several trees not of the genus Santalum, as Ximenia Americana, Myoporum tenuifolium of Tahiti.
Red sandalwood

, a heavy, dark red dyewood, being the heartwood of two leguminous trees of India (Pterocarpus santalinus, and Adenanthera pavonina); — called also red sanderswood, sanders or saunders, and rubywood. { Sandarach, Sandarac }, (, n.

Etym. [L. sandaraca, Gr. 1. (Min.) Def.: Realgar; red sulphide of arsenic. [Archaic] 2. (Bot.

Chem.) Def.: A white or yellow resin obtained from a Barbary tree (Callitris quadrivalvis or Thuya articulata), and pulverized for pounce; — probably so called from a resemblance to the mineral. Sandbagger, n.

Def.: An assaulter whose weapon is a sand bag.

See Sand bag, under Sand. Sand-blind, a.

Etym. [For sam blind half blind; AS. s\’bem- half (akin to semi-) + blind.] Def.: Having defective sight; dim-sighted; purblind. Shak. Sanded, a. 1. Def.: Covered or sprinkled with sand; sandy; barren. Thomson. 2. Def.: Marked with small spots; variegated with spots; speckled; of a sandy color, as a hound. Shak. 3. Def.: Short-sighted. [Prov.

Eng.] Sandemanian, n. (Eccl.

Hist.) Def.: A follower of Robert ‘Sandeman’, a Scotch sectary of the eighteenth century.

See Glassite. Sandemanianism, n.

Def.: The faith or system of the Sandemanians. A.

Fuller. Sanderling, n.

Etym. [Sand + 0ling.

So called because it obtains its food by searching the moist sands of the seashore.] (Zool.) Def.: A small gray and brown sandpiper (Calidris arenaria) very common on sandy beaches in America, Europe, and Asia.

Called also curwillet, sand lark, stint, and ruddy plover. — Scarp, n.

Etym. [OF. escharpe.

See 2d Scarf.] (Her.) Def.: A band in the same position as the bend sinister, but only half as broad as the latter. Scarp, n.

Etym. [Aphetic form of Escarp.] 1. (Fort.) Def.: The slope of the ditch nearest the parapet; the escarp. 2. Def.: A steep descent or declivity. Scarp, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Scarped; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scarping.] Def.: To cut down perpendicularly, or nearly so; as, to scarp the face of a ditch or a rock. From scarped cliff and quarried stone. Tennyson. Sweep ruins from the scarped mountain. Emerson. Scarring, n.

Def.: A scar; a mark. We find upon the limestone rocks the scarrings of the ancient glacier which brought the bowlder here. Tyndall. Scarry, a.

Def.: Bearing scars or marks of wounds. Scarry, a.

Etym. [See 4th Scar.] Def.: Like a scar, or rocky eminence; containing scars. Holinshed. \’d8Scarus, n.

Etym. [L.

See Scar a kind of fish.] (Zool.) Def.: A Mediterranean food fish (Sparisoma scarus) od excellent quality and highly valued by the Romans; — called also parrot fish. Scary, n.

Etym. [Prov.

E. scare scraggy.] Def.: Barren land having only a thin coat of grass. [Prov.

Eng.] Scary, a.

Etym. [From Scare.] 1. Def.: Subject to sudden alarm. [Colloq.U.S.] Whittier. 2. Def.: Causing fright; alarming. [Colloq.U.S.] Scasely, adv.

Def.: Scarcely; hardly. [Obs.

Or Colloq.] Robynson (More’s Utopia) Scat, interj.

Def.: Go away; begone; away; — chiefly used in driving off a cat. { Scat, Scatt }, n.

Etym. [Icel. scattr.] Def.: Tribute. [R.] \’bdSeizing ‘scatt’ and treasure.\’b8 Longfellow. Scat, n.

Def.: A shower of rain. [Prov.

Eng.] Wright. Scatch, n.

Etym. [F. escache.] Def.: A kind of bit for the bridle of a horse; — called also scatchmouth. Bailey. Scatches, n.; pl.

Etym. [OF. eschaces, F. échasses, fr.

D. schaats a high-heeled shoe, a skate.

See Skate, for the foot.] Def.: Stilts. [Prov.

Eng.] Scate, n.

Def.: See Skate, for the foot. Scatebrous, a.

Etym. [L. scatebra a gushing up of water, from scatere to bubble, gush.] Def.: Abounding with springs. [Obs.] Scath (?; 277), n.

Etym. [Icel. ska\’ebi; akin to Dan. skade, Sw. skada, AS. scea\’eba, sca\’eba, foe, injurer, OS. ska\’ebo, D. schade, schaden; cf.

Gr. Cf. Scathe, v.] Def.: Harm; damage; injury; hurt; waste; misfortune. [Written also scathe.] But she was somedeal deaf, and that was skathe. Chaucer. Great mercy, sure, for to enlarge a thrall, Whose freedom shall thee turn to greatest scath. Spenser. Wherein Rome hath done you any scath, Let him make treble satisfaction. Shak. { Scathe (?; 277), Scath (?) }, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Scathed; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scathing.] Etym. [Icel. ska\’eba; akin to AS. scea\’eban, sce\’eb\’eban, Dan. skade, Sw. skada, D. & G. schaden, OHG. scad\’d3n, Goth. ska\’edjan.] Def.: To do harm to; to injure; to damage; to waste; to destroy. As when heaven’s fire Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. Milton. Strokes of calamity that scathe and scorch the soul. W.

Irwing. Scathful, a.

Def.: Harmful; doing damage; pernicious. Shak.Scathfulness, n. Scathless, a.

Def.: Unharmed. R.


Stevenson. He, too, . . .

Is to be dismissed scathless. Sir W.

Scott. Scathly, a.

Def.: Injurious; scathful. [Obs.] Scatter, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Scattered (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scattering.] Etym. [OE. scateren.

See Shatter.] 1. Def.: To strew about; to sprinkle around; to throw down loosely; to deposit or place here and there, esp.

In an open or sparse order. And some are scattered all the floor about. Chaucer. Why should my muse enlarge on Libyan swains, Their scattered cottages, and ample plains? Dryden. Teach the glad hours to scatter, as they fly, Soft quiet, gentle love, and endless joy. Prior. 2. Def.: To cause to separate in different directions; to reduce from a close or compact to a loose or broken order; to dissipate; to disperse. Scatter and disperse the giddy Goths. Shak. 3. Def.: Hence, to frustrate, disappoint, and overthrow; as, to scatter hopes, plans, or the like. Syn. — To disperse; dissipate; spread; strew. Scatter, v.


Def.: To be dispersed or dissipated; to disperse or separate; as, clouds scatter after a storm. — Scree, n.

Def.: A pebble; a stone; also, a heap of stones or rocky débris. [Prov.

Eng.] Southey. Screech, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Screeched (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Screeching.] Etym. [Also formerly, scritch, OE. skriken, skrichen, schriken, of Scand.

Origin; cf.

Icel. skr to shriek, to screech, skr to titter, Sw. skrika to shriek, Dan. skrige; also Gael. sgreach, sgreuch, W. ysgrechio, Skr. kharj to creak.

Cf. Shriek, v., Scream, v.] Def.: To utter a harsh, shrill cry; to make a sharp outcry, as in terror or acute pain; to scream; to shriek. \’bdThe screech owl, ‘screeching’ loud.\’b8 Shak. Screech, n.

Def.: A harsh, shrill cry, as of one in acute pain or in fright; a shriek; a scream.
Screech bird

, Screech thrush

(Zool.), the fieldfare; — so called from its harsh cry before rain.
Screech rain

Screech hawk

(Zool.), the European goatsucker; — so called from its note. [Prov.

Eng.] —
Screech owl

. (Zool.) (a) A small American owl (Scops asio), either gray or reddish in color. (b) The European barn owl.

The name is applied also to other species. Screechers, n.

Pl. (Zool.) Def.: The picarian birds, as distinguished from the singing birds. Screechy, a.

Def.: Like a screech; shrill and harsh. Screed, n.

Etym. [Prov.

E., a shred, the border of a cap.

See Shred.] 1. (Arch.) (a) Def.: A strip of plaster of the thickness proposed for the coat, applied to the wall at intervals of four or five feet, as a guide. (b) Def.: A wooden straightedge used to lay across the plaster screed, as a limit for the thickness of the coat. 2. Def.: A fragment; a portion; a shred. [Scot.] Screed, n.

Etym. [See 1st Screed.

For sense 2 cf.

Also Gael. sgread an outcry.] 1. Def.: A breach or rent; a breaking forth into a loud, shrill sound; as, martial screeds. 2. Def.: An harangue; a long tirade on any subject. The old carl gae them a screed of doctrine; ye might have heard him a mile down the wind. Sir W.

Scott. Screen, n.

Etym. [OE. scren, OF. escrein, escran, F. écran, of uncertain origin; cf.

G. schirm a screen, OHG. scrim, scern a protection, shield, or G. schragen a trestle, a stack of wood, or G. schranne a railing.] 1. Def.: Anything that separates or cuts off inconvience, injury, or danger; that which shelters or conceals from view; a shield or protection; as, a fire screen. Your leavy screens throw down. Shak. Some ambitious men seem as screens to princes in matters of danger and envy. Bacon. 2. (Arch.) Def.: A dwarf wall or partition carried up to a certain height for separation and protection, as in a church, to separate the aisle from the choir, or the like. 3. Def.: A surface, as that afforded by a curtain, sheet, wall, etc., upon which an image, as a picture, is thrown by a magic lantern, solar microscope, etc. 4. Def.: A long, coarse riddle or sieve, sometimes a revolving perforated cylinder, used to separate the coarser from the finer parts, as of coal, sand, gravel, and the like. <-- 5.

A netting, usu.

Of metal, contained in a frame, used mostly in windows or doors to allow in fresh air while excluding insects.

Screen door, a door of which half or more is composed of a screen.

Screen window, a screen fitted for insertion into a window frame. 6.

The surface of an electronic device, as a television set or computer monitor, on which a visible image is formed.

The screen is frequently the surface of a cathode-ray tube containing phosphors excited by the electron beam, but other methods for causing an image to appear on the screen are also used, as in flat-panel displays. 7.

The motion-picture industry; motion pictures.

A star of stage and screen. –> Screen, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Screened (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Screening.] 1. Def.: To provide with a shelter or means of concealment; to separate or cut off from inconvience, injury, or danger; to shelter; to protect; to protect by hiding; to conceal; as, fruits screened from cold winds by a forest or hill. They were encouraged and screened by some who were in high comands. Macaulay. 2. Def.: To pass, as coal, gravel, ashes, etc., through a screen in order to separate the coarse from the fine, or the worthless from the valuable; to sift. <-- 3.

To examine a group of objects methodically, to separate them into groups or to select one or more for some purpose.

As — (a), To inspect the qualifications of candidates for a job, to select one or more to be hired. (b) (Biochem., Med) To test a large number of samples, in order to find those having specific desirable properties; as, to screen plant extracts for anticancer agents. –> Screenings, n.


Def.: The refuse left after screening sand, coal, ashes, etc. Screw, n.

Etym. [OE. scrue, OF. escroue, escroe, female screw, F. écrou, L. scrobis a ditch, trench, in LL., the hole made by swine in rooting; cf.

D. schroef a screw, G. schraube, Icel. skr.] 1. Def.: A cylinder, or a cylindrical perforation, having a continuous rib, called the ‘thread’, winding round it spirally at a constant inclination, so as to leave a continuous spiral groove, between one turn and the next, — used chiefly for producing, when revolved, motion or pressure in the direction of its axis, by the sliding of the threads of the cylinder in the grooves between the threads of the perforation adapted to it, the former being distinguished as the ‘external’, or ‘male screw’, or, more usually the ‘screw’; the latter as the ‘internal’, or ‘female screw’, or, more usually, the ‘nut’. 2. Def.: Specifically, a kind of nail with a spiral thread and a head with a nick to receive the end of the screw-driver.

Screws are much used to hold together pieces of wood or to fasten something; — called also wood screws, and screw nails.

See also Screw bolt, below. 3. Def.: Anything shaped or acting like a screw; esp., a form of wheel for propelling steam vessels.

It is placed at the stern, and furnished with blades having helicoidal surfaces to act against the water in the manner of a screw.

See Screw propeller, below. 4. Def.: A steam vesel propelled by a screw instead of wheels; a screw steamer; a propeller. 5. Def.: An extortioner; a sharp bargainer; a skinflint; a niggard. Thackeray. 6. Def.: An instructor who examines with great or unnecessary severity; also, a searching or strict examination of a student by an instructor. [Cant, American Colleges] 7. Def.: A small packet of tobacco. [Slang] Mayhew. 8. Def.: An unsound or worn-out horse, useful as a hack, and commonly of good appearance. Ld.

Lytton. 9. (Math.) Def.: A straight line in space with which a definite linear magnitude termed the ‘pitch’ is associated (cf. 5th Pitch, 10 (b)).

It is used to express the displacement of a rigid body, which may always be made to consist of a rotation about an axis combined with a translation parallel to that axis. 10. (Zool.) Def.: An amphipod crustacean; as, the skeleton screw (Caprella).

See Sand screw, under Sand.
Archimedes screw

Compound screw

Foot screw

, etc. See under Archimedes, Compound, Foot, etc.
A screw loose

, something out of order, so that work is not done smoothly; as, there is a screw loose somewhere. H.

Martineau. —

, perpetual screw

, a screw used to give motion to a toothed wheel by the action of its threads between the teeth of the wheel; — called also a worm.
Lag screw

. See under Lag.
Micrometer screw

, a screw with fine threads, used for the measurement of very small spaces.
Right and left screw

, a screw having threads upon the opposite ends which wind in opposite directions.
Screw alley

. See Shaft alley, under Shaft.
Screw bean

. (Bot.) (a) The curious spirally coiled pod of a leguminous tree (Prosopis pubescens) growing from Texas to California.

It is used for fodder, and ground into meal by the Indians. (b) The tree itself.

Its heavy hard wood is used for fuel, for fencing, and for railroad ties. —
Screw bolt

, a bolt having a screw thread on its shank, in distinction from a ‘key bolt’.

See 1st Bolt, 3. —
Screw box

, a device, resembling a die, for cutting the thread on a wooden screw.
Screw dock

. See under Dock.
Screw engine

, a marine engine for driving a screw propeller.
Screw gear

. See Spiral gear, under Spiral.
Screw jack

. Same as Jackscrew.
Screw key

, a wrench for turming a screw or nut; a spanner wrench.
Screw machine

. (a) One of a series of machines employed in the manufacture of wood screws. (b) A machine tool resembling a lathe, having a number of cutting tools that can be caused to act on the work successively, for making screws and other turned pieces from metal rods.
Screw pine

(Bot.), any plant of the endogenous genus Pandanus, of which there are about fifty species, natives of tropical lands from Africa to Polynesia; — named from the spiral arrangement of the pineapple-like leaves.
Screw plate

, a device for cutting threads on small screws, consisting of a thin steel plate having a series of perforations with internal screws forming dies.
Screw press

, a press in which pressure is exerted by means of a screw.
Screw propeller

, a screw or spiral bladed wheel, used in the propulsion of steam vessels; also, a steam vessel propelled by a screw.
Screw shell

(Zool.), a long, slender, spiral gastropod shell, especially of the genus Turritella and allied genera.

See Turritella. —
Screw steamer

, a steamship propelled by a screw.
Screw thread

, the spiral which forms a screw.
Screw stone

(Paleon.), the fossil stem of an encrinite.
Screw tree

(Bot.), any plant of the genus Helicteres, consisting of about thirty species of tropical shrubs, with simple leaves and spirally twisted, five-celled capsules; — also called twisted-horn, and twisty.
Screw valve

, a stop valve which is opened or closed by a screw.
Screw worm

(Zool.), the larva of an American fly (Compsomyia macellaria), allied to the blowflies, which sometimes deposits its eggs in the nostrils, or about wounds, in man and other animals, with fatal results.
Screw wrench

. (a) A wrench for turning a screw. (b) A wrench with an adjustable jaw that is moved by a screw.
To put the screw,

on, to use pressure upon, as for the purpose of extortion; to coerce.
To put under the screw


, to subject to presure; to force.
Wood screw

, a metal screw with a sharp thread of coarse pitch, adapted to holding fast in wood.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Wood screw, under Wood. Screw, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Screwed (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Screwing.] 1. Def.: To turn, as a screw; to apply a screw to; to press, fasten, or make firm, by means of a screw or screws; as, to screw a lock on a door; to screw a press. 2. Def.: To force; to squeeze; to press, as by screws. But screw your courage to the sticking place, And we’ll not fail. Shak. 3. Def.: Hence: To practice extortion upon; to oppress by unreasonable or extortionate exactions. Our country landlords, by unmeasureable screwing and racking their tenants, have already reduced the miserable people to a worse condition than the peasants in France. swift. 4. Def.: To twist; to distort; as, to screw his visage. He screwed his face into a hardened smile. Dryden. 5. Def.: To examine rigidly, as a student; to subject to a severe examination. [Cant, American Colleges]
To screw out

, to press out; to extort.
To screw up

, to force; to bring by violent pressure. Howell.<-- (b) to damage by unskillful effort; to bungle; to botch; to mess up. (c) [intrans] to fail by unskillful effort, usu.

Causing unpleasant consequences. –> —
To screw in

, to force in by turning or twisting. <-- Screw around, (a) to act aimlessly or unproductively. (b) screw around with, to operate or make changes on (a machine or device) without expert knowledge; to fiddle with. [Colloq.] (c) commit adultery; to be sexually promiscuous. --> Screw, v.

I. 1. Def.: To use violent mans in making exactions; to be oppressive or exacting. Howitt. 2. Def.: To turn one’s self uneasily with a twisting motion; as, he screws about in his chair. <-- Screwball, n. 1.

