Figure 24: Anatomy Diagram (Hubbard Bros. 1882) On the horse, between the loins and wither is the trunk or barrel.
The wither is the highest point on the horse’s back, where most of the forehand muscles are connected.
It is located on the ridge between the horse’s shoulder blades, and is formed by the bulge of the first dorsal vertebrae.
The barrel houses the majority of the horse’s internal organs.
If the dorsal line is too concave, the horse is considered “sway-backed”.
If the dorsal line is too convex, the back is a “roach” back.
A good dorsal line is approximately horizontal to the ground, and is higher that the rear of the horse.
The loin, which is located near the lumbar vertebrae, and is from the last rib of the horse to the croup, should be short.98 98 (Gianoli, 1699, 422) 50 The forelegs meet the body of the horse at the shoulder; passing down the leg are the forearm, knees and the fetlock.
The knees of a horse should be bony at the sides, but flat in front.
The cannon or the space between the fetlock and the knee should be broad.
The rear leg meets the body at the haunch; passing down the leg is the quarter, then the gaskin, which is a muscle similar to the calf.
The hock is the tarsus or joint on the hind leg.99 Horses can be separated into three “blood” types.
A hot blooded horse, like the Arabian or thoroughbred, is an intelligent horse that learns easily, which makes it easy for it to pick up bad habits.
A warm-blooded horse is one that is bred to accomplish any task, from sporting to agricultural work.
A cold-blooded horse is a draft animal, bred for hard work.100 Horses are prey animals by nature, grazers that typically flee when frightened.
They are herd animals, which exhibit very social behavior.
In the wild, feral horses follow the leader of the herd, a boss mare.101 The Saddle The average modern horse weighs between 900 and 1200 pounds, and its center of gravity shifts depending on its gait.
The rider represents an increase of about 15-20% of the horse’s weight and has his own center of gravity as well.
This introduces many stability problems for the rider if he rides bareback.
For this reason the horse was used as a means to get to a battle instead of a vehicle to fight on during the early centuries after horse domestication.
To increase the rider’s stability the saddle cloth was invented.
It was a padded length of fabric that sat on the horse’s back, which provided cushioning for the rider and also a layer of protection between the sweaty back of the horse and the rider. A saddle is the seat that is secured to the horse’s back.
The saddle can be split into several parts, the tree, the seat, the pommel, the cantle, the stirrup, the flaps, and the cinch.
The tree is the base of the saddle, the tree of modern saddles is made of wood and metal, or just a lightweight alloy.
Traditionally, the tree is made of wood.
The cantle is the back of the saddle.
The pommel is the front of the saddle.
The seat is the area where the rider sits, and it is lower than both the pommel and cantle. 99 (Gianoli, 1699, 429) (Gianoli, 1699, 42) 101 (Gianoli, 1699, 421) 100 51 The cinch is the strapping that holds the saddle to the horse.
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