Du Pont, Henry A.
The Campaign of 1864 in the Valley of Virginia and the Expedition to Lynchburg.
New York, 1925. Ellis, Richard N.
General Pope and U.S.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1870. Ellis, Anderson Nelson. “Recollections of an Interview with Cochise, Chief of the Apaches,” Kansas State Historical Sociey Collections, 13 (1913-14), 387-92. Farish, Thomas Edwin.
History of Arizona. 8 vols.
San Francisco: Filmer Brothers Electrotype Co., 1915-1918. Faulk, Odie B.
The Geronimo Campaign.
New York, Oxford University Press, 1969. Forbes, Jack D.
Apache, Navaho, and Spaniard.
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1960. Gerald, Rex.
Spanish Presidios of the Late Eighteenth Century in Northern New Spain.
Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press. 1868. Griffen, William B.
Apaches at War and Peace: The Janos Presidio, 1750-1858.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988. Goodwin, Grenville.
Expereiences of an Indian Scout,” Arizona Historical Review, Vol.
VII, No. 1 (Part 1, January 1936) and No. 2 (Part 2, April 1936). Goodwin, Grenville.
The Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache.
University of Arizona Press. 1996. Haley, James L.
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Doubleday. 1981. Hand, George.
Edited by Neil B.
The Civil War in Apacheland.
Silver City, New Mexico.
High-Lonesome. 1996. Horn, Tom.
Life of Tom Horn.
Norman, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma Press, 1964. — Despite doubts about the importance of confrontation at Apache Pass expressed by some historians, Cochise throughout his subsequent contacts with the Whites consistently attributed the outbreak of the war to that incident – including documented conversations with Whites in 1869, 1870 and 1871. April 1861 This may have been one of the rare cases in which the Apache inflicted torture before death, instead of mutilating the bodies afterwards. Roberts.
Once They Rode Like the Wind.
Tevis recounted this story, one of the few first-person accounts of the torture of living prisoners by Cochise or his warriors.
Tevis’ account suggests that he was released by a sympathetic warrior without the consent of Cochise, but this seems unlikely – so I have here made the assumption that Cochise approved of Tevis’ release.
I am also a little dubious about accepting Tevis’ unsupported account, as it seemed self-serving and harsh in its depiction of Cochise – but he offers one of the few first-person glimpses of Cochise during this period and so I have accepted his account. Opler, An Apache Lifeway, page 196. Roberts.
Once They Rode Like the Wind.
Page 35. Opler.
An Apache Lifeway.
This is actually a song used in a healing ceremony by someone with lightning power, according to Opler.
I have taken the liberty of attributing it here to Cochise in connection with gathering wood touched by Lightning Power. August 3, 1861 The union forces ordered the abandonment of forts in Arizona and New Mexico shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War.
The soldiers marched off mostly towards California, where the gold fields were strategically important.
Both sides realized that if the South could seize California, they would obtain an important source of hard currency – plus ports that would be harder to close through blockade.
As the union soldiers left, the residents of Tucson and Santa Fe declared their sympathy for the south.
The outbreak of the Civil War which forced the abandonment of the forts and the Butterfield Stage line coincided with the peak of Cochise’s war against the Americans, so the Apache assumed they had driven out the Whites – as they had at other times driven the Sonorans and the Chihuahuans out of large expanses of terriotry. July 1861 The Cooks’ Canyon fight involved a band of experienced frontiersmen led by Freeman Thomas, making a mail run to California.
Some accounts suggest Mangas Coloradas and his Chihenne pulled out of the fight, and I’m accepting that version – although almost all of the accounts of the Apache side of these fights remain fragmentary and second-hand.
For instance, William Oury, who left one second-hand account of this fight, claimed the Apache lost 175 warriors – clearly an absurd number.
Mangas Coloradas himself later admitted to Jack Swilling that the Apache lost 25 warriors in this fight, far more likely and still a disaster for the Apache. This generalized description of a curing ceremony comes from Opler, An Apache Lifeway, page 261.
In fact, each shaman developed his own variations on this general pattern. This is based on a healing ceremony described by Opler in An Apache Lifeway.
Page 263. “You’d hear it on the roof.
Then it was before you, a plant.
He wouldn’t take it up at once.
He’d sing over it and talk to it first.