An eccentric or crazy person; an oddball. 2.

A baseball pitch that curves in the direction opposite to that of a curve ball.


Eccentric; zany; crazy. –> Screw-cutting, a.

Def.: Adapted for forming a screw by cutting; as, a screw-cutting lathe. Screw-driver, n.

Def.: A tool for turning screws so as to drive them into their place.

It has a thin end which enters the nick in the head of the screw. Screwer, n.

Def.: One who, or that which, screws. Screwing, Def.: a. & n.

From Screw, v.

Screwing machine

. See Screw machine, under Screw. Scribable, a.

Etym. [See Scribe.] Def.: Capable of being written, or of being written upon. [R.] Scribatious, a.

Etym. [See Scribe.] Def.: Skillful in, or fond of, writing. [Obs.] Barrow. Scribbet, n.

Def.: A painter’s pencil. Scribble, v.


Etym. [Cf. Scrabble.] (Woolen Manuf.) Def.: To card coarsely; to run through the scribling machine. Scribble, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Scribbled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scribling.] Etym. [From Scrible.] 1. Def.: To write hastily or carelessly, without regard to correctness or elegance; as, to scribble a letter. 2. Def.: To fill or cover with careless or worthless writing. Scribble, v.


Def.: To write without care, elegance, or value; to scrawl. If Moevius scribble in Apollo’s spite. Pope. Scribble, n.

Def.: Hasty or careless writing; a writing of little value; a scrawl; as, a hasty scribble. Boyle. Neither did I but vacant seasons spend In this my scribble. Bunyan. Scribblement, n.

Def.: A scribble. [R.] oster. Scribbler, n.

Def.: One who scribles; a literary hack. The scribbler, pinched with hunger, writes to dine. Granville. — Scrutinous, a.

Def.: Closely examining, or inquiring; careful; sctrict. — Scrutinously, adv. Scrutiny, n.

Etym. [L. scrutinium, fr. scrutari to search carefuly, originally, to search even to the rags, fr. scruta trash, trumpery; perhaps akin to E. shred: cf.

AS. scrudnian to make scrutiny.] 1. Def.: Close examination; minute inspection; critical observation. They that have designed exactness and deep scrutiny have taken some one part of nature. Sir M.

Hale. Thenceforth I thought thee worth my nearer view And narrower scrutiny. Milton. 2. (Anc.

Church) Def.: An examination of catechumens, in the last week of Lent, who were to receive baptism on Easter Day. 3. (Canon Law) Def.: A ticket, or little paper billet, on which a vote is written. 4. (Parliamentary Practice) Def.: An examination by a committee of the votes given at an election, for the purpose of correcting the poll. Brande & C. Scrutiny, v.


Def.: To scrutinize. [Obs.] Scrutoire, n.

Etym. [OF. escritoire.

See Escritoire.] Def.: A escritoire; a writing desk. Scruze, v.


Etym. [Cf. Excruciate.] Def.: To squeeze, compress, crush, or bruise. [Obs.

Or Low] Spenser. Scry, v.


Def.: To descry. [Obs.] Spenser. Scry, n.

Etym. [From Scry, v.] Def.: A flock of wild fowl. Scry, n.

Etym. [OE. ascrie, fr. ascrien to cry out, fr.

OF. escrier, F. s’écrier.

See Ex-, and Cry.] Def.: A cry or shout. [Obs.] Ld.

Berners. Scud, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Scudded; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scudding.] Etym. [Dan. skyde to shoot, shove, push, akin to skud shot, gunshot, a shoot, young bough, and to E. shoot. See Shoot.] 1. Def.: To move swiftly; especially, to move as if driven forward by something. The first nautilus that scudded upon the glassy surface of warm primeval oceans. I.

Taylor. The wind was high; the vast white clouds scudded over the blue heaven. Beaconsfield. 2. (Naut.) Def.: To be driven swiftly, or to run, before a gale, with little or no sail spread. Scud, v.


Def.: To pass over quickly. [R.] Shenstone. Scud, n. 1. Def.: The act of scudding; a driving along; a rushing with precipitation. 2. Def.: Loose, vapory clouds driven swiftly by the wind. Borne on the scud of the sea. Longfellow. The scud was flying fast above us, throwing a veil over the moon. Sir S.

Baker. 3. Def.: A slight, sudden shower. [Prov.

Eng.] Wright. 4. (Zool.) Def.: A small flight of larks, or other birds, less than a flock. [Prov.

Eng.] 5. (Zool.) Def.: Any swimming amphipod crustacean.
Storm scud

. See the Note under Cloud. Scuddle, v.


Etym. [Freq.

Of scud: cf. Scuttle to hurry.] Def.: To run hastily; to hurry; to scuttle. \’d8Scudo, n.; pl. Scudi .

Etym. [It., a crown, a dollar, a shield, fr.

L. scutum a shield.

Cf. Scute.] (Com.) (a) Def.: A silver coin, and money of account, used in Italy and Sicily, varying in value, in different parts, but worth about 4 shillings sterling, or about 96 cents; also, a gold coin worth about the same. (b) Def.: A gold coin of Rome, worth 64 shillings 11 pence sterling, or about $ 15.70. Scuff, n.

Etym. [Cf.

D. schoft shoulder, Goth. skuft hair of the head.

Cf. Scruff.] Def.: The back part of the neck; the scruff. [Prov.

Eng.] Ld.

Lytton. Scuff, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Scuffed; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scuffing.] Etym. [See Scuffle.] Def.: To walk without lifting the feet; to proceed with a scraping or dragging movement; to shuffle. Scuffle, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Scuffled (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Scuffling (?).] Etym. [Freq.

Of scuff, v.i.; cf.

Sw. skuffa to push, shove, skuff a push, Dan. skuffe a drawer, a shovel, and E. shuffle, shove.

See Shove, and cf. Shuffle.] 1. Def.: To strive or struggle with a close grapple; to wrestle in a rough fashion. 2. Def.: Hence, to strive or contend tumultuously; to struggle confusedly or at haphazard. A gallant man had rather fight to great disadvantage in the field, in an orderly way, than scuffle with an undisciplined rabble. Eikon Basilike. Scuffle, n. 1. Def.: A rough, haphazard struggle, or trial of strength; a disorderly wrestling at close quarters. 2. Def.: Hence, a confused contest; a tumultuous struggle for superiority; a fight. The dog leaps upon the serpent, and tears it to pieces; but in the scuffle the cradle happened to be overturned. L’Estrange. 3. Def.: A child’s pinafore or bib. [Prov.

Eng.] 4. Def.: A garden hoe. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. Scuffler, n. 1. Def.: One who scuffles. 2. Def.: An agricultural implement resembling a scarifier, but usually lighter. Scug, v.


Etym. [Cf.

Dan. skugge to darken, a shade, SW. skugga to shade, a shade, Icel. skuggja to shade, skuggi a shade.] Def.: To hide. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. Scug, n.

Def.: A place of shelter; the declivity of a hill. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. { Sculk, Sculker (?) }.

Def.: See Skulk, Skulker. Scull, n. (Anat.) Def.: The skull. [Obs.] Scull, n.

Etym. [See 1st School.] Def.: A shoal of fish. Milton. Scull, n.

Etym. [Of uncertain origin; cf.

Icel. skola to wash.] 1. (Naut.) (a) Def.: A boat; a cockboat.

See Sculler. (b) Def.: One of a pair of short oars worked by one person. (c) Def.: A single oar used at the stern in propelling a boat. 2. (Zool.) Def.: The common skua gull. [Prov.

Eng.] Scull, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sculled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sculling.] (Naut.) Def.: To impel (a boat) with a pair of sculls, or with a single scull or oar worked over the stern obliquely from side to side. — Sessional, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to a session or sessions. Sesspool, n.

Etym. [Prov.

E. suss hogwash, soss a dirty mess, a puddle + E. pool a puddle; cf.

Gael. ses a coarse mess.] Def.: Same as Cesspool. Sesterce, n.

Etym. [L. sestertius (sc. nummus), fr. sestertius two and a half; semis half + tertius third: cf.

F. sesterce.] (Rom.

Antiq.) Def.: A Roman coin or denomination of money, in value the fourth part of a denarius, and originally containing two asses and a half, afterward four asses, — equal to about two pence sterling, or four cents. Sterling, or about $43, before the reign of Augustus.

After his reign its value was about \’9c7 16s. 3d.


The sesterce was originally coined only in silver, but later both in silver and brass. Sestet, n.

Etym. [It. sestetto, fr. sesto sixth, L. sextus, fr. sex six.] 1. (Mus.) Def.: A piece of music composed for six voices or six instruments; a sextet; — called also sestuor. [Written also sestett, sestette.] 2. (Poet.) Def.: The last six lines of a sonnet. \’d8Sestetto, n.Etym. [It.] (Mus.) Def.: A sestet. Sestine, n.

Def.: See Sextain. Sestuor, n.

Etym. [F.] Def.: A sestet. Set, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Set; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Setting.] Etym. [OE. setten, AS. setton; akin to OS. settian, OFries. setta, D. zetten, OHG. sezzen, G. setzen, Icel. setja, Sw. sätta, Dan. s, Goth. satjan; causative from the root of E. sit. See Sit, and cf. Seize.] 1. Def.: To cause to sit; to make to assume a specified position or attitude; to give site or place to; to place; to put; to fix; as, to set a house on a stone foundation; to set a book on a shelf; to set a dish on a table; to set a chest or trunk on its bottom or on end. I do set my bow in the cloud. Gen.

Ix. 13. 2. Def.: Hence, to attach or affix (something) to something else, or in or upon a certain place. Set your affection on things above. Col.

Iii. 2. The Lord set a mark upon Cain. Gen.

Iv. 15. 3. Def.: To make to assume specified place, condition, or occupation; to put in a certain condition or state (described by the accompanying words); to cause to be. The Lord thy God will set thee on hihg. Deut.

Xxviii. 1. I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother. Matt.

X. 35. Every incident sets him thinking. Coleridge. 4. Def.: To fix firmly; to make fast, permanent, or stable; to render motionless; to give an unchanging place, form, or condition to.

Specifically: — (a) Def.: To cause to stop or stick; to obstruct; to fsten to a spot; hence, to occasion difficulty to; to embarrass; as, to ‘set’ a coach in the mud. They show how hard they are set in this particular. Addison. (b) Def.: To fix beforehand; to determine; hence, to make unyielding or obstinate; to render stiff, unpliant, or rigid; as, to ‘set’ one’s countenance. His eyes were set by reason of his age. 1 Kings xiv. 4. On these three objects his heart was set. Macaulay. Make my heart as a millstone, set my face as a flint. Tennyson. (c) Def.: To fix in the ground, as a post or a tree; to plant; as, to set pear trees in an orchard. (d) Def.: To fix, as a precious stone, in a border of metal; to place in a setting; hence, to place in or amid something which serves as a setting; as, to set glass in a sash. And him too rich a jewel to be set In vulgar metal for a vulgar use. Dryden. (e) Def.: To render stiff or solid; especially, to convert into curd; to curdle; as, to set milk for cheese. 5. Def.: To put into a desired position or condition; to adjust; to regulate; to adapt.

Specifically: — <-- to set a table --> (a) Def.: To put in order in a particular manner; to prepare; as, to set (that is, to hone) a razor; to set a saw. Tables for to sette, and beddes make. Chaucer. (b) Def.: To extend and bring into position; to spread; as, to set the sails of a ship. (c) Def.: To give a pitch to, as a tune; to start by fixing the keynote; as, to set a psalm. Fielding. (d) Def.: To reduce from a dislocated or fractured state; to replace; as, to set a broken bone. (e) Def.: To make to agree with some standard; as, to set a watch or a clock. (f) (Masonry) Def.: To lower into place and fix silidly, as the blocks of cut stone in a structure. 6. Def.: To stake at play; to wager; to risk. I have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the die. Shak. 7. Def.: To fit with music; to adapt, as words to notes; to prepare for singing. Set thy own songs, and sing them to thy lute. Dryden. 8. Def.: To determine; to appoint; to assign; to fix; as, to set a time for a meeting; to set a price on a horse. 9. Def.: To adorn with something infixed or affixed; to stud; to variegate with objects placed here and there. High on their heads, with jewels richly set, Each lady wore a radiant coronet. Dryden. Pastoral dales thin set with modern farms. Wordsworth. 10. Def.: To value; to rate; — with ‘at’. Be you contented, wearing now the garland, To have a son set your decrees at naught. Shak. I do not set my life at a pin’s fee. Shak. 11. Def.: To point out the seat or position of, as birds, or other game; — said of hunting dogs. 12. Def.: To establish as a rule; to furnish; to prescribe; to assign; as, to set an example; to set lessons to be learned. 13. Def.: To suit; to become; as, it sets him ill. [Scot.] 14. (Print.) Def.: To compose; to arrange in words, lines, etc.; as, to set type; to set a page.
To set abroach

. See Abroach. [Obs.] Shak.
To set against

, to oppose; to set in comparison with, or to oppose to, as an equivalent in exchange; as, ‘to set’ one thing ‘against’ another.
To set agoing

, to cause to move.
To set apart

, to separate to a particular use; to separate from the rest; to reserve.
To set a saw

, to bend each tooth a little, every alternate one being bent to one side, and the intermediate ones to the other side, so that the opening made by the saw may be a little wider than the thickness of the back, to prevent the saw from sticking.
To set aside

. (a) To leave out of account; to pass by; to omit; to neglect; to reject; to annul. Setting aside all other considerations, I will endeavor to know the truth, and yield to that. Tillotson. (b) To set apart; to reserve; as, ‘to set aside’ part of one’s income. (c) (Law) See under Aside.
To set at defiance

, to defy. —
To set at ease

, to quiet; to tranquilize; as, to set the heart at ease.
To set at naught

, to undervalue; to contemn; to despise. \’bdYe have ‘set at naught’ all my counsel.\’b8 Prov.

I. 25. —
To set a trap


, gin

, to put it in a proper condition or position to catch prey; hence, to lay a plan to deceive and draw another into one’s power. —
To set at work

, To set to work

. (a) To cause to enter on work or action, or to direct how tu enter on work. (b) To apply one’s self; — used reflexively.
To set before

. (a) To bring out to view before; to exhibit. (b) To propose for choice to; to offer to.
To set by

. (a) To set apart or on one side; to reject. (b) To attach the value of (anything) to. \’bdI ‘set’ not a straw ‘by’ thy dreamings.\’b8 Chaucer. —
To set by the compass

, to observe and note the bearing or situation of by the compass.
To set case

, to suppose; to assume.

Cf. Put case, under Put, v.

T. [Obs.] Chaucer. —
To set down

. (a) To enter in writing; to register. Some rules were to be set down for the government of the army. Clarendon. (b) To fix; to establish; to ordain. This law we may name eternal, being that order which God . . .

Hath set down with himself, for himself to do all things by. Hooker. (c) To humiliate.
To set eyes on

, to see; to behold; to fasten the eyes on.
To set fire to

, To set on fire

, to communicate fire to; fig., to inflame; to enkindle the passions of; to irritate.
To set flying

(Naut.), to hook to halyards, sheets, etc., instead of extending with rings or the like on a stay; — said of a sail.
To set forth

. (a) To manifest; to offer or present to view; to exhibt; to display. (b) To publish; to promulgate; to make appear. Waller. (c) To send out; to prepare and send. [Obs.] The Venetian admiral had a fleet of sixty galleys, set forth by the Venetians. Knolles.
To set forward

. (a) To cause to advance. (b) To promote.
To set free

, to release from confinement, imprisonment, or bondage; to liberate; to emancipate.
To set in

, to put in the way; to begin; to give a start to. [Obs.] If you please to assist and set me in, I will recollect myself. Collier.
To set in order

, to adjust or arrange; to reduce to method. \’bdThe rest will I ‘set in order’ when I come.\’b8 1 Cor.

Xi. 34. —
To set milk

. (a) To expose it in open dishes in order that the cream may rise to the surface. (b) To cause it to become curdled as by the action of rennet.

See 4 (e). —
To set much

, little


, to care much, or little, for.
To set of

, to value; to set by. [Obs.] \’bdI ‘set’ not an haw ‘of’ his proverbs.\’b8 Chaucer.
To set off

. (a) To separate from a whole; to assign to a particular purpose; to portion off; as, ‘to set off’ a portion of an estate. (b) To adorn; to decorate; to embellish. They . . . set off the worst faces with the best airs. Addison. (c) To give a flattering description of.
To set off against

, to place against as an equivalent; as, to set off one man’s services against another’s.
To set on


. (a) To incite; to instigate. \’bdThou, traitor, hast ‘set on’ thy wife to this.\’b8 Shak. (b) To employ, as in a task. \’bd ‘Set on’ thy wife to observe.\’b8 Shak. (c) To fix upon; to attach strongly to; as, ‘to set’ one’s heart or affections ‘on’ some object.

See definition 2, above. —
To set one’s cap for


See under Cap, n. —
To set one’s self against

, to place one’s self in a state of enmity or opposition to.
To set one’s teeth

, to press them together tightly.
To set on foot

, to set going; to put in motion; to start.
To set out

. (a) To assign; to allot; to mark off; to limit; as, to set out the share of each proprietor or heir of an estate; to set out the widow’s thirds. (b) To publish, as a proclamation. [Obs.] (c) To adorn; to embellish. An ugly woman, in rich habit set out with jewels, nothing can become. Dryden. (d) To raise, equip, and send forth; to furnish. [R.] The Venetians pretend they could set out, in case of great necessity, thirty men-of-war. Addison. (e) To show; to display; to recommend; to set off. I could set out that best side of Luther. Atterbury. (f) To show; to prove. [R.] \’bdThose very reasons ‘set out’ how heinous his sin was.\’b8 Atterbury. (g) (Law) To recite; to state at large.
To set over

. (a) To appoint or constitute as supervisor, inspector, ruler, or commander. (b) To assign; to transfer; to convey.
To set right

, to correct; to put in order.
To set sail

. (Naut.) See under Sail, n.
To set store by

, to consider valuable.
To set the fashion

, to determine what shall be the fashion; to establish the mode.
To set the teeth on edge

, to affect the teeth with a disagreeable sensation, as when acids are brought in contact with them.
To set the watch

(Naut.), to place the starboard or port watch on duty.
To set to

, to attach to; to affix to. \’bdHe . . .

