Identify the three most sensitive areas of touch on the horse’s body and explain why they are so sensitive. 2.
Identify four other areas sensitive to touch. 3.
Explain how the sense of touch plays an important part in riding horses. Hearing 1.
Explain how the horse’s sense of hearing is useful in riding. 2.
Explain how the horse’s sense of hearing compares with its sense of sight and how the two senses work together. Social Behavior 1.
Explain why a horse has a strong need for company. 2.
Explain the major problem that occurs when a horse is separated from other horses. 3.
Explain why a horse becomes “barn sour.” 11 Ears Poll Forelock Forehead Face Nostril Cheek Neck Throatlatch rt G Crest Withers Tail Back Loin Croup Buttock Point of Hip Barrel Flank Thigh Quarter Lower Lip Point of Shoulder Chest Arm Forearm Shoulder Upper Lip Hea irth Muzzle — REPARING the HORSE for RIDING • Parts of the Horse • Colors and Markings • Catching the Horse • Leading and Tying • Grooming and Hoof Cleaning • Saddling • Bridling • Mounting and Dismounting • Unbridling and Unsaddling Parts of the Horse Goal: When you have learned the material in this section, you will know the parts of the horse.
Knowing the parts of the horse is the first step in learning horsemanship.
You must know the parts of the horse to understand how to catch, lead, tie, groom, saddle, and bridle a horse (Fig. 2). 13 Learning Review: Parts of the Horse 1.
Identify the following parts of the horse: poll gaskin cannon point of shoulder crest croup heart girth point of hip withers loin barrel forearm elbow hock flank throatlatch chestnut quarter back shoulder ergot pastern buttock muzzle stifle fetlock arm coronet forehead face nostril neck chest knee hoof foreflank thigh tail forelock cheek upper lip lower lip Colors and Markings Goal: When you have learned the material in this section, you will be able to identify the colors and markings of any horse.
You need a working knowledge of horse colors and patterns.
Familiarize yourself with the following descriptions of the five basic horse coat colors and their five variations. Coat Colors The five basic horse coat colors are: Bay Black Brown Chestnut White White markings on the legs may occur with any basic coat color pattern. 14 1.
Bay—A bay horse is one whose color is hardest to describe, but easiest to distinguish.
It is a mixture of red and yellow, being the color of a loaf of wellbaked bread.
A light bay shows more yellow, a dark bay more red.
The darkest is the mahogany bay, which is almost the color of blood, but without the red overtone.
It’s easy to tell a bay from a chestnut; bays always have black manes and tails; chestnuts always have red (or flax) manes and tails.
The body color of a mahogany bay and a chestnut can be the same, but the mane and the tail color clearly identify the coat color. 2.
Black—A black horse usually has black eyes, hoofs, and skin.
The points are always black.
Tan or brown hairs on the muzzle or flank indicate that the horse is not a true black but a seal brown. 3.
Brown—Many brown horses are mistakenly called black because they are dark.
A close examination of the hair on the muzzle and around the lips will quickly tell whether the horse is brown or black.
The mane and tail are always dark. 4.
Chestnut (sorrel)—A chestnut horse has a basically red coat.
Its mane and tail are normally the same shade as the body.
If the mane and tail are lighter in color than the body, the horse is termed a flax or flaxen chestnut.
The mane and tail of a chestnut horse are never black.
Chestnut color varies from bright yellowish red to a rich mahogany red. 5.
White—The true white horse is born pure white and dies the same color.
Very little, if any, seasonal change takes place in its coat color.
Age does not affect it.
The American Albino Horse Club registers “Albinos.” These are white horses with clear white body color, brown eyes (rarely blue), and pink skin.
They also register “Albinos Type A” horses having a very pale ivory body color and white mane and tail.
Their eyes are blue and their skin is pink.
A third group of light-colored horses is called “Albinos Type B.” Their body color is a very pale cream; mane and tail darker than body (cinnamon-buff); eyes are blue.
If during the life of a white horse, hairs of a color other than white are found, the chances are that the horse is not white, but grey or roan. 15 Color Variations:
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