When P asked for it, it would come right through the crowd and land on the buckskin before him.” Anthropologists have found that the Apache used many plants with a medicinal effect, including natural antibiotics and herbs that constricted blood vessels and reduced bleeding in addition to herbal treatments for pregnancy, contractions, nausea and other ailments. The party led by Feliz Grundy Ake, a Sonita Creek farmer, left Tucson on August 15 guided by Moses Carson, half-brother of Kit Carson.
They had abandoned their farms and ranches when the soldiers abandoned Fort Buchanan and had hoped to make the trip east along with the retreating columns of soldiers, but had missed the departure.
They decided to risk the trip anyway, believing the party was too large to attack – which would normally have been true.
They heard rumors the Apache had killed nine Mexican teamsters in the canyon, but dismissed them as another wild Apache rumor and continued into Cook’s Canyon. Several men, including the nephew of Sam Houston, fled with the wagon, protecting the women and children but leaving the rest of the party to its fate. Captain Thomas Mastin, Lieutenant Thomas Helm and Lieutenant Jack Swilling got news of the ambush and set out from Mesilla in pursuit.
By this time, the Confederates had assumed control of New Mexico after the union troops left Santa Fe – but their main task was to keep the road open between Mesilla and Tucson.
Instead of heading directly for the Canyon, Mastin assumed the fight would have already ended and the Apaches would be taking their plunder to the closest refuge – the Florida Mountains.
The soldiers therefore set out to ambush the warriors.
The ambush worked, partly because the warriors were herding livestock.
It is unclear which group of warriors fell into the ambush, but I’m here making the assumption it was the Chokonen.
Mastin was a fierce, competent, courageous Indian hater, eager to implement the orders of Confederate Lieutenant Colonel John Robert Baylor to kill any Apache he encountered by any method available – including making friends, getting them drunk and then shooting or poisoning them.
Baylor’s infamous order countenancing a war of extermination with the Apaches was later resciended by Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
The Apache had little understanding of the complicated military and political situation in the southwest at this time and probably didn’t realize the Whites were engaged in a war with one another until later. Fall of 1861 Basso.
Wisdom Sits in Places.
Page 17. I am here assuming Cochise would have learned these songs and the preparation of the dancers, for he was considered to have great Power and was always a defender of the traditional beliefs and ceremonies.
However, I have found no specific descriptions of which songs and ceremonies he knew. This description of the Masked Dancer ceremony, including the specific songs, comes from a long description by Opler in Apache Lifeway, starting on page 100. The following speech of a father to a son preparing to become a dancer is taken from Opler, An Apache Lifeway, Page 103.
I have here taken the liberty of attributing it to Cochise. Opler.
An Apache Lifeway.
Page 108. Opler, An Apache Lifeway.
Page 114. Opler.
Page 125. The winter of 1861-1862 The man’s name was Gardner and he recovered from his wounds.
Page 191. This was a 75-man contingent of Confederates commanded by Captain Sherod Hunter which occupied Tucson in February 1862 – the vangaurd of an invasion of New Mexico and Arizona by Confederate forces from Texas.
They were greeted happily by Tucson’s mostly Mexican population. General John Baylor, commander of the Confederate forces in the Southwest, on March 20 issued an infamous order that read: “The Congress of the Confederate States has passed a law declaring extermination to all hostile Indians.
You will therefore use all means to persuade the Apaches or any tribe to come in for the purpose of making peace and when you get them together kill all the grown Indians and take the children prisioners and sell them to defray the expense of killing the Indians.
Buy whiskey and such other goods as may be necessary for the Indians.
I look to you for success against these cursed pests who have already murdered over 100 men in this territory.” Confederate President Jefferson Davis later resciended the order and replaced Baylor, but the Confederates essentially pursed a policy of extermination throughout their occupation of New Mexico. The Confederates had gathered their forces for the battle of Val Verde where they failed to turn back a column of union troops from Colorado.
After this defeat, the Confederates abandoned New Mexico and struggled across the desert back to Texas – ending the Confederate dream of a conquest of the gold fields of California. The lead elements of the 2,350-man California Column skirmished briefly with a Confederate patrol near Picacho Peak and then occupied Tucson in May 1862.
Brigdier General James Henry Carleton declared martial law, ordered the reoccupation of Forts Buchanan and Breckenridge and sent messengers east to establish communications with union forces closing in on the Confederates there. June 18, 1862
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