Hath ‘set to’ his seal that God is true.\’b8 John iii. 33. —
To set up

. (a) To erect; to raise; to elevate; as, ‘to set up’ a building, or a machine; ‘to set up’ a post, a wall, a pillar. (b) Hence, to exalt; to put in power. \’bdI will . . . ‘set up’ the throne of David over Israel.\’b8 2 Sam.

Iii. 10. (c) To begin, as a new institution; to institute; to establish; to found; as, to set up a manufactory; to set up a school. (d) To enable to commence a new business; as, to set up a son in trade. (e) To place in view; as, to set up a mark. (f) To raise; to utter loudly; as, to set up the voice. I’ll set up such a note as she shall hear. Dryden. (g) To advance; to propose as truth or for reception; as, to set up a new opinion or doctrine. T.

Burnet. (h) To raise from depression, or to a sufficient fortune; as, this good fortune quite set him up. (i) To intoxicate. [Slang] (j) (Print.) To put in type; as, to set up copy; to arrange in words, lines, etc., ready for printing; as, to set up type.
To set up the rigging

(Naut.), to make it taut by means of tackles. R.


Dana, Jr. Syn. — See Put. Set, v.

I. 1. Def.: To pass below the horizon; to go down; to decline; to sink out of sight; to come to an end. Ere the weary sun set in the west. Shak. Thus this century sets with little mirth, and the next is likely to arise with more mourning. Fuller. 2. Def.: To fit music to words. [Obs.] Shak. 3. Def.: To place plants or shoots in the ground; to plant. \’bdTo sow dry, and ‘set’ wet.\’b8 Old Proverb. 4. Def.: To be fixed for growth; to strike root; to begin to germinate or form; as, cuttings set well; the fruit has set well (i.

E., not blasted in the blossom). 5. Def.: To become fixed or rigid; to be fastened. A gathering and serring of the spirits together to resist, maketh the teeth to set hard one against another. Bacon. 6. Def.: To congeal; to concrete; to solidify. That fluid substance in a few minutes begins to set. Boyle. 7. Def.: To have a certain direction in motion; to flow; to move on; to tend; as, the current sets to the north; the tide sets to the windward. 8. Def.: To begin to move; to go out or forth; to start; — now followed by ‘out’. The king is set from London. Shak. 9. Def.: To indicate the position of game; — said of a dog; as, the dog sets well; also, to hunt game by the aid of a setter. 10. Def.: To apply one’s self; to undertake earnestly; — now followed by ‘out’. If he sets industriously and sincerely to perform the commands of Christ, he can have no ground of doubting but it shall prove successful to him. Hammond. 11. Def.: To fit or suit one; to sit; as, the coat sets well. [Colloquially used, but improperly, for sit.]
To set about

, to commence; to begin.
To set forward

, to move or march; to begin to march; to advance.
To set forth

, to begin a journey.
To set in

. (a) To begin; to enter upon a particular state; as, winter ‘set in’ early. (b) To settle one’s self; to become established. \’bdWhen the weather was ‘set in’ to be very bad.\’b8 Addyson. (c) To flow toward the shore; — said of the tide.
To set off

. (a) To enter upon a journey; to start. (b) (Typog.) To deface or soil the next sheet; — said of the ink on a freshly printed sheet, when another sheet comes in contract with it before it has had time to dry.
To set on


. (a) To begin, as a journey or enterprise; to set about. He that would seriously set upon the search of truth. Locke. (b) To assault; to make an attack. Bacon. Cassio hath here been set on in the dark. Shak.
To set out

, to begin a journey or course; as, to set out for London, or from London; to set out in business;to set out in life or the world.
To set to

, to apply one’s self to.
To set up

. (a) To begin business or a scheme of life; as, to set up in trade; to set up for one’s self. (b) To profess openly; to make pretensions. Those men who set up for mortality without regard to religion, are generally but virtuous in part. Swift. <-- p. 1318 --> Set, a. 1. Def.: Fixed in position; immovable; rigid; as, a set line; a set countenance. 2. Def.: Firm; unchanging; obstinate; as, set opinions or prejudices. 3. Def.: Regular; uniform; formal; as, a set discourse; a set battle. \’bdThe ‘set’ phrase of peace.\’b8 Shak. 4. Def.: Established; prescribed; as, set forms of prayer. 5. Def.: Adjusted; arranged; formed; adapted.
Set hammer

. (a) A hammer the head of which is not tightly fastened upon the handle, but may be reversed. Knight. (b) A hammer with a concave face which forms a die for shaping anything, as the end of a bolt, rivet, etc.
Set line

, a line to which a number of baited hooks are attached, and which, supported by floats and properly secured, may be left unguarded during the absence of the fisherman.
Set nut

, a jam nut or lock nut.

See under Nut. —
Set screw

(Mach.), a screw, sometimes cupped or printed at one end, and screwed through one part, as of a machine, tightly upon another part, to prevent the one from slipping upon the other.
Set speech

, a speech carefully prepared before it is delivered in public; a formal or methodical speech. Set, n. 1. Def.: The act of setting, as of the sun or other heavenly body; descent; hence, the close; termination. \’bdLocking at the ‘set’ of day.\’b8 Tennyson. The weary sun hath made a golden set. Shak. 2. Def.: That which is set, placed, or fixed.

Specifically: — (a) Def.: A young plant for growth; as, a set of white thorn. (b) Def.: That which is staked; a wager; a venture; a stake; hence, a game at venture. [Obs.

Or R.] We will in France, by God’s grace, play a set Shall strike his father’s crown into the hazard. Shak. That was but civil war, an equal set. Dryden. (c) (Mech.) Def.: Permanent change of figure in consequence of excessive strain, as from compression, tension, bending, twisting, etc.; as, the ‘set’ of a spring. (d) Def.: A kind of punch used for bending, indenting, or giving shape to, metal; as, a saw ‘set’. (e) (Pile Driving) Def.: A piece placed temporarily upon the head of a pile when the latter cannot be reached by the weight, or hammer, except by means of such an intervening piece. [Often incorrectly written sett.] (f) (Carp.) Def.: A short steel spike used for driving the head of a nail below the surface. 3. Etym. [Perhaps due to confusion with sect, sept.] Def.: A number of things of the same kind, ordinarily used or classed together; a collection of articles which naturally complement each other, and usually go together; an assortment; a suit; as, a set of chairs, of china, of surgical or mathematical instruments, of books, etc. [In this sense, sometimes incorrectly written sett.] 4. Def.: A number of persons associated by custom, office, common opinion, quality, or the like; a division; a group; a clique. \’bdOthers of our ‘set’.\’b8 Tennyson. This falls into different divisions, or sets, of nations connected under particular religions. R.


Ward. 5. Def.: Direction or course; as, the set of the wind, or of a current. 6. Def.: In dancing, the number of persons necessary to execute a quadrille; also, the series of figures or movements executed. 7. Def.: The deflection of a tooth, or of the teeth, of a saw, which causes the the saw to cut a kerf, or make an opening, wider than the blade. 8. (a) Def.: A young oyster when first attached. (b) Def.: Collectively, the crop of young oysters in any locality. 9. (Tennis) Def.: A series of as many games as may be necessary to enable one side to win six.

If at the end of the tenth game the score is a tie, the set is usually called a ‘deuce set’, and decided by an application of the rules for playing off deuce in a game.

See Deuce. 10. (Type Founding) Def.: That dimension of the body of a type called by printers the ‘width’.
Dead set

. (a) The act of a setter dog when it discovers the game, and remains intently fixed in pointing it out. (b) A fixed or stationary condition arising from obstacle or hindrance; a deadlock; as, to be at a ‘dead set’. (c) A concerted scheme to defraud by gaming; a determined onset.
To make a dead set

, to make a determined onset, literally or figuratively. Syn. — Collection; series; group.

See Pair. \’d8Seta, n.; pl. Setoe.

Etym. [L. seta, saeta, a bristle.] 1. (Biol.) Def.: Any slender, more or less rigid, bristlelike organ or part; as the hairs of a caterpillar, the slender spines of a crustacean, the hairlike processes of a protozoan, the bristles or stiff hairs on the leaves of some plants, or the pedicel of the capsule of a moss. 2. (Zool.) (a) Def.: One of the movable chitinous spines or hooks of an annelid.

They usually arise in clusters from muscular capsules, and are used in locomotion and for defense.

They are very diverse in form. (b) Def.: One of the spinelike feathers at the base of the bill of certain birds. Setaceous, a.

Etym. [L. seta a bristle: cf.

F. sétacé.] 1. Def.: Set with, or consisting of, bristles; bristly; as, a stiff, setaceous tail. 2. Def.: Bristelike in form or texture; as, a setaceous feather; a setaceous leaf. Setback, n. 1. (Arch.) Def.: Offset, n., 4. 2. Def.: A backset; a countercurrent; an eddy. [U.

S.] 3. Def.: A backset; a check; a repulse; a reverse; a relapse. [Colloq.

U.S.] Setbolt, n. (Shipbuilding) 1. Def.: An iron pin, or bolt, for fitting planks closely together. Craig. 2. Def.: A bolt used for forcing another bolt out of its hole. Setdown, n.

Def.: The humbling of a person by act or words, especially by a retort or a reproof; the retort or the reproof which has such effect. Setee, n. (Naut.) Def.: See 2d Settee. Seten, Def.: obs.



Of Sit.

Sat. Chaucer. Setewale, n.

Def.: See Cetewale. [Obs.] Set-fair, n.

Def.: In plastering, a particularly good troweled surface. Knight. Setfoil, n.

Def.: See Septfoil. Sethen, adv. & conj.

Def.: See Since. [Obs.] Sethic, a.

Def.: See Sothic. Setiferous, a.

Etym. [L. seta a bristle + -ferous.] Def.: Producing, or having one or more, bristles. Setiform, a.

Etym. [Seta + -form: cf.

F. sétiforme.] Def.: Having the form or structure of setoe. Setiger, n.

Etym. [NL.

See Setigerous.] (Zool.) Def.: An annelid having setoe; a choetopod. — Shove, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shoved; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shoving.] Etym. [OE. shoven, AS. scofian, fr. sc; akin to OFries. sk, D. schuiven, G. schieben, OHG. scioban, Icel. sk, sk, Sw. skuffa, Dan. skuffe, Goth.

Afskiuban to put away, cast away; cf.

Skr. kshubh to become agitated, to quake, Lith. skubrus quick, skubinti to hasten. Cf. Sheaf a bundle of stalks, Scoop, Scuffle.] 1. Def.: To drive along by the direct and continuous application of strength; to push; especially, to push (a body) so as to make it move along the surface of another body; as, to shove a boat on the water; to shove a table across the floor. 2. Def.: To push along, aside, or away, in a careless or rude manner; to jostle. And shove away the worthy bidden guest. Milton. He used to shove and elbow his fellow servants. Arbuthnot. Shove, v.

I. 1. Def.: To push or drive forward; to move onward by pushing or jostling. 2. Def.: To move off or along by an act pushing, as with an oar a pole used by one in a boat; sometimes with ‘off’. He grasped the oar,< eceived his guests on board, and shoved from shore. Garth. Shove, n.

Def.: The act of shoving; a forcible push. I rested . . .

And then gave the boat another shove. Swift. Syn. — See Thrust. Shove, obs. Def.: p.


Of Shove. Chaucer. { Shoveboard, Shovegroat (?) }, n.

Def.: The same as Shovelboard. Shovel, n.

Etym. [OE. shovele, schovele, AS. scoft, sceoft; akin to D. schoffel, G. schaufel, OHG. sc, Dan. skovl, Sw. skofvel, skyffel, and to E. shove. See Shove, v.

T.] Def.: An implement consisting of a broad scoop, or more or less hollow blade, with a handle, used for lifting and throwing earth, coal, grain, or other loose substances.
Shovel hat

, a broad-brimmed hat, turned up at the sides, and projecting in front like a shovel, — worn by some clergy of the English Church. [Colloq.]

(Zool.), a flat, horny process on the tarsus of some toads, — used in burrowing.
Steam shovel

, a machine with a scoop or scoops, operated by a steam engine, for excavating earth, as in making railway cuttings. Shovel, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shoveled or Shovelled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shoveling or Shovelling.] 1. Def.: To take up and throw with a shovel; as, to shovel earth into a heap, or into a cart, or out of a pit. 2. Def.: To gather up as with a shovel. Shovelard, n. (Zool.) Def.: Shoveler. [Prov.

Eng.] Shovelbill, n. (Zool.) Def.: The shoveler. Shovelboard, n. 1. Def.: A board on which a game is played, by pushing or driving pieces of metal or money to reach certain marks; also, the game itself.

Called also shuffleboard, shoveboard, shovegroat, shovelpenny.<-- now usu.

Shuffleboard. –> 2. Def.: A game played on board ship in which the aim is to shove or drive with a cue wooden disks into divisions chalked on the deck; — called also shuffleboard. Shoveler, n.

Etym. [Also shoveller.] 1. Def.: One who, or that which, shovels. 2. (Zool.) Def.: A river duck (Spatula clypeata), native of Europe and America.

It has a large bill, broadest towards the tip.

The male is handsomely variegated with green, blue, brown, black, and white on the body; the head and neck are dark green.

Called also broadbill, spoonbill, shovelbill, and maiden duck.

The Australian shoveler, or shovel-nosed duck (S.

Rhynchotis), is a similar species. Shovelful, n.; pl. Shovelfuls (. Def.: As much as a shovel will hold; enough to fill a shovel. Shovelhead, n. (Zool.) Def.: A shark (Sphryna tiburio) allied to the hammerhead, and native of the warmer parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; — called also bonnet shark. Shovelnose, n. (Zool.) (a) Def.: The common sand shark.

See under Snad. (b) Def.: A small California shark (Heptranchias maculatus), which is taken for its oil. (c) Def.: A Pacific Ocean shark (Hexanchus corinus). (d) Def.: A ganoid fish of the Sturgeon family (Scaphirhynchus platyrhynchus) of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers; — called also white sturgeon. Shovel-nosed, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having a broad, flat nose; as, the shovel-nosed duck, or shoveler. Shoven, obs. Def.: p.


Of Shove. Chaucer. Show, v.

T. [imp. Showed; p.

P. Shown or Showed; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Showing. It is sometimes written shew, shewed, shewn, shewing.] Etym. [OE. schowen, shewen, schewen, shawen, AS. sce\’a0wian, to look, see, view; akin to OS. scaw, OFries. skawia, D. schouwen, OHG. scouw, G. schauen, Dan. skue, Sw. sk, Icel. sko, Goth.

Usskawjan to waken, skuggwa a mirror, Icel. skuggy shade, shadow, L. cavere to be on one’s guard, Gr. kavi wise.

Cf. Caution, Scavenger, Sheen.] 1. Def.: To exhibit or present to view; to place in sight; to display; — the thing exhibited being the object, and often with an indirect object denoting the person or thing seeing or beholding; as, to show a house; show your colors; shopkeepers show customers goods (show goods to customers). Go thy way, shew thyself to the priest. Matt.

Viii. 4. Nor want we skill or art from whence to raise Magnificence; and what can heaven show more? Milton. 2. Def.: To exhibit to the mental view; to tell; to disclose; to reveal; to make known; as, to show one’s designs. Shew them the way wherein they must walk. Ex.

Xviii. 20. If it please my father to do thee evil, then I will shew it thee, and send thee away. 1 Sam.

Xx. 13. 3. Def.: Specifically, to make known the way to (a person); hence, to direct; to guide; to asher; to conduct; as, to show a person into a parlor; to show one to the door. 4. Def.: To make apparent or clear, as by evidence, testimony, or reasoning; to prove; to explain; also, to manifest; to evince; as, to show the truth of a statement; to show the causes of an event. I ‘ll show my duty by my timely care. Dryden. 5. Def.: To bestow; to confer; to afford; as, to show favor. Shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me. Ex.

Xx. 6.
To show forth

, to manifest; to publish; to proclaim.
To show his paces

, to exhibit the gait, speed, or the like; — said especially of a horse.
To show off

, to exhibit ostentatiously.
To show up

, to expose. [Colloq.] Show, v.


Etym. [Written also shew.] 1. Def.: To exhibit or manifest one’s self or itself; to appear; to look; to be in appearance; to seem. Just such she shows before a rising storm. Dryden. All round a hedge upshoots, and shows At distance like a little wood. Tennyson. <-- p. 1334 --> 2. Def.: To have a certain appearance, as well or ill, fit or unfit; to become or suit; to appear. My lord of York, it better showed with you. Shak.
To show off

, to make a show; to display one’s self. Show, n.

Etym. [Formerly written also shew.] 1. Def.: The act of showing, or bringing to view; exposure to sight; exhibition. 2. Def.: That which os shown, or brought to view; that which is arranged to be seen; a spectacle; an exhibition; as, a traveling show; a cattle show. As for triumphs, masks, feasts, and such shows. Bacon. 3. Def.: Proud or ostentatious display; parade; pomp. I envy none their pageantry and show. Young. 4. Def.: Semblance; likeness; appearance. He through the midst unmarked, In show plebeian angel militant Of lowest order, passed. Milton. 5. Def.: False semblance; deceitful appearance; pretense. Beware of the scribes, . . .

