Heaves Emphysema

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glue-on shoes G.M.

Go, Baby, Go Commas used in NTRA slogan.

Go for Wand Stakes Lowercase “f” like the horse’s name for which the race is named.

Gold Cup and Saucer Pace USTA race gold mine good bottom Track that is firm under the surface, which may be dry or wet.

Good (track) A dirt track that is almost fast or a turf course slightly softer than firm.

Goodbye, good-bye varies by publication good will gooseneck go-round Gore-Tex go’s governor varies by publication Governor’s Cup Gov.

Alfred E.

Driscoll Series USTA races grab a quarter Injury to the back of the hoof or foot caused by a horse stepping on itself (usually affects the front foot).

Being stepped on from behind in the same manner usually affects the back foot.

Very common in racing, the injury is usually minor.

Graded race Established in 1973 to classify select stakes races in North America, at the request of European racing authorities, who had set up group races two years earlier.

Always denoted with numerals 1, 2, or 3 (not I, II, or III).

Capitalized when used in race title (the Grade 1 winner).

Capitalized and abbreviated G when used in parentheses following the name of a stakes with the Arabic numeral of grade.

The Secretariat Stakes (G1).

Include grades on first reference only.

Do not include grades when reference to the race is prior to 1973 (for North American races).See group race.

Grading of races is performed by a committee under the direction of the Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association.

Grades are not used in headlines, subheads, cutlines, or table of contents.

However, the grades should be used in standalone cutlines when the only reference to that horse or race on that page is in the cutline.

See Canadian graded stakes.

Graded stakes winner (n.) graduate 1) Horse or rider winning for the first time. 2) A horse that has moved up to allowance, stakes, or handicap racing.

Both uses are colloquial and are best avoided.

Grandma See second dam.

Granddaughter grandsire The grandfather of a horse; father (sire) of the horse’s dam or sire.

Grass slip Used in some areas, permission to exercise a horse on the turf course.

Also known as a turf card.

Gravel Infection of the hoof resulting from a crack in the white line (the border between the insensitive and sensitive laminae).

An abscess usually forms in the sensitive structures and eventually breaks at the coronet as the result of the infection.

Gray A horse color where the majority of the coat is a mixture of black and white hairs.

The mane, tail, and legs may be either black or gray unless white markings are present.

Starting with foals of 1993, the color classifications gray and roan were combined as gray or roan.

Do not use a slash between roan and gray.

See roan.

Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation A privately financed charitable organization established in 1989, which combined the Grayson Foundation Inc. (begun in 1940) and the Jockey Club Research Foundation.

Website is www.grayson-jockeyclub.org.

Great Depression See depression.

Greater Capitalize when used to define a community and its surrounding region.

Greater Boston area.

Great-grandson Lineage requires hyphenation.

Greyhound group race Designation of best races in countries outside of North America.

European authorities began designating races as Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 in 1971.

North American officials, under the direction of the Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association, began grading races in 1973.

Group is capitalized when a specific number