Which devour widows’ houses, and for a shew make long prayers. Luke xx. 46. 47. 6. (Med.) Def.: A discharge, from the vagina, of mucus streaked with blood, occuring a short time before labor. 7. (Mining) Def.: A pale blue flame, at the top of a candle flame, indicating the presence of fire damp. Raymond.
Show bill

, a broad sheet containing an advertisement in large letters.
Show box

, a box xontaining some object of curiosity carried round as a show.
Show card

, an advertising placard; also, a card for displaying samples.
Show case

, a gla
Show glass

, a glass which displays objects; a mirror.
Show of hands

, a raising of hands to indicate judgment; as, the vote was taken by a ‘show of hands’.
Show stone

, a piece of glass or crystal supposed to have the property of exhibiting images of persons or things not present, indicating in that way future events. Showbread, n. (Jewish Antiq.) Def.: Bread of exhibition; loaves to set before God; — the term used in translating the various phrases used in the Hebrew and Greek to designate the loaves of bread which the priest of the week placed before the Lord on the golden table in the sanctuary.

They were made of fine flour unleavened, and were changed every Sabbath.

The loaves, twelve in number, represented the twelve tribes of Israel.

They were to be eaten by the priests only, and in the Holy Place. [Written also shewbread.] Mark ii. 26. Shower, n. 1. Def.: One who shows or exhibits. 2. Def.: That which shows; a mirror. [Obs.] Wyclif. Shower, n.

Etym. [OE. shour, schour, AS. se; akin to D. schoer, G. schauer, OHG. sc, Icel. sk, Sw. skur, Goth. sk a storm of wind; of uncertain origin.] 1. Def.: A fall or rain or hail of short duration; sometimes, but rarely, a like fall of snow. In drought or else showers. Chaucer. Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers. Milton. 2. Def.: That which resembles a shower in falling or passing through the air copiously and rapidly. With showers of stones he drives them far away. Pope. 3. Def.: A copious supply bestowed. [R.] He and myself Have travail’d in the great shower of your gifts. Shak.
Shower bath

, a bath in which water is showered from above, and sometimes from the sides also. Shower, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Showered; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Showering.] 1. Def.: To water with a shower; to Lest it again dissolve and shower the earth. Milton. 2. Def.: To bestow liberally; to destribute or scatter in Shak. Cshowers down greatness on his friends. Addison. Shower, v.


Def.: To rain in showers; to fall, as in a hower or showers. Shak. Showerful, a.

Def.: Full of showers. Tennyson. — Smittlish (?), } a.

Def.: Infectious; catching. [Scot. & Prov.

Eng.] H.

Kingsley. Smock, n.

Etym. [AS. smoc; akin to OHG. smocho, Icel. smokkr, and from the root of AS. sm to creep, akin to G. schmiegen to cling to, press close.

MHG. smiegen, Icel. smj to creep through, to put on a garment which has a hole to put the head through; cf.

Lith. smukti to glide.

Cf. Smug, Smuggle.] 1. Def.: A woman’s under-garment; a shift; a chemise. In her smock, with head and foot all bare. Chaucer. 2. Def.: A blouse; a smoock frock. Carlyle. Smock, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to a smock; resembling a smock; hence, of or pertaining to a woman.
Smock mill

, a windmill of which only the cap turns round to meet the wind, in distinction from a ‘post mill’, whose whole building turns on a post.
Smock race

, a race run by women for the prize of a smock. [Prov.

Eng.] Smock, v.


Def.: To provide with, or clothe in, a smock or a smock frock. Tennyson. Smock-faced, a.

Def.: Having a feminine countenance or complexion; smooth-faced; girlish. Fenton. Smock frock.

Def.: A coarse frock, or shirt, worn over the other dress, as by farm laborers. Macaulay. Smockless, a.

Def.: Wanting a smock. Chaucer. Smokable, a.

Def.: Capable of being smoked; suitable or ready to be smoked; as, smokable tobacco. Smoke, n.

Etym. [AS. smoca, fr. sme\’a2can to smoke; akin to LG. & D. smook smoke, Dan. smog, G. schmauch, and perh.

To Gr. Lith. smaugti to choke.] 1. Def.: The visible exhalation, vapor, or substance that escapes, or expelled, from a burning body, especially from burning vegetable matter, as wood, coal, peat, or the like. The disengaged carbon when deposited on solid bodies is ‘soot’. 2. Def.: That which resembles smoke; a vapor; a mist. 3. Def.: Anything unsubstantial, as idle talk. Shak. 4. Def.: The act of smoking, esp.

Of smoking tobacco; as, to have a smoke. [Colloq.] Forming self-explaining compounds; as, ‘smoke’-consuming, ‘smoke’-dried, ‘smoke’-stained, etc.
Smoke arch

, the smoke box of a locomotive.
Smoke ball

(Mil.), a ball or case containing a composition which, when it burns, sends forth thick smoke.
Smoke black

, lampblack. [Obs.]
Smoke board

, a board suspended before a fireplace to prevent the smoke from coming out into the room.
Smoke box

, a chamber in a boiler, where the smoke, etc., from the furnace is collected before going out at the chimney.
Smoke sail

(Naut.), a small sail in the lee of the galley stovepipe, to prevent the smoke from annoying people on deck.
Smoke tree

(Bot.), a shrub (Rhus Cotinus) in which the flowers are mostly abortive and the panicles transformed into tangles of plumose pedicels looking like wreaths of smoke.
To end in smoke

, to burned; hence, to be destroyed or ruined; figuratively, to come to nothing.<-- same as go up in smoke. --> Syn. — Fume; reek; vapor. Smoke, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Smoked; p.

Pr. & vb n. Smoking.] Etym. [AS. smocian; akin to D. smoken, G. schmauchen, Dan. smoge.

See Smoke, n.] 1. Def.: To emit smoke; to throw off volatile matter in the form of vapor or exhalation; to reek. Hard by a cottage chimney smokes. Milton. 2. Def.: Hence, to burn; to be kindled; to rage. The anger of the Lord and his jealousy shall smoke agains.

That man. Deut.

Xxix. 20. 3. Def.: To raise a dust or smoke by rapid motion. Proud of his steeds, he smokes along the field. Dryden. 4. Def.: To draw into the mouth the smoke of tobacco burning in a pipe or in the form of a cigar, cigarette, etc.; to habitually use tobacco in this manner. 5. Def.: To suffer severely; to be punished. Some of you shall smoke for it in Rome. Shak. <-- To be smoking, (a) [Colloq] (Entertainment, sports) To perform in an exciting manner. (b) (Gambling) To be winning in a long streak --> Smoke, v.

T. 1. Def.: To apply smoke to; to hang in smoke; to disinfect, to cure, etc., by smoke; as, to smoke or fumigate infected clothing; to smoke beef or hams for preservation. 2. Def.: To fill or scent with smoke; hence, to fill with incense; to perfume. \’bd’Smoking’ the temple.\’b8 Chaucer. 3. Def.: To smell out; to hunt out; to find out; to detect. I alone Smoked his true person, talked with him. Chapman. He was first smoked by the old Lord Lafeu. Shak. Upon that . . .

I began to smoke that they were a parcel of mummers. Addison. 4. Def.: To ridicule to the face; to quiz. [Old Slang] 5. Def.: To inhale and puff out the smoke of, as tobacco; to burn or use in smoking; as, to smoke a pipe or a cigar. 6. Def.: To subject to the operation of smoke, for the purpose of annoying or driving out; — often with ‘out’; as, to smoke a woodchuck out of his burrow. <-- also used metaphorically, to expose, to cause to be made public; to drive out, as if by smoke. --> Smoke-dry, v.


Def.: To dry by or in smoke. Smokehouse, n.

Def.: A building where meat or fish is cured by subjecting it to a dense smoke. Smokejack, n.

Def.: A contrivance for turning a spit by means of a fly or wheel moved by the current of ascending air in a chimney. Smokeless, a.

Def.: Making or having no smoke. \’bd’Smokeless’ towers.\’b8 Pope. Smoker, n. 1. Def.: One who dries or preserves by smoke. 2. Def.: One who smokes tobacco or the like. 3. Def.: A smoking car or compartment. [U.

S.] Smokestack, n.

Def.: A chimney; esp., a pipe serving as a chimney, as the pipe which carries off the smoke of a locomotive, the funnel of a steam vessel, etc. <-- p. 1360 --> Smokily, adv.

Def.: In a smoky manner. Smokiness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being smoky. Smoking, a. & n.

Def.: from Smoke.
Smoking bean

(Bot.), the long pod of the catalpa, or Indian-bean tree, often smoked by boys as a substitute for cigars.
Smoking car

, a railway car carriage reserved for the use of passengers who smoke tobacco. Smoky, a. [Compar. Smokier; superl. Smokiest.] 1. Def.: Emitting smoke, esp.

In large quantities or in an offensive manner; fumid; as, smoky fires. 2. Def.: Having the appearance or nature of smoke; as, a smoky fog. \’bdUnlustrous as the ‘smoky’ light.\’b8 Shak. 3. Def.: Filled with smoke, or with a vapor resembling smoke; thick; as, a smoky atmosphere. 4. Def.: Subject to be filled with smoke from chimneys or fireplace; as, a smoky house. 5. Def.: Tarnished with smoke; noisome with smoke; as, smoky rafters; smoky cells. 6. Def.: Suspicious; open to suspicion. [Obs.] Foote.
Smoky quartz

(Min.), a variety of quartz crystal of a pale to dark smoky-brown color.

See Quartz. { Smolder, Smoulder } (?), v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Smoldered or Smouldered; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Smoldering or Smouldering.] Etym. [OE. smolderen; cf.


G. smolen, smelen, D. smeulen.

Cf. Smell.] 1. Def.: To burn and smoke without flame; to waste away by a slow and supressed combustion. The smoldering dust did round about him smoke. Spenser. 2. Def.: To exist in a state of suppressed or smothered activity; to burn inwardly; as, a smoldering feud. { Smolder, Smoulder, } v.


Def.: To smother; to suffocate; to choke. [Obs.] Holinshed.

Palsgrave. { Smolder, — Somnambulist, n.

Def.: A person who is subject to somnambulism; one who walks in his sleep; a sleepwalker; a noctambulist. Somnambulistic, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to a somnambulist or somnambulism; affected by somnambulism; appropriate to the state of a somnambulist. Whether this was an intentional and waking departure, or a somnambulistic leave-taking and waking in her sleep, may remain a subject of contention. Dickens. Somne, v.


Def.: To summon. [Obs.] Chaucer. Somner, n.

Def.: A summoner; esp., one who summons to an ecclesiastical court. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. Somnial, a.

Etym. [L. spmnialis dream bringing, fr. somnium dream, fr. somnus sleep.] Def.: Of or pertaining to sleep or dreams. The somnial magic superinducted on, without suspending, the active powers of the mind. Coleridge. Somniative, a.

Def.: Somnial; somniatory. [R.] Somniatory, a.

Def.: Pertaining to sleep or dreams; somnial. [Obs.

Or R.] Urquhart. Somniculous, a.

Etym. [L. somniculosus.] Def.: Inclined to sleep; drowsy; sleepy. [Obs.] Somniferous, a.

Etym. [L. somnifer; somnus sleep + ferre to bring.] Def.: Causing or inducing sleep; soporific; dormitive; as, a somniferous potion. Walton. Somnific, a.

Etym. [L. somnificus; somnus sleep + facere to make.] Def.: Causing sleep; somniferous. Somnifugous, a.

Etym. [L. somnus sleep + fugare to put to flight.] Def.: Driving away sleep. [Obs.] Somniloquence, n.

Def.: The act of talking in one’s sleep; somniloquism. Somniloquism, n.

Def.: The act or habit of talking in one’s sleep; somniloquy. Coleridge. Somniloquist, n.

Def.: One who talks in his sleep. Somniloquous, a.

Etym. [L. somnus sleep + loqui to speak.] Def.: Apt to talk in sleep. Somniloquy, n.

Def.: A talking in sleep; the talking of one in a state of somnipathy. [R.] Coleridge. Somnipathist, n.

Def.: A person in a state of somniapathy. Somnipathy, n.

Etym. [L. somnus sleep + Gr. [Written also somnopathy.] { Somnolence, Somnolency (?) }, n.

Etym. [L. somnolentia: cf.

F. somnolence.] Def.: Sleepiness; drowsiness; inclination to sleep. Somnolent, a.

Etym. [F. somnolent, L. somnolentus, from somnus sleep, akin to Gr. svapna sleep, dream, svap to sleep, Icel. sofa, AS. swefn sleep.

Cf. Hypnotic, Somnambulism, Soporific.] Def.: Sleepy; drowsy; inclined to sleep. — Somnolently, adv. He had no eye for such phenomens, because he had a somnolent want of interest in them. De Quincey. Somnolism, n.

Def.: The somnolent state induced by animal magnetism. Thomas (Med.

Dict.). Somnopathy, n.

Def.: Somnipathy. Somnour, n.

Def.: A summoner; an apparitor; a sompnour. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. { Somonaunce, Somonce (?) }, n.

Etym. [See Summon, Summons.] Def.: A summons; a citation. [Obs.] Chaucer. — Spied, Def.: imp. & p.


Of Spy. \’d8Spiegelelsen, n.

Etym. [G. spiegel mirror + eisen iron.] Def.: See Spiegel iron. Spiegel iron.

Etym. [G. spiegel mirror + E. iron.] (Metal.) Def.: A fusible white cast iron containing a large amount of carbon (from three and a half to six per cent) and some manganese.

When the manganese reaches twenty-five per cent and upwards it has a granular structure, and constitutes the alloy ‘ferro manganese’, largely used in the manufacture of Bessemer steel.

Called also specular pig iron, spiegel, and spiegeleisen. Spight, n. & v.

Def.: Spite. [Obs.] Spenser. Spight, n.

Def.: A woodpecker.

See Speight. [Obs.] Spignel, n. (Bot.) Def.: Same as Spickenel. Spignet, n.

Etym. [Corrupted fr. spikenard.] (Bot.) Def.: An aromatic plant of America.

See Spikenard. Spigot, n.

Etym. [From spick,or spike; cf.

Ir. & Gael. spiocaid a spigot, Ir. spice a spike.

See Spike.] Def.: A pin or peg used to stop the vent in a cask; also, the plug of a faucet or cock.
Spigot and faucet joint

, a joint for uniting pipes, formed by the insertion of the end of one pipe, or pipe fitting, into a socket at the end of another. Spigurnel, n. (Eng.

Law) Def.: Formerly the title of the sealer of writs in chancery. Mozley & W. Spike, n.

Etym. [Akin to LG. spiker, spieker, a large nail, D. spijker, Sw. spik, Dan. spiger, Icel. sp\’c6k; all perhaps from L. spica a point, an ear of grain; but in the sense of nail more likely akin to E. spoke of a wheel.

Cf. Spine.] 1. Def.: A sort of very large nail; also, a piece of pointed iron set with points upward or outward. 2. Def.: Anything resembling such a nail in shape. He wears on his head the corona radiata . . . ; the spikes that shoot out represent the rays of the sun. Addison. 3. Def.: An ear of corn or grain. 4. (Bot.) Def.: A kind of flower cluster in which sessile flowers are arranged on an unbranched elongated axis.
Spike grass

(Bot.), either of two tall perennial American grasses (Uniola paniculata, and U.

Latifolia) having broad leaves and large flattened spikelets. —
Spike rush

. (Bot.) See under Rush.
Spike shell

(Zool.), any pteropod of the genus Styliola having a slender conical shell.
Spike team

, three horses, or a horse and a yoke of oxen, harnessed together, a horse leading the oxen or the span. [U.S.] Spike, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spiked; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spiking.] 1. Def.: To fasten with spikes, or long, large nails; as, to spike down planks. 2. Def.: To set or furnish with spikes. 3. Def.: To fix on a spike. [R.] Young. 4. Def.: To stop the vent of (a gun or cannon) by driving a spike nail, or the like into it. <-- (Sport) To throw violently to the ground, so that it bounces.

Sometimes done by football players after scoring a goal, as a victory celebration. –> Spike, n.

Etym. [Cf.

G. spieke, L. spica an ear of grain.

See Spikenard.] (Bot.) Def.: Spike lavender.

See Lavender.
Oil of spike

(Chem.), a colorless or yellowish aromatic oil extracted from the European broad-leaved lavender, or aspic (Lavendula Spica), used in artist’s varnish and in veterinary medicine.

It is often adulterated with oil of turpentine, which it much resembles. Spikebill, n. (Zool.) (a) Def.: The hooded merganser. (b) Def.: The marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa). Spiked, a.

Def.: Furnished or set with spikes, as corn; fastened with spikes; stopped with spikes. A youth, leaping over the spiked pales, . . .

Was caught by those spikes. Wiseman. Spikefish, n. (Zool.) Def.: See Sailfish (a) Spikelet, n. (Bot.) Def.: A small or secondary spike; especially, one of the ultimate parts of the in florescence of grasses.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Quaking grass. Spikenard, n.Etym. [For spiked nard; cf.

G. spieknarde, NL. spica nardi.

See Spike an ear, and Nard.] 1. (Bot.) Def.: An aromatic plant.

In the United States it is the Aralia racemosa, often called spignet, and used as a medicine.

The spikenard of the ancients is the Nardostachys Jatamansi, a native of the Himalayan region.

From its blackish roots a perfume for the hair is still prepared in India. 2. Def.: A fragrant essential oil, as that from the Nardostachys Jatamansi. Spiketail, n. (Zool.) Def.: The pintail duck. [Local, U.S.] Spiky, a. 1. Def.: Like a spike; spikelike. These spiky, vivid outbursts of metallic vapors. C.


Young. 2. Def.: Having a sharp point, or sharp points; furnished or armed with spikes. Or by the spiky harrow cleared away. Dyer. The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. Pope. Spile, n.

Etym. [Cf.

LG. spile, dial.

G. speil, speiler, D. spijl. \’fb170.] 1. Def.: A small plug or wooden pin, used to stop a vent, as in a cask. <-- p. 1386 --> 2. Def.: A small tube or spout inserted in a tree for conducting sap, as from a sugar maple. 3. Def.: A large stake driven into the ground as a support for some superstructure; a pile.
Spile hole

, a small air hole in a cask; a vent. Spile, v.


Def.: To supply with a spile or a spigot; to make a small vent in, as a cask. Spilikin, n.

Etym. [OD. spelleken a small pin.

See Spill a splinter.] Def.: One of a number of small pieces or pegs of wood, ivory, bone, or other material, for playing a game, or for counting the score in a game, as in cribbage.

In the plural ( spilikins), a game played with such pieces; pushpin. [Written also spillikin, spilliken.] Spill, n.

Etym. [Cf. Spell a splinter.] 1. Def.: A bit of wood split off; a splinter. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] 2. Def.: A slender piece of anything.

Specifically: — (a) Def.: A peg or pin for plugging a hole, as in a cask; a spile. (b) Def.: A metallic rod or pin. (c) Def.: A small roll of paper, or slip of wood, used as a lamplighter, etc. (d) (Mining) Def.: One of the thick laths or poles driven horizontally ahead of the main timbering in advancing a level in loose ground. 3. Def.: A little sum of money. [Obs.] Ayliffe. Spill, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spilt; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spilling.] Def.: To cover or decorate with slender pieces of wood, metal, ivory, etc.; to inlay. [Obs.] Spenser. Spill, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spilled (?), or Spilt (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spilling.] Etym. [OE. spillen,sually, to destroy, AS. spillan, spildan, to destroy; akin to Icel. spilla to destroy, Sw. spilla to spill, Dan. spilde,G. & D. spillen to squander, OHG. spildan.] 1. Def.: To destroy; to kill; to put an end to. [Obs.] And gave him to the queen, all at her will To choose whether she would him save or spill. Chaucer. Greater glory think [it] to save than spill. Spenser. 2. Def.: To mar; to injure; to deface; hence, to destroy by misuse; to waste. [Obs.] They [the colors] disfigure the stuff and spill the whole workmanship. Puttenham. Spill not the morning, the quintessence of day, in recreations. Fuller. 3. Def.: To suffer to fall or run out of a vessel; to lose, or suffer to be scattered; — applied to fluids and to substances whose particles are small and loose; as, to spill water from a pail; to spill quicksilver from a vessel; to spill powder from a paper; to spill sand or flour. 4. Def.: To cause to flow out and be lost or wasted; to shed, or suffer to be shed, as in battle or in manslaughter; as, a man spills another’s blood, or his own blood. And to revenge his blood so justly spilt. Dryden. 5. (Naut.) Def.: To relieve a sail from the pressure of the wind, so that it can be more easily reefed or furled, or to lessen the strain.
Spilling line

(Naut.), a rope used for spilling, or dislodging, the wind from the belly of a sail. Totten. <-- Spill, n.

An instance of spilling.

Oil spill, an accidental release of oil, usually into the ocean, due to damage to an oil tanker or uncontrolled release from an underwater well. –> Spill, v.

I. 1. Def.: To be destroyed, ruined, or wasted; to come to ruin; to perish; to waste. [Obs.] That thou wilt suffer innocents to spill. Chaucer. 2. Def.: To be shed; to run over; to fall out, and be lost or wasted. \’bdHe was so topful of himself, that he let it ‘spill’ on all the company.\’b8 I.

Watts. — Spriggy, a.

Def.: Full of sprigs or small branches. Spright, n.

Etym. [See Sprite.] 1. Def.: Spirit; mind; soul; state of mind; mood. [Obs.] \’bdThe high heroic ‘spright’.\’b8 <-- similar to sprite, now most often used.

Any difference? –> Spenser. Wondrous great grief groweth in my spright. Spenser. 2. Def.: A supernatural being; a spirit; a shade; an apparition; a ghost. Forth he called, out of deep darkness dread, Legions of sprights. Spenser. To thee, O Father, Son, and Sacred Spright. Fairfax. 3. Def.: A kind of short arrow. [Obs.] Bacon. Spright, v.


Def.: To haunt, as a spright. [Obs.] Shak. Sprightful, a.

Etym. [Spright sprite + full.] Def.: Full of spirit or of life; earnest; vivacious; lively; brisk; nimble; gay. [Obs.]Sprightfully, adv. [Obs.] <-- = spirited, now most common.

This word sounds too much like frightful –> Shak.Sprightfulness, n. [Obs.] Spoke like a sprightful gentlemen. Shak. Steeds sprightful as the light. Cowley. Sprightless, a.

Def.: Destitute of life; dull; sluggish. Sprightliness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being sprightly; liveliness; life; briskness; vigor; activity; gayety; vivacity. In dreams, observe with what a sprightliness and alacrity does she [the soul] exert herself! Addison. Sprightly, a. [Compar. Sprightlier; superl. Sprightliest.] Etym. [See Sprite.] Def.: Sprightlike, or spiritlike; lively; brisk; animated; vigorous; airy; gay; as, a sprightly youth; a sprightly air; a sprightly dance. \’bd’Sprightly’ wit and love inspires.\’b8 Dryden. The sprightly Sylvia trips along the green. Pope. Sprigtail, n. (Zool.) (a) Def.: The pintail duck; — called also sprig, and spreet-tail. [Local, U.S.] (b) Def.: The sharp-tailed grouse. [Local, U.S.] Spring, v.

I. [imp. Sprang or Sprung (; p.

P. Sprung; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Springing.] Etym. [AS. springan; akin to D. & G. springen, OS. & OHG. springan, Icel. & Sw. springa, Dan. springe; cf.

Gr. Cf. Springe, Sprinkle.] 1. Def.: To leap; to bound; to jump. The mountain stag that springs From height to height, and bounds along the plains. Philips. 2. Def.: To issue with speed and violence; to move with activity; to dart; to shoot. And sudden light Sprung through the vaulted roof. Dryden. 3. Def.: To start or rise suddenly, as from a covert. Watchful as fowlers when their game will spring. Otway. 4. Def.: To fly back; as, a bow, when bent, springs back by its elastic power. 5. Def.: To bend from a straight direction or plane surface; to become warped; as, a piece of timber, or a plank, sometimes springs in seasoning. 6. Def.: To shoot up, out, or forth; to come to the light; to begin to appear; to emerge; as a plant from its seed, as streams from their source, and the like; -often followed by ‘up’, ‘forth’, or ‘out’. Till well nigh the day began to spring. Chaucer. To satisfy the desolate and waste ground, and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth. Job “viii. 27. Do not blast my springing hopes. Rowe. O, spring to light; auspicious Babe, be born. Pope. 7. Def.: To issue or proceed, as from a parent or ancestor; to result, as from a cause, motive, reason, or principle. [They found] new hope to spring Out of despair, joy, but with fear yet linked. Milton. 8. Def.: To grow; to prosper. What makes all this, but Jupiter the king, At whose command we perish, and we spring? Dryden.
To spring at

, to leap toward; to attempt to reach by a leap.
To spring forth

, to leap out; to rush out.
To spring in

, to rush in; to enter with a leap or in haste.
To spring on


, to leap on; to rush on with haste or violence; to assault. Spring, v.

T. 1. Def.: To cause to spring up; to start or rouse, as game; to cause to rise from the earth, or from a covert; as, to spring a pheasant. 2. Def.: To produce or disclose suddenly or unexpectedly. <-- to spring a surprise on s.o. --> She starts, and leaves her bed, amd springs a light. Dryden. The friends to the cause sprang a new project. Swift. 3. Def.: To cause to explode; as, to spring a mine. 4. Def.: To crack or split; to bend or strain so as to weaken; as, to spring a mast or a yard. 5. Def.: To cause to close suddenly, as the parts of a trap operated by a spring; as, to spring a trap. 6. Def.: To bend by force, as something stiff or strong; to force or put by bending, as a beam into its sockets, and allowing it to straighten when in place; — often with ‘in’, ‘out’, etc.; as, to spring in a slat or a bar. 7. Def.: To pass over by leaping; as, to spring a fence.
To spring a butt

(Naut.), to loosen the end of a plank in a ship’s bottom.
To spring a leak

(Naut.), to begin to leak.
To spring an arch

(Arch.), to build an arch; — a common term among masons; as, to spring an arcg over a lintel.
To spring a rattle

, to cause a rattle to sound.

See Watchman’s rattle, under Watchman. —
To spring the luff

(Naut.), to ease the helm, and sail nearer to the wind than before; — said of a vessel. Mar.

Dict. —
To spring a mast

(Naut.), to strain it so that it is unserviceable. Spring, n.

Etym. [AS. spring a fountain, a leap.

See Spring, v.

I.] 1. Def.: A leap; a bound; a jump. The prisoner, with a spring, from prison broke. Dryden. 2. Def.: A flying back; the resilience of a body recovering its former state by elasticity; as, the spring of a bow. 3. Def.: Elastic power or force. Heavens! what a spring was in his arm! Dryden. 4. Def.: An elastic body of any kind, as steel, India rubber, tough wood, or compressed air, used for various mechanical purposes, as receiving and imparting power, diminishing concussion, regulating motion, measuring weight or other force. 5. Def.: Any source of supply; especially, the source from which a stream proceeds; as issue of water from the earth; a natural fountain. \’bdAll my ‘springs’ are in thee.\’b8 Ps.

L”vii. 7. \’bdA secret ‘spring’ of spiritual joy.\’b8 Bentley. \’bdThe sacred ‘spring’ whence and honor streams.\’b8 Sir J.

Davies. 6. Def.: Any active power; that by which action, or motion, is produced or propagated; cause; origin; motive. Our author shuns by vulgar springs to move The hero’s glory, or the virgin’s love. Pope. 7. Def.: That which springs, or is originated, from a source; as: (a) A race; lineage. [Obs.] Chapman. (b) Def.: A youth; a springal. [Obs.] Spenser. (c) Def.: A shoot; a plant; a young tree; also, a grove of trees; woodland. [Obs.] Spenser.

Milton. 8. Def.: That which causes one to spring; specifically, a lively tune. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. 9. Def.: The season of the year when plants begin to vegetate and grow; the vernal season, usually comprehending the months of March, April, and May, in the middle latitudes north of the equator. \’bdThe green lap of the new-come ‘spring’.\’b8 Shak. 10. Def.: The time of growth and progress; early portion; first stage. \’bdThe ‘spring’ of the day.\’b8 1 Sam.

Ix. 26. O how this spring of love resembleth The uncertain glory of an April day. Shak. 11. (Naut.) (a) Def.: A crack or fissure in a mast or yard, running obliquely or transversely. (b) Def.: A line led from a vessel’s quarter to her cable so that by tightening or slacking it she can be made to lie in any desired position; a line led diagonally from the bow or stern of a vessel to some point upon the wharf to which she is moored.
Air spring

Boiling spring

, etc.

See under Air, Boiling, etc. —
Spring back

(Bookbinding), a back with a curved piece of thin sheet iron or of stiff pasteboard fastened to the inside, the effect of which is to make the leaves of a book thus bound (as a ledger or other account or blank book) spring up and lie flat.
Spring balance

, a contrivance for measuring weight or force by the elasticity of a spiral spring of steel.
Spring beam

, a beam that supports the side of a paddle box.

See Paddle beam, under Paddle, n. —
Spring beauty

. (a) (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Claytonia, delicate herbs with somewhat fleshy leaves and pretty blossoms, appearing in springtime. (b) (Zool.) A small, elegant American butterfly (Erora loeta) which appears in spring.

The hind wings of the male are brown, bordered with deep blue; those of the female are mostly blue. —
Spring bed

, a mattress, under bed, or bed bottom, in which springs, as of metal, are employed to give the required elasticity.
Spring beetle

(Zool.), a snapping beetle; an elater.
Spring box

, the box or barrel in a watch, or other piece of mechanism, in which the spring is contained.
Spring fly

(Zool.), a caddice fly; — so called because it appears in the spring.
Spring grass

(Bot.), a vernal grass.

See under Vernal. —
Spring gun

, a firearm disharged by a spring, when this is trodden upon or is otherwise moved.
Spring hook

(Locomotive Engines), one of the hooks which fix the driving-wheel spring to the frame.
Spring latch

, a latch that fastens with a spring. <-- p. 1394 --> —
Spring lock

, a lock that fastens with a spring.
Spring mattress

, a spring bed.
Spring of an arch

(Arch.) See Springing line of an arch, under Springing.
Spring of pork

, the lower part of a fore quarter, which is divided from the neck, and has the leg and foot without the shoulder. [Obs.] Nares. Sir, pray hand the spring of pork to me. Gayton.
Spring pin

(Locomotive Engines), an iron rod fitted between the springs and the axle boxes, to sustain and regulate the pressure on the axles.
Spring rye

, a kind of rye sown in the spring; — in distinction from ‘winter rye’, sown in autumn.
Spring stay

(Naut.), a preventer stay, to assist the regular one. R.


Dana, Jr. —
Spring tide

, the tide which happens at, or soon after, the new and the full moon, and which rises higher than common tides. See Tide. —
Spring wagon

, a wagon in which springs are interposed between the body and the axles to form elastic supports.
Spring wheat

, any kind of wheat sown in the spring; — in distinction from ‘winter wheat’, which is sown in autumn. { Springal, Springald (?), Springall }, a.

Etym. [Scot. springald, springel, fr.

Scot. & E. spring.] Def.: An active, springly young man. [Obs.] \’bdThere came two ‘springals’ of full tender years.\’b8 Spenser. Joseph, when he was sold to Potiphar, that great man, was a fair young springall. Latimer. Springal, n.

Etym. [OF. espringale; of Teutonic origin, akin to E. spring.] Def.: An ancient military engine for casting stones and arrows by means of a spring. Springboard, n.

Def.: An elastic board, secured at the ends, or at one end, often by elastic supports, used in performing feats of agility or in exercising. { \’d8Springbok, Springbuck }, n.

Etym. [D. springbok; springen to spring, leap + bok a he-goat, buck.] (Zool.) Def.: A South African gazelle (Gazella euchore) noted for its graceful form and swiftness, and for its peculiar habit of springing lighty and suddenly into the air.

It has a white dorsal stripe, expanding into a broad patch of white on the rump and tail.

Called also springer. [Written also springboc, and springbock.] Springe, n.

Etym. [From Spring, v.

I.: cf.

G. sprenkel, Prov.

E. springle.] Def.: A noose fastened to an elastic body, and drawn close with a sudden spring, whereby it catches a bird or other animal; a gin; a snare. As a woodcock to mine own springe. Shak. Springe, v.


Def.: To catch in a springe; to insnare. [R.] Springe (? , v.


Etym. [OE. sprengen.

See Sprinkle.] Def.: To sprinkle; to scatter. [Obs.] He would sowen some difficulty, Or springen cockle in our cleane corn. Chaucer. Springer, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, springs; specifically, one who rouses game. 2. Def.: A young plant. [Obs.] Evelyn. 3. (Arch.) (a) Def.: The impost, or point at which an arch rests upon its support, and from which it seems to spring.

Hence: (b) Def.: The bottom stone of an arch, which lies on the impost.

The skew back is one form of springer. (c) Def.: The rib of a groined vault, as being the solid abutment for each section of vaulting. 4. (Zool.) Def.: The grampus. 5. (Zool.) Def.: A variety of the field spaniel.

See Spaniel. 6. (Zool.) Def.: A species of antelope; the sprinkbok. Springhalt, n. (Far.) Def.: A kind of lameness in horse.

See Stringhalt. Shak. Springhead, n.

Def.: A fountain or source. Springiness, n.

Def.: The state or quality of being springly. Boyle. Springing, n. 1. Def.: The act or process of one who, or that which, springs. 2. Def.: Growth; increase; also, that which springs up; a shoot; a plant. Thou blessest the springing thereof. Ps.

Lxv. 10.
Springing line of an arch

(Arch.), the horizontal line drawn through the junction of the vertical face of the impost with the curve of the intrados; — called also spring of an arch. — Stainless, a.

Def.: Free from stain; immaculate. Shak. The veery care he took to keep his name Stainless, with some was evidence of shame. Crabbe. Syn. — Blameless; spotless; faultless.

See Blameless. Stainlessly, adv.

Def.: In a stainless manner. Stair, n.

Etym. [OE. steir, steyer, AS. st, from to ascend, rise. See Sty to ascend.] 1. Def.: One step of a series for ascending or descending to a different level; — commonly applied to those within a building. 2. Def.: A series of steps, as for passing from one story of a house to another; — commonly used in the plural; but originally used in the singular only. \’bdI a winding ‘stair’ found.\’b8 Chaucer’s Dream.
Below stairs

, in the basement or lower part of a house, where the servants are.
Flight of stairs

, the stairs which make the whole ascent of a story.
Pair of stairs

, a set or flight of stairs. — ‘pair’, in this phrase, having its old meaning of a ‘set’.

See Pair, n., 1. —
Run of stars

(Arch.), a single set of stairs, or section of a stairway, from one platform to the next.
Stair rod

, a rod, usually of metal, for holding a stair carpet to its place.
Up stairs

. See Upstairs in the Vocabulary. Staircase, n.

Def.: A flight of stairs with their supporting framework, casing, balusters, etc. To make a complete staircase is a curious piece of architecture. Sir H.

Staircase shell

. (Zool.) (a) Any scalaria, or wentletrap. (b) Any species of Solarium, or perspective shell. Stairhead, n.

Def.: The head or top of a staircase. Stairway, n.

Def.: A flight of stairs or steps; a staircase. \’bdA rude and narrow ‘stairway’.\’b8 Moore. Staith, n.

Etym. [AS. stoe a bank, shore, from the root of E. stead.] Def.: A landing place; an elevated staging upon a wharf for discharging coal, etc., as from railway cars, into vessels. Staithman, n.

Def.: A man employed in weighing and shipping at a staith. [Eng.] Stake, n.

Etym. [AS. staca, from the root of E. stick; akin to OFries. & LG. stake, D. staak, Sw.

Stake, Dan. stage.

See Stick, v.

T., and cf. Estacade, Stockade.] 1. Def.: A piece of wood, usually long and slender, pointed at one end so as to be easily driven into the ground as a support or stay; as, a stake to support vines, fences, hedges, etc. A sharpened stake strong Dryas found. Dryden. 2. Def.: A stick inserted upright in a lop, eye, or mortise, at the side or end of a cart, a flat car, or the like, to prevent goods from falling off. 3. Def.: The piece of timber to which a martyr was affixed to be burned; hence, martyrdom by fire. 4. Def.: A small anvil usually furnished with a tang to enter a hole in a bench top, — used by tinsmiths, blacksmiths, etc., for light work, punching upon, etc. 5. Def.: That which is laid down as a wager; that which is staked or hazarded; a pledge.
At stake

, in danger; hazarded; pledged. \’bdI see my reputation is ‘at stake’.\’b8 Shak. Stake, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Staked; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Staking.] 1. Def.: To fasten, support, or defend with stakes; as, to stake vines or plants. 2. Def.: To mark the limits of by stakes; — with ‘out’; as, to stake out land; to stake out a new road. 3. Def.: To put at hazard upon the issue of competition, or upon a future contingency; to wager; to pledge. I’ll stake yon lamb, that near the fountain plays. Pope. 4. Def.: To pierce or wound with a stake. Spectator. Stake-driver, n. (Zool.) Def.: The common American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus); — so called because one of its notes resembles the sound made in driving a stake into the mud.

Called also meadow hen, and Indian hen. Stakehead, n. (Rope making) Def.: A horizontal bar on a stake, used for supporting the yarns which are kept apart by pins in the bar. Stakeholder, n.

Def.: The holder of a stake; one with whom the bets are deposited when a wager is laid. Staktometer, n.

Etym. [Gr. -meter.] Def.: A drop measurer; a glass tube tapering to a small orifice at the point, and having a bulb in the middle, used for finding the number of drops in equal quantities of different liquids.

See Pipette. Sir D.

Brewster. Stal, obs. imp. of Steal.

Def.: Stole. { Stalactic, Stalactical (?) }, a. (Geol.) Def.: Stalactic. Stalactoform, a.

Def.: Like a stalactite; resembling a stalactite. Stalactite, n.; pl. Stalactites .

Etym. [Gr. F. stalactite.] (Geol.) (a) Def.: A pendent cone or cylinder of calcium carbonate resembling an icicle in form and mode of attachment.

Stalactites are found depending from the roof or sides of caverns, and are produced by deposition from waters which have percolated through, and partially dissolved, the overlying limestone rocks. (b) Def.: In an extended sense, any mineral or rock of similar form and origin; as, a stalactite of lava. \’d8Stalactites, n.

Etym. [NL.] Def.: A stalactite. [Obs.] Woodward. { Stalactitic, Stalactitical }, a.

Etym. [Cf.

F. stalactitique.] (Geol.) Def.: Of or pertaining to a stalactite; having the form or characters of a stalactite; stalactic. Stalactitiform, a.

Def.: Having the form of a stalactite; stalactiform. Stalagmite, n.

Etym. [Gr. F. stalagmite.] (Geol.) Def.: A deposit more or less resembling an inverted stalactite, formed by calcareous water dropping on the floors of caverns; hence, a similar deposit of other material. { Stalagmitic, Stalagmitical }, a.

Def.: Having the form or structure of stalagmites. — Stalagmitically, adv. — Statute, n.

Etym. [F. statut, LL. statutum, from L. statutus, p.p.

Of statuere to set, station, ordain, fr. status position, station, fr. stare, statum, to stand.

See Stand, and cf. Constitute, Destitute.] 1. Def.: An act of the legislature of a state or country, declaring, commanding, or prohibiting something; a positive law; the written will of the legislature expressed with all the requisite forms of legislation; — used in distinction fraom common law.

See Common law, under Common, a. Bouvier. In monarchies, legislature laws of the sovereign are called ‘edicts’, ‘decrees’, ‘ordinances’, ‘rescripts’, etc.

In works on international law and in the Roman law, the term is used as embracing all laws imposed by competent authority.

Statutes in this sense are divided into statutes real, statutes personal, and statutes mixed; ‘statutes real’ applying to immovables; ‘statutes personal’ to movables; and ‘statutes mixed’ to both classes of property. 2. Def.: An act of a corporation or of its founder, intended as a permanent rule or law; as, the statutes of a university. 3. Def.: An assemblage of farming servants (held possibly by statute) for the purpose of being hired; — called also statute fair. [Eng.] Cf. 3d Mop, 2. Halliwell.
Statute book

, a record of laws or legislative acts. Blackstone. —
Statute cap

, a kind of woolen cap; — so called because enjoined to be worn by a statute, dated in 1571, in behalf of the trade of cappers. [Obs.] Halliwell. —
Statute fair

. See Statute, n., 3, above.
Statute labor

, a definite amount of labor required for the public service in making roads, bridges, etc., as in certain English colonies.
Statute merchant


Law), a bond of record pursuant to the stat. 13 Edw.

I., acknowledged in form prescribed, on which, if not paid at the day, an execution might be awarded against the body, lands, and goods of the debtor, and the obligee might hold the lands until out of the rents and profits of them the debt was satisfied; — called also a pocket judgment.

It is now fallen into disuse. Tomlins. Bouvier. —
Statute mile

. See under Mile.
Statute of limitations

(Law), a statute assigned a certain time, after which rights can not be enforced by action.
Statute staple

, a bond of record acknowledged before the mayor of the staple, by virtue of which the creditor may, on nonpayment, forthwith have execution against the body, lands, and goods of the debtor, as in the ‘statute merchant’.

It is now disused. Blackstone. Syn. — Act; regulation; edict; decree.

See Law. <-- p. 1407 --> Statutory, a.

Def.: Enacted by statute; depending on statute for its authority; as, a statutory provision. { Staunch, Staunchly, Staunchness, etc. } Def.: See Stanch, Stanchly, etc. Staurolite, n.

Etym. [Gr. -lite.] (Min.) Def.: A mineral of a brown to black color occurring in prismatic crystals, often twinned so as to form groups resembling a cross.

It is a silicate of aluminia and iron, and is generally found imbedded in mica schist.

Called also granatite, and grenatite. Staurolitic, a. (Min.) Def.: Of or pertaining to staurolite; resembling or containing staurolite. Stauroscope, n.

Etym. [Gr. -scope.] (Crystallog.) Def.: An optical instrument used in determining the position of the planes of light-vibration in sections of crystals. Staurotide, n.

Etym. [F. staurotide, from Gr. (Min.) Def.: Staurolite. Stave, n.

Etym. [From Staff, and corresponding to the pl. staves.

See Staff.] 1. Def.: One of a number of narrow strips of wood, or narrow iron plates, placed edge to edge to form the sides, covering, or lining of a vessel or structure; esp., one of the strips which form the sides of a cask, a pail, etc. 2. Def.: One of the cylindrical bars of a lantern wheel; one of the bars or rounds of a rack, a ladder, etc. 3. Def.: A metrical portion; a stanza; a staff. Let us chant a passing stave In honor of that hero brave. Wordsworth. 4. (Mus.) Def.: The five horizontal and parallel lines on and between which musical notes are written or pointed; the staff. [Obs.]
Stave jointer

, a machine for dressing the edges of staves. Stave, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Staved or Stove (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Staving.] Etym. [From Stave, n., or Staff, n.] 1. Def.: To break in a stave or the staves of; to break a hole in; to burst; — often with ‘in’; as, to stave a cask; to stave in a boat. 2. Def.: To push, as with a staff; — with ‘off’. The condition of a servant staves him off to a distance. South. 3. Def.: To delay by force or craft; to drive away; — usually with ‘off’; as, to stave off the execution of a project. And answered with such craft as women use, Guilty or guilties, to stave off a chance That breaks upon them perilously. Tennyson. 4. Def.: To suffer, or cause, to be lost by breaking the cask. All the wine in the city has been staved. Sandys. 5. Def.: To furnish with staves or rundles. Knolles. 6. Def.: To render impervious or solid by driving with a calking iron; as, to stave lead, or the joints of pipes into which lead has been run.
To stave and tail

, in bear baiting, (‘to stave’) to interpose with the staff, doubtless to stop the bear; (‘to tail’) to hold back the dog by the tail. Nares. Stave, v.


Def.: To burst in pieces by striking against something; to dash into fragments. Like a vessel of glass she stove and sank. Longfellow. Staves, n.; Def.: pl.

Of Staff. \’bdBanners, scarves and ‘staves’.\’b8 R.

Browning. Also (st, Def.: pl.

Of Stave. Stavesacre, n.

Etym. [Corrupted from NL. staphis agria, Gr. (Bot.) Def.: A kind of larkspur (Delphinium Staphysagria), and its seeds, which are violently purgative and emetic.

They are used as a parasiticide, and in the East for poisoning fish. Stavewood, n. (Bot.) Def.: A tall tree (Simaruba amara) growing in tropical America.

It is one of the trees which yields quassia. Staving, n.

Def.: A cassing or lining of staves; especially, one encircling a water wheel. Staw, v.


Etym. [Cf.

Dan. staae to stand, Sw. st\’86. \’fb163.] Def.: To be fixed or set; to stay. [Prov.

Eng.] Stay, n.

Etym. [AS. stoeg, akin to D., G., Icel., Sw., & Dan. stag; cf.

OF. estai, F. étai, of Teutonic origin.] (Naut.) Def.: A large, strong rope, employed to support a mast, by being extended from the head of one mast down to some other, or to some part of the vessel.

Those which lead forward are called ‘fore-and-aft stays’; those which lead to the vessel’s side are called ‘backstays’.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Ship.
In stays

, Hove in stays

(Naut.), in the act or situation of staying, or going about from one tack to another. R.


Dana, Jr. —
Stay holes

(Naut.), openings in the edge of a staysail through which the hanks pass which join it to the stay.
Stay tackle

(Naut.), a tackle attached to a stay and used for hoisting or lowering heavy articles over the side.
To miss stays

(Naut.), to fail in the attempt to go about. Totten. —
Triatic stay

(Naut.), a rope secured at the ends to the heads of the foremast and mainmast with thimbles spliced to its bight into which the stay tackles hook. Stay, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stayed or Staid (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Staying.] Etym. [OF. estayer, F. étayer to prop, fr.

OF. estai, F. étai, a prop, probably fr.

OD. stade, staeye, a prop, akin to E. stead; or cf. stay a rope to support a mast.

Cf. Staid, a., Stay, v.

I.] 1. Def.: To stop from motion or falling; to prop; to fix firmly; to hold up; to support. Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side. Ex.

Xvii. 12. Sallows and reeds . . .

For vineyards useful found To stay thy vines. Dryden. 2. Def.: To support from sinking; to sustain with strength; to satisfy in part or for the time. He has devoured a whole loaf of bread and butter, and it has not staid his stomach for a minute. Sir W.

Scott. 3. Def.: To bear up under; to endure; to support; to resist successfully. She will not stay the siege of loving terms, Nor bide the encounter of assailing eyes. Shak. 4. Def.: To hold from proceeding; to withhold; to restrain; to stop; to hold. Him backward overthrew and down him stayed With their rude hands grisly grapplement. Spenser. All that may stay their minds from thinking that true which they heartly wish were false. Hooker. 5. Def.: To hindeYour ships are stayed at Venice. Shak. This business staid me in London almost a week. Evelyn. I was willing to stay my reader on an argument that appeared to me new. Locke. 6. Def.: To remain for the purpose of; to wait for. \’bdI ‘stay’ dinner there.\’b8 Shak. 7. Def.: To cause to cease; to put an end to. Stay your strife. Shak. For flattering planets seemed to say This child should ills of ages stay. Emerson. 8. (Engin.) Def.: To fasten or secure with stays; as, to stay a flat sheet in a steam boiler. 9. (Naut.) Def.: To tack, as a vessel, so that the other side of the vessel shall be presented to the wind.
To stay a mast

(Naut.), to incline it forward or aft, or to one side, by the stays and backstays. Stay, v.


Etym. [\’fb163.

See Stay to hold up, prop.] 1. Def.: To remain; to continue in a place; to abide fixed for a space of time; to stop; to stand still. She would command the hasty sun to stay. Spenser. Stay, I command you; stay and hear me first. Dryden. I stay a little longer, as one stays To cover up the embers that still burn. Longfellow. 2. Def.: To continue in a state. The flames augment, and stay At their full height, then languish to decay. Dryden. 3. Def.: To wait; to attend; to forbear to act. I’ll tell thee all my whole device When I am in my coach, which stays for us. Shak. The father can not stay any longer for the fortune. Locke. 4. Def.: To dwell; to tarry; to linger. I must stay a little on one action. Dryden. 5. Def.: To rest; to depend; to rely; to stand; to insist. I stay here on my bond. Shak. Ye despise this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, and stay thereon. Isa.

“. 12. 6. Def.: To come to an end; to cease; as, that day the storm stayed. [Archaic] Here my commission stays. Shak. 7. Def.: To hold out in a race or other contest; as, a horse stays well. [Colloq.] 8. (Naut.) Def.: To change tack; as a ship. Stay, n.

Etym. [Cf.

OF. estai, F. étai support, and E. stay a rope to support a mast.] 1. Def.: That which serves as a prop; a support. \’bdMy only strength and ‘stay’.\’b8 Milton. Trees serve as so many stays for their vines. Addison. Lord Liverpool is the single stay of this ministry. Coleridge. 2. pl. Def.: A corset stiffened with whalebone or other material, worn by women, and rarely by men. How the strait stays the slender waist constrain. Gay. 3. Def.: Continuance in a place; abode for a space of time; sojourn; as, you make a short stay in this city. Make haste, and leave thy business and thy care; No mortal interest can be worth thy stay. Dryden. Embrace the hero and his stay implore. Waller. 4. Def.: Cessation of motion or progression; stand; stop. Made of sphere metal, never to decay Until his revolution was at stay. Milton. Affairs of state seemed rather to stand at a stay. Hayward. 5. Def.: Hindrance; let; check. [Obs.] They were able to read good authors without any stay, if the book were not false. Robynson (more’s Utopia). 6. Def.: Restraint of passion; moderation; caution; steadiness; sobriety. [Obs.] \’bdNot grudging that thy lust hath bounds and ‘stays’.\’b8 Herbert. The wisdom, stay, and moderation of the king. Bacon. With prudent stay he long deferred The rough contention. Philips. 7. (Engin.) Def.: Strictly, a part in tension to hold the parts together, or stiffen them.
Stay bolt

(Mech.), a bolt or short rod, connecting opposite plates, so as to prevent them from being bulged out when acted upon by a pressure which tends to force them apart, as in the leg of a steam boiler.
Stay busk

, a stiff piece of wood, steel, or whalebone, for the front support of a woman’s stays.

Cf. Busk. —
Stay rod

, a rod which acts as a stay, particularly in a steam boiler. Stayed, a.

Def.: Staid; fixed; settled; sober; — now written ‘staid’.

See Staid. Bacon.

Pope. Stayedly, adv.

Def.: Staidly.

See Staidly. [R.] Stayedness, n. 1. Def.: Staidness. [Archaic] W.

Whately. 2. Def.: Solidity; weight. [R.] Camden. Stayer, n.

Def.: One who upholds or supports that which props; one who, or that which, stays, stops, or restrains; also, colloquially, a horse, man, etc., that has endurance, an a race. Staylace, n.

Def.: A lace for fastening stays. — Stealthful, a.

Def.: Given to stealth; stealthy. [Obs.]Stealthfully, adv. [Obs.]Stealthfulness, n. [Obs.] Stealthily, adv.

Def.: In a stealthy manner. Stealthiness, n.

Def.: The state, quality, or character of being stealthy; stealth. Stealthlike, a.

Def.: Stealthy; sly. Wordsworth. Stealthy, a. [Compar. Stealthier; superl. Stealthiest.] Def.: Done by stealth; accomplished clandestinely; unperceived; secret; furtive; sly. [Withered murder] with his stealthy pace, . . .

Moves like a ghost. Shak. Steam, n.

Etym. [OE. stem, steem, vapor, flame, AS. ste\’a0m vapor, smoke, odor; akin to D. stoom steam, perhaps originally, a pillar, or something rising like a pillar; cf.

Gr. stand.] 1. Def.: The elastic, a\’89riform fluid into which water is converted when heated to the boiling points; water in the state of vapor. 2. Def.: The mist formed by condensed vapor; visible vapor; — so called in popular usage. 3. Def.: Any exhalation. \’bdA ‘steam’ og rich, distilled perfumes.\’b8 Milton.
Dry steam

, steam which does not contain water held in suspension mechanically; — sometimes applied to superheated steam.
Exhaust steam

. See under Exhaust.
High steam

, High-pressure steam

, steam of which the pressure greatly exceeds that of the atmosphere.
Low steam

, Low-pressure steam

, steam of which the pressure is less than, equal to, or not greatly above, that of the atmosphere.
Saturated steam

, steam at the temperature of the boiling point which corresponds to its pressure; — sometimes also applied to wet steam.
Superheated steam

, steam heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point corresponding to its pressure.

It can not exist in contact with water, nor contain water, and resembles a perfect gas; — called also surcharged steam, anhydrous steam, and steam gas. —
Wet steam

, steam which contains water held in suspension mechanically; — called also misty steam.
Steam blower

. (a) A blower for producing a draught consisting of a jet or jets of steam in a chimney or under a fire. (b) A fan blower driven directly by a steam engine.
Steam boiler

, a boiler for producing steam.

See Boiler, 3, and Note.

In the illustration, the shell ‘a’ of the boiler is partly in section, showing the tubes, or flues, which the hot gases, from the fire beneath the boiler, enter, after traversing the outside of the shell, and through which the gases are led to the smoke pipe ‘d’, which delivers them to the chimney; ‘b’ is the manhole; ‘c’ the dome; ‘e’ the steam pipe; ‘f’ the feed and blow-off pipe; ‘g’ the safety value; ‘h’the water gauge. —
Steam car

, a car driven by steam power, or drawn by a locomotive.
Steam carriage

, a carriage upon wheels moved on common roads by steam.
Steam casing

. See Steam jacket, under Jacket.
Steam chest

, the box or chamber from which steam is distributed to the cylinder of a steam engine, steam pump, etc., and which usually contains one or more values; — called also valve chest, and valve box.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Slide valve, under Slide. —
Steam chimney

, an annular chamber around the chimney of a boiler furnace, for drying steam.
Steam coil

, a coil of pipe, or collection of connected pipes, for containing steam; — used for heating, drying, etc.
Steam colors

(Calico Printing), colors in which the chemical reaction fixed the coloring matter in the fiber is produced by steam.
Steam cylinder

, the cylinder of a steam engine, which contains the piston.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Slide valve, under Slide. —
Steam dome

(Steam Boilers), a chamber upon the top of the boiler, from which steam is conduced to the engine.

See ‘Illust’.

Of ‘Steam boiler’, above. —
Steam fire engine

, a fire engine consisting of a steam boiler and engine, and pump which is driven by the engine, combined and mounted on wheels.

It is usually drawn by horses, but is sometimes made self-propelling. —
Steam fitter

, a fitter of steam pipes.
Steam fitting

, the act or the occupation of a steam fitter; also, a pipe fitting for steam pipes.
Steam gas

. See Superheated steam, above.
Steam gauge

, an instrument for indicating the pressure of the steam in a boiler.

The mercurial steam gauge is a bent tube partially filled with mercury, one end of which is connected with the boiler while the other is open to the air, so that the steam by its pressure raises the mercury in the long limb of the tume to a height proportioned to that pressure.

A more common form, especially for high pressures, consists of a spring pressed upon by the steam, and connected with the pointer of a dial.

The spring may be a flattened, bent tube, closed at one end, which the entering steam tends to straighten, or it may be a diaphragm of elastic metal, or a mass of confined air, etc. —
Steam gun

, a machine or contrivance from which projectiles may be thrown by the elastic force of steam.
Steam hammer

, a hammer for forging, which is worked directly by steam; especially, a hammer which is guided vertically and operated by a vertical steam cylinder located directly over an anvil.

In the variety known as ‘Nasmyth’s’, the cylinder is fixed, and the hammer is attached to the piston rod.

In that known as ‘Condie’s’, the piston is fixed, and the hammer attached to the lower end of the cylinder. —
Steam heater

. (a) A radiator heated by steam. (b) An apparatus consisting of a steam boiler, radiator, piping, and fixures for warming a house by steam.
Steam jacket

. See under Jacket.
Steam packet

, a packet or vessel propelled by steam, and running periodically between certain ports.
Steam pipe

, any pipe for conveying steam; specifically, a pipe through which steam is supplied to an engine.
Steam plow


, a plow, or gang of plows, moved by a steam engine.
Steam port

, an opening for steam to pass through, as from the steam chest into the cylinder.
Steam power

, the force or energy of steam applied to produce results; power derived from a steam engine.
Steam propeller

. See Propeller.
Steam pump

, a small pumping engine operated by steam.

It is usually direct-acting. —
Steam room

(Steam Boilers), the space in the boiler above the water level, and in the dome, which contains steam.
Steam table

, a table on which are dishes heated by steam for keeping food warm in the carving room of a hotel, restaurant, etc.
Steam trap

, a self-acting device by means of which water that accumulates in a pipe or vessel containing steam will be discharged without permitting steam to escape.
Steam tug

, a steam vessel used in towing or propelling ships.
Steam vessel

, a vessel propelled by steam; a steamboat or steamship; — a steamer.
Steam whistle

, an apparatus attached to a steam boiler, as of a locomotive, through which steam is rapidly discharged, producing a loud whistle which serves as a warning signal.

The steam issues from a narrow annular orifice around the upper edge of the lower cup or hemisphere, striking the thin edge of the bell above it, and producing sound in the manner of an organ pipe or a common whistle. Steam, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Steamed (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Steaming.] 1. Def.: To emit steam or vapor. My brother’s ghost hangs hovering there, O’er his warm blood, that steams into the air. Dryden. Let the crude humors dance In heated brass, steaming with fire intence. J.

Philips. 2. Def.: To rise in vapor; to issue, or pass off, as vapor. The dissolved amber . . . steamed away into the air. Boyle. 3. Def.: To move or travel by the agency of steam. The vessel steamed out of port. N.


Willis. 4. Def.: To generate steam; as, the boiler steams well. Steam, v.

T. 1. Def.: To exhale. [Obs.] Spenser. 2. Def.: To expose to the action of steam; to apply steam to for softening, dressing, or preparing; as, to steam wood; to steamcloth; to steam food, etc. Steamboat, n.

Def.: A boat or vessel propelled by steam power; — generally used of river or coasting craft, as distinguished from ocean steamers. Steamboating, n. 1. Def.: The occupation or business of running a steamboat, or of transporting merchandise, passengers, etc., by steamboats. 2. (Bookbinding) Def.: The shearing of a pile of books which are as yet uncovered, or out of boards. Knight. Steam engine.

Def.: An engine moved by steam. The piston works in the cylinder, to which steam is admitted by the action of the valve gear, and communicates motion to the machinery to be actuated.

Steam engines are thus classified: 1.

According to the wat the steam is used or applied, as ‘condencing’, ‘noncondencing’, ‘compound’, ‘double-acting’, ‘single-acting’, ‘triple-expansion’, etc. 2.

According to the motion of the piston, as ‘reciprocating’, ‘rotary’, etc. 3.

According to the motion imparted by the engine, as ‘rotative’ and ‘nonrotative’. 4.

According to the arrangement of the engine, as ‘stationary’, ‘portable’, and ‘semiportable’ engines, ‘beam’ engine, ‘oscillating’ engine, ‘direct-acting’ and ‘back-acting’ engines, etc. 5.

According to their uses, as ‘portable’, ‘marine’, ‘locomotive’, ‘pumping’, ‘blowing’, ‘winding’, and ‘stationary’ engines. ‘Locomotive’ and ‘portable’ engines are usually high-pressure, noncondencing, rotative, and direct-acting. ‘Marine’ engines are high or low pressure, rotative, and generally condencing, double-acting, and compound. ‘Paddle’ engines are generally beam, sideA horizontal or inclined stationary steam engine is called a ‘left-hand’ or a ‘right-hand’ engine when the crank shaft and driving pulley are on the left-hand side, or the right-hand side, respectively, or the engine, to a person looking at them from the cylinder, and is said to run ‘forward’ or ‘backward’ when the crank traverses the upward half, or lower half, respectively, of its path, while the piston rod makes its stroke outward from the cylinder.

A marine engine, or the engine of a locomotive, is said to run forward when its motion is such as would propel the vessel or the locomotive forward.

Steam engines are further classified as ‘double-cylinder’, ‘disk’, ‘semicylinder’, ‘trunk’ engines, etc.

Machines, such as cranes, hammers, etc., of which the steam engine forms a part, are called ‘steam cranes’, ‘steam hammers’, etc.

See ‘Illustration’ in Appendix.

, Back-action

steam engine

, a steam engine in which the motion is transmitted backward from the crosshead to a crank which is between the crosshead and the cylinder, or beyond the cylinder.
Portable steam engine

, a steam engine combined with, and attached to, a boiler which is mounted on wheels so as to admit of easy transportation; — used for driving machinery in the field, as trashing machines, draining pumps, etc.
Semiportable steam engine

, a steam engine combined with, and attached to, a steam boiler, but not mounted on wheels. Steamer, n. 1. Def.: A vessel propelled by steam; a steamship or steamboat. 2. Def.: A steam fire engine.

See under Steam. 3. Def.: A road locomotive for use on common roads, as in agricultural operations. 4. Def.: A vessel in which articles are subjected to the action of steam, as in washing, in cookery, and in various processes of manufacture. 5. (Zool.) Def.: The steamer duck.
Steamer duck

(Zool.), a sea duck (Tachyeres cinereus), native of Patagonia and Terra del Fuego, which swims and dives with great agility, but which, when full grown, is incapable of flight, owing to its very small wings.

Called also loggerhead, race horse, and side wheel duck. Steaminess, n.

Def.: The quality or condition of being steamy; vaporousness; mistness. Steamship, n.

Def.: A ship or seagoing vessel propelled by the power of steam; a steamer. Steamy, a.

Def.: Consisting of, or resembling, steam; full of steam; vaporous; misty. Cowper. Stean, n. & v.

Def.: See Steen. Spenser. Steaningp, n.

Def.: See Steening. Steapsin, n. (Physiol Chem.) Def.: An unorganized ferment or enzyme present in pancreatic juice.

It decomposes neutral fats into glycerin and fatty acids. Stearate, n. (Chem.) Def.: A salt of stearic acid; as, ordinary soap consists largely of sodium or potassium stearates. <-- p. 1409 --> Stearic, a.

Etym. [Cf.

F. stéarique.] (Physiol.

Chem.) Def.: Pertaining to, or obtained from, stearin or tallow; resembling tallow.
Stearic acid

(Chem.), a monobasic fatty acid, obtained in the form of white crystalline scales, soluble in alcohol and ether.

It melts to an oily liquid at 69\’f8C.<-- b.p. 383C18H36O2, CH3.(CH2)16.COOH; sodium stearate, with sodium palmitate, is the main component of ordinary bar soaps (Such as Ivory soap). –> Stearin, n.

Etym. [Gr. F. stéarine.] (Physiol.

Chem.) Def.: One of the constituents of animal fats and also of some vegetable fats, as the butter of cacao.

It is especially characterized by its solidity, so that when present in considerable quantity it materially increases the hardness, or raises the melting point, of the fat, as in mutton tallow.

Chemically, it is a compound of glyceryl with three molecules of stearic acid, and hence is technically called ‘tristearin’, or ‘glyceryl tristearate’. Stearolic, a.

Etym. [Stearic + oleic + -ic.] (Chem.) Def.: Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid of the acetylene series, isologous with stearis acid, and obtained, as a white crystalline substance, from ole\’8bc acid. Stearone, n. (Chem.) Def.: The ketone of stearic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance, (C17H35)2.CO, by the distillation of calcium stearate. Stearoptene, n.

Etym. [Stearic + -optene as in eloeoptene.] (Chem.) Def.: The more solid ingredient of certain volatile oils; — contrasted with ‘eloeoptene’. \’d8Stearrhea, n.

Etym. [NL., from Gr. (Med.) Def.: seborrhea. Stearyl, n.

Etym. [Stearic + -yl.] (Chem.) Def.: The hypothetical radical characteristic of stearic acid. — Strid, n.

Etym. [See Stride.] Def.: A narrow passage between precipitous rocks or banks, which looks as if it might be crossed at a stride. [Prov.

Eng.] Howitt. This striding place is called the Strid. Wordsworth. Stride, v.

T. [imp. Strode (Obs. Strid (); p.

P. Stridden (Obs. Strid); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Striding.] Etym. [AS. str\’c6dan to stride, to strive; akin to LG. striden, OFries. str\’c6da to strive, D. strijden to strive, to contend, G. streiten, OHG. str\’c6tan; of uncertain origin.

Cf. Straddle.] 1. Def.: To walk with long steps, especially in a measured or pompous manner. Mars in the middle of the shining shield Is graved, and strides along the liquid field. Dryden. 2. Def.: To stand with the legs wide apart; to straddle. Stride, v.

T. 1. Def.: To pass over at a step; to step over. \’bdA debtor that not dares to ‘stride’ a limit.\’b8 Shak. 2. Def.: To straddle; to bestride. I mean to stride your steed. Shak. Stride, n.

Def.: The act of stridding; a long step; the space measured by a long step; as, a masculine stride. Pope. God never meant that man should scale the heavens By strides of human wisdom. Cowper. Strident, a.

Etym. [L. stridens, -entis, p.pr.

Of stridere to make a grating or creaking noise.] Def.: Characterized by harshness; grating; shrill. \’bdA ‘strident’ voice.\’b8 Thackeray. \’d8Stridor, n.

Etym. [L., from stridere to make any harsh, grating, or creaking sound.] Def.: A harsh, shrill, or creaking noise. Dryden. Stridulate, v.


Etym. [See Stridulous.] Def.: To make a shrill, creaking noise; specifically (Zool.), Def.: to make a shrill or musical sound, such as is made by the males of many insects. Stridulation, n.

Def.: The act of stridulating.

Specifically: (Zool.) (a) Def.: The act of making shrill sounds or musical notes by rubbing together certain hard parts, as is done by the males of many insects, especially by Orthoptera, such as crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts. (b) Def.: The noise itself. Many grasshoppers stridulate by rubbing the hind legs across strong nervures on the fore wings.

The green grasshoppers and katydids stridulate by means of special organs at the base of the fore wings. Stridulator, n.

Etym. [NL.] Def.: That which stridulates. Darwin. Stridulatory, a.

Def.: Stridulous; able to stridulate; used in stridulating; adapted for stridulation. Darwin. Stridulous, a.

Etym. [L. stridulus.

See Strident.] Def.: Making a shrill, creaking sound. Sir T.

Browne. The Sarmatian boor driving his stridulous cart. Longfellow.
Stridulous laryngitis

(Med.), a form of croup, or laryngitis, in children, associated with dyspn\’d2a, occurring usually at night, and marked by crowing or stridulous breathing. Strife, n.

Etym. [OF. estrif.

See Strive.] 1. Def.: The act of striving; earnest endeavor. [Archaic] Shak. 2. Def.: Exertion or contention for superiority; contest of emulation, either by intellectual or physical efforts. Doting about questions and strifes of words. 1 Tim.

Vi. 4. Thus gods contended — noble strife – Who most should ease the wants of life. Congreve. 3. Def.: Altercation; violent contention; fight; battle. Twenty of them fought in this black strife. Shak. These vows, thus granted, raised a strife above Betwixt the god of war and queen of love. Dryden. 4. Def.: That which is contended against; occasion of contest. [Obs.] \’bdLamenting her unlucky ‘strife’.\’b8 Spenser. Syn. — Contest; struggle; quarrel.

See Contention. Strifeful, a.

Def.: Contentious; discordant. The ape was strifeful and ambitious. Spenser. Strigate, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having transverse bands of color. \’d8Striges, n.


Etym. [L., pl.

Of strix a streech owl; cf.

Gr. (Zool.) Def.: The tribe of birds which comprises the owls. Strigil, n.

Etym. [L. strigilis, from stringere to graze, scrape.] (Gr. & Rom.

Antiq.) Def.: An instrument of metal, ivory, etc., used for scraping the skin at the bath. Strigillose, a.

Etym. [Dim.

Fr. strigose.] (Bot.) Def.: Set with stiff, slender bristles. Strigine, a. (Zool.) Def.: Of or pertaining to owls; owl-like. Strigment, n.

Etym. [L. strigmentum.] Def.: Scraping; that which is scraped off. [Obs.] Sir T.

Browne. Strigose, a.

Etym. [Cf.

F. strigueux.

See Strigil.] (Bot.) Def.: Set with stiff, straight bristles; hispid; as, a strigose leaf. Strigous, a. (Bot.) Def.: Strigose. [R.] <-- p. 1426 --> Strike, v.

T. [imp. Struck; p.

P. Struck, Stricken ( (Stroock (, Strucken (, Obs.); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Striking. ‘Struck’ is more commonly used in the p.p.

Than ‘stricken’.] Etym. [OE. striken to strike, proceed, flow, AS. str\’c6can to go, proceed, akin to D. strijken to rub, stroke, strike, to move, go, G. streichen, OHG. str\’c6hhan, L. stringere to touch lightly, to graze, to strip off (but perhaps not to L. stringere in sense to draw tight), striga a row, a furrow.

Cf. Streak, Stroke.] 1. Def.: To touch or hit with some force, either with the hand or with an instrument; to smite; to give a blow to, either with the hand or with any instrument or missile. He at Philippi kept His sword e’en like a dancer; while I struck The lean and wrinkled Cassius. Shak. 2. Def.: To come in collision with; to strike against; as, a bullet struck him; the wave struck the boat amidships; the ship struck a reef. 3. Def.: To give, as a blow; to impel, as with a blow; to give a force to; to dash; to cast. They shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two sideposts. Ex.

Xii. 7. Who would be free, themselves must strike the blow. Byron. 4. Def.: To stamp or impress with a stroke; to coin; as, to strike coin from metal: to strike dollars at the mint. 5. Def.: To thrust in; to cause to enter or penetrate; to set in the earth; as, a tree strikes its roots deep. 6. Def.: To punish; to afflict; to smite. To punish the just is not good, nor strike princes for equity. Prov.

Xvii. 26. 7. Def.: To cause to sound by one or more beats; to indicate or notify by audible strokes; as, the clock strikes twelve; the drums strike up a march. 8. Def.: To lower; to let or take down; to remove; as, to strike sail; to strike a flag or an ensign, as in token of surrender; to strike a yard or a topmast in a gale; to strike a tent; to strike the centering of an arch. 9. Def.: To make a sudden impression upon, as by a blow; to affect sensibly with some strong emotion; as, to strike the mind, with surprise; to strike one with wonder, alarm, dread, or horror. Nice works of art strike and surprise us most on the first view. Atterbury. They please as beauties, here as wonders strike. Pope. 10. Def.: To affect in some particular manner by a sudden impression or impulse; as, the plan proposed strikes me favorably; to strike one dead or blind. How often has stricken you dumb with his irony! Landor. 11. Def.: To cause or produce by a stroke, or suddenly, as by a stroke; as, to strike a light. Waving wide her myrtle wand, She strikes a universal peace through sea and land. Milton. 12. Def.: To cause to ignite; as, to strike a match. 13. Def.: To make and ratify; as, to strike a bargain. 14. Def.: To take forcibly or fraudulently; as, to strike money. [Old Slang] 15. Def.: To level, as a measure of grain, salt, or the like, by scraping off with a straight instrument what is above the level of the top. 16. (Masonry) Def.: To cut off, as a mortar joint, even with the face of the wall, or inward at a slight angle. 17. Def.: To hit upon, or light upon, suddenly; as, my eye struck a strange word; they soon struck the trail. 18. Def.: To borrow money of; to make a demand upon; as, he struck a friend for five dollars. [Slang] 19. Def.: To lade into a cooler, as a liquor. B.

Edwards. 20. Def.: To stroke or pass lightly; to wave. Behold, I thought, He will . . . strike his hand over the place, and recover the leper. 2 Kings v. 11. 21. Def.: To advance; to cause to go forward; — used only in past participle. \’bdWell ‘struck’ in years.\’b8 Shak.
To strike an attitude

To strike a balance

. See under Attitude, and Balance.
To strike a jury

(Law), to constitute a special jury ordered by a court, by each party striking out a certain number of names from a prepared list of jurors, so as to reduce it to the number of persons required by law. Burrill. —
To strike a lead

. (a) (Mining) To find a vein of ore. (b) Fig.: To find a way to fortune. [Colloq.]
To strike a ledger

, an account

, to balance it.
To strike hands with

. (a) To shake hands with. Halliwell. (b) To make a compact or agreement with; to agree with.
To strike off

. (a) To erase from an account; to deduct; as, to strike off the interest of a debt. (b) (Print.) To impress; to print; as, to strike off a thousand copies of a book.<-- = to run off? [copies] --> (c) To separate by a blow or any sudden action; as, to strike off what is superfluous or corrupt.
To strike oil

, to find petroleum when boring for it; figuratively, to make a lucky hit financially. [Slang, U.S.]
To strike one luck

, to shake hands with one and wish good luck. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.
To strike out

. (a) To produce by collision; to force out, as, to strike out sparks with steel. (b) To blot out; to efface; to erase. \’bdTo methodize is as necessary as ‘to strike out’.\’b8 Pope. (c) To form by a quick effort; to devise; to invent; to contrive, as, to strike out a new plan of finance. (d) (Baseball) To cause a player to strike out; — said of the pitcher.

See To strike out, under Strike, v.

I. —
To strike sail

. See under Sail.
To strike up

. (a) To cause to sound; to begin to beat. \’bd’Strike up’ the drums.\’b8 Shak. (b) To begin to sing or play; as, ‘to strike up’ a tune. (c) To raise (as sheet metal), in making diahes, pans, etc., by blows or pressure in a die.
To strike work

, to quit work; to go on a strike. Strike, v.


Def.: To move; to advance; to proceed; to take a course; as, to strike into the fields. A mouse . . . struck forth sternly [bodily]. Piers Plowman. 2. Def.: To deliver a quick blow or thrust; to give blows. And fiercely took his trenchant blade in hand, With which he stroke so furious and so fell. Spenser. Strike now, or else the iron cools. Shak. 3. Def.: To hit; to collide; to dush; to clash; as, a hammer strikes against the bell of a clock. 4. Def.: To sound by percussion, with blows, or as with blows; to be struck; as, the clock strikes. A deep sound strikes like a rising knell. Byron. 5. Def.: To make an attack; to aim a blow. A puny subject strikes At thy great glory. Shak. Struck for throne, and striking found his doom. Tennyson. 6. Def.: To touch; to act by appulse. Hinder light but from striking on it [porphyry], and its colors vanish. Locke. 7. Def.: To run upon a rock or bank; to be stranded; as, the ship struck in the night. 8. Def.: To pass with a quick or strong effect; to dart; to penetrate. Till a dart strike through his liver. Prov.

Vii. 23. Now and then a glittering beam of wit or passion strikes through the obscurity of the poem. Dryden. 9. Def.: To break forth; to commence suddenly; — with ‘into’; as, to strike into reputation; to strike into a run. 10. Def.: To lower a flag, or colors, in token of respect, or to signify a surrender of a ship to an enemy. That the English ships of war should not strike in the Danish seas. Bp.

Burnet. 11. Def.: To quit work in order to compel an increase, or prevent a reduction, of wages. 12. Def.: To become attached to something; — said of the spat of oysters. 13. Def.: To steal money. [Old Slang, Eng.] Nares.
To strike at

, to aim a blow at.
To strike for

, to start suddenly on a course for.
To strike home

, to give a blow which reaches its object, to strike with effect.
To strike in

. (a) To enter suddenly. (b) To disappear from the surface, with internal effects, as an eruptive disease. (c) To come in suddenly; to interpose; to interrupt. \’bdI proposed the embassy of Constantinople for Mr.

Henshaw, but my Lord Winchelsea ‘struck in’.\’b8 Evelyn. (d) To join in after another has begun,as in singing.
To strike in with

, to conform to; to suit itself to; to side with, to join with at once. \’bdTo assert this is ‘to strike in with’ the known enemies of God’s grace.\’b8 South.
To strike out

. (a) To start; to wander; to make a sudden excursion; as, to strike out into an irregular course of life. (b) To strike with full force. (c) (Baseball) To be put out for not hitting the ball during one’s turn at the bat.
To strike up

, to commence to play as a musician; to begin to sound, as an instrument. \’bdWhilst any trump did sound, or drum ‘struck up’.\’b8 Shak. Strike, n. 1. Def.: The act of striking. 2. Def.: An instrument with a straight edge for leveling a measure of grain, salt, and the like, scraping off what is above the level of the top; a strickle. 3. Def.: A bushel; four pecks. [Prov.

Eng.] Tusser. 4. Def.: An old measure of four bushels. [Prov.

Eng.] 5. Def.: Fullness of measure; hence, excellence of quality. Three hogsheads of ale of the first strike. Sir W.

Scott. 6. Def.: An iron pale or standard in a gate or fence. [Obs.] 7. Def.: The act of quitting work; specifically, such an act by a body of workmen, done as a means of enforcing compliance with demands made on their employer. Strikes are the insurrections of labor. F.


Walker. 8. (Iron Working) Def.: A puddler’s stirrer. 9. (Geol.) Def.: The horizontal direction of the outcropping edges of tilted rocks; or, the direction of a horizontal line supposed to be drawn on the surface of a tilted stratum.

It is at right angles to the dip. 10. Def.: The extortion of money, or the attempt to extort money, by threat of injury; blackmailing.
Strike block

(Carp.), a plane shorter than a jointer, used for fitting a short joint. Moxon. —
Strike of flax

, a handful that may be hackled at once. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] Chaucer. —
Strike of sugar

. (Sugar Making) (a) The act of emptying the teache, or last boiler, in which the cane juice is exposed to heat, into the coolers. (b) The quantity of the sirup thus emptied at once. Striker, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, strikes; specifically, a blacksmith’s helper who wieds the sledge. 2. Def.: A harpoon; also, a harpooner. Wherever we come to an anchor, we always send out our strikers, and put out hooks and lines overboard, to try fish. Dampier. 3. Def.: A wencher; a lewd man. [Obs.] Massinger. 4. Def.: A workman who is on a strike. 5. Def.: A blackmailer in politics; also, one whose political influence can be bought. [Political Cant] Striking, Def.: a. & n.

From Strike, v.
Striking distance

, the distance through which an object can be reached by striking; the distance at which a force is effective when directed to a particular object.<-- the distance which can be covered in one easy leg of a journey. --> —
Striking plate

. (a) The plate against which the latch of a door lock strikes as the door is closed. (b) A part of the centering of an arch, which is driven back to loosen the centering in striking it. — Surrenderor, n. (Law) Def.: One who makes a surrender, as of an estate. Bouvier. Surrendry, n.

Def.: Surrender. [Obs.] Surreption, n.

Etym. [L. surreptio, or subreptio.

Cf. Subreption.] 1. Def.: The act or process of getting in a surreptitious manner, or by craft or stealth. Fame by surreption got May stead us for the time, but lasteth not. B.

Jonson. 2. Def.: A coming unperceived or suddenly. Surreptitious, a.

Etym. [L. surreptitius, or subreptitius, fr. surripere, subripere, to snatch away, to withdraw privily; sub- under + rapere to snatch.

See Sub-, and Ravish.] Def.: Done or made by stealth, or without proper authority; made or introduced fraudulently; clandestine; stealthy; as, a surreptitious passage in an old manuscript; a surreptitious removal of goods. — Surreptitiously, adv. Surrey, n.

Def.: A four-wheeled pleasure carriage, (commonly two-seated) somewhat like a phaeton, but having a straight bottom. Surrogate, n.

Etym. [L. surrogatus, p.p.

Of surrogare, subrogare, to put in another’s place, to substitute; sub under + rogare to ask, ask for a vote, propose a law.

See Rogation, and cf. Subrogate.] 1. Def.: A deputy; a delegate; a substitute. 2. Def.: The deputy of an ecclesiastical judge, most commonly of a bishop or his chancellor, especially a deputy who grants marriage licenses. [Eng.] 3. Def.: In some States of the United States, an officer who presides over the probate of wills and testaments and yield the settlement of estates. <-- p. 1453 --> Surrogate, v.


Def.: To put in the place of another; to substitute. [R.] Dr.


More. Surrogateship, n.

Def.: The office of a surrogate. Surrogation, n.

Etym. [See Surrogate, n., and cf. Subrogation.] Def.: The act of substituting one person in the place of another. [R.] Killingbeck. Surround, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Surrounded; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Surrounding.] Etym. [OF. suronder to overflow, LL. superundare; fr.

L. super over + undare to rise in waves, overflow, fr. unda wave.

The English sense is due to the influence of E. round.

See Super-, and Undulate, and cf. Abound.] 1. Def.: To inclose on all sides; to encompass; to environ. 2. Def.: To lie or be on all sides of; to encircle; as, a wall surrounds the city. But could instead, and ever-during dark Surrounds me. Milton. 3. Def.: To pass around; to travel about; to circumnavigate; as, to surround the world. [Obs.] Fuller. 4. (Mil.) Def.: To inclose, as a body of troops, between hostile forces, so as to cut off means of communication or retreat; to invest, as a city. Syn. — To encompass; encircle; environ; invest; hem in; fence about. Surround, n.

Def.: A method of hunting some animals, as the buffalo, by surrounding a herd, and driving them over a precipice, into a ravine, etc. [U.S.] Baird. Surrounding, a.

Def.: Inclosing; encircling. Surrounding, n. 1. Def.: An encompassing. 2. pl. Def.: The things which surround or environ; external or attending circumstances or conditions. Surroyal, n.

Etym. [Pref. sur- + royal.] (Zool.) Def.: One of the terminal branches or divisions of the beam of the antler of the stag or other large deer. Sursanure, n.

Etym. [(Assumed) OF. sursane\’81re.

See Sur-, and Sane.] Def.: A wound healed or healing outwardly only. [Obs.] Of a sursanure In surgery is perilous the cure. Chaucer. Surseance, n.

Etym. [OF., fr.

OF. & F. surseoir.

See Surcease.] Def.: Peace; quiet. [Obs.] Bacon. Sursolid, n.

Etym. [F. sursolide.

See Sur-, and Solid.] (Math.) Def.: The fifth power of a number; as, a is the sursolid of a, or 32 that of 2. [R.] Hutton. Surstyle, v.


Def.: To surname. [R.] Surtax, n.

Def.: An additional or extra tax. Surtax, v.


Def.: To impose an additional tax on. Surtout, n.

Etym. [F., fr. sur over + tout all.] Def.: A man’s coat to be worn over his other garments; an overcoat, especially when long, and fitting closely like a body coat. Gay. Surturbrand, n.

Etym. [Icel. surtarbrandr; svartr black + brandr a firebrand.] Def.: A fibrous brown coal or bituminous wood. Surucucu, n. (Zool.) Def.: See Bush master, under Bush. Surveillance, n.

Etym. [F., fr. surveiller to watch over; sur over + veiller to watch, L. vigilare.

See Sur-, and Vigil.] Def.: Oversight; watch; inspection; supervision. That sort of surveillance of which . . .

The young have accused the old. Sir W.

Scott. Surveillant, n.; pl. Surveillants .

Etym. [F., fr. surveiller to watch over.

See Surveillance.] Def.: One who watches over another; an overseer; a spy; a supervisor. Surveillant, a.

Def.: Overseeing; watchful. — Syzygial, a.

Def.: Pertaining to a syzygy. Syzygy, n.; pl. Syzygies .

Etym. [L. syzygia a joining together, conjunction, Gr. F. syzygie.

See Yoke, n.] 1. (Astron.) Def.: The point of an orbit, as of the moon or a planet, at which it is in conjunction or opposition; — commonly used in the plural. 2. (Gr. & L.

Pros.) Def.: The coupling together of different feet; as, in Greek verse, an iambic syzygy. 3. (Zool.) (a) Def.: Any one of the segments of an arm of a crinoid composed of two joints so closely united that the line of union is obliterated on the outer, though visible on the inner, side. (b) Def.: The immovable union of two joints of a crinoidal arm.
Line of syzygies

(Astron.), the straight line connecting the earth, the sun, and the moon or a planet, when the latter is in conjunction or opposition; — used chiefly of the moon. –No Ending Page #– Supplement Sabotage (?), n. [F.] (a) Scamped work. (b) Malicious waste or destruction of an employer’s property or injury to his interests by workmen during labor troubles.

Saddle (?), n. 1. (Phys.

Geog.) A ridge connected two higher elevations; a low point in the crest line of a ridge; a col.

2. (Mining) A formation of gold- bearing quartz occurring along the crest of an anticlinal fold, esp.

In Australia.

Saengerbund (?), n.; G.

Pl. -bünde (#). [G. sängerbund.] (Music) A singers’ union; an association of singers or singing clubs, esp.


Safety (?), n. (a) (Amer.

Football) A safety touchdown. (b) Short for Safety bicycle.

Safety bicycle. A bicycle with equal or nearly equal wheels, usually 28 inches diameter, driven by pedals connected to the rear (driving) wheel by a multiplying gear.

Safety chain. (a) (Railroads) A normally slack chain for preventing excessive movement between a truck and a car body in sluing. (b) An auxiliary watch chain, secured to the clothes, usually out of sight, to prevent stealing of the watch. (c) A chain of sheet metal links with an elongated hole through each broad end, made up by doubling the first link on itself, slipping the next link through and doubling, and so on.

Sagebrush State. Nevada; — a nickname.

Saint-Simonism (?), n. A system of socialism in which the state owns all the property and the laborer is entitled to share according to the quality and amount of his work, founded by Saint Simon (1760-1825).

{ Sakieh (?), Sakiyeh (?) }, n.} [Ar. sāqīah canal, trench.] A kind of water wheel used in Egypt for raising water, from wells or pits, in buckets attached to its periphery or to an endless rope.

Salon (?), n. An apartment for the reception and exhibition of works of art; hence, an annual exhibition of paintings, sculptures, etc., held in Paris by the Society of French Artists; — sometimes called the
Old Salon

New Salon

is a popular name for an annual exhibition of paintings, sculptures, etc., held in Paris at the Champs de Mars, by the Société Nationale des Beaux- Arts (National Society of Fine Arts), a body of artists who, in 1890, seceded from the Société des Artistes Français (Society of French Artists).

Samaj (?), n. [Hind. samāj meeting, assembly, fr.

Skr. samāja a community.] A society or congregation; a church or religious body. [India]

Sambo (?), n. [Sp. zambo bandy- legged, the child of a negro and an Indian; prob.

Of African origin.] 1. A negro; sometimes, the offspring of a black person and a mulatto. [Colloq.

Or Humorous]

2. In Central America, an Indian and negro half-breed, or mixed blood.

Samisen (?), n. [Jap.] (Mus.) A Japanese musical instrument with three strings, resembling a guitar or banjo.

Samp (?), n. [Massachusetts Indian nasàump unparched meal porridge.] An article of food consisting of maize broken or bruised, which is cooked by boiling, and usually eaten with milk; coarse hominy. [U.


Samurai (?), n.

Pl. & sing. [Jap.] In the former feudal system of Japan, the class or a member of the class, of military retainers of the daimios, constituting the gentry or lesser nobility.

They possessed power of life and death over the commoners, and wore two swords as their distinguishing mark.

Their special rights and privileges were abolished with the fall of feudalism in 1871.

Sancho (?), n. [Sp., a proper name.] (Card Playing) The nine of trumps in sancho pedro.

Sancho pedro. [Sp. Pedro Peter.] (Card Playing) A variety of auction pitch in which the nine (sancho) and five (pedro) of trumps are added as counting cards at their pip value, and the ten of trumps counts game.

Sand-lot, a. Lit., of or pert.

To a lot or piece of sandy ground, — hence, pert.

To, or characteristic of, the policy or practices of the socialistic or communistic followers of the Irish agitator Denis Kearney, who delivered many of his speeches in the open sand lots about San Francisco; as, the
sand-lot constitution

of California, framed in 1879, under the influence of sand-lot agitation.

San José scale (?). A very destructive scale insect (Aspidiotus perniciosus) that infests the apple, pear, and other fruit trees.

So called because first introduced into the United States at San José, California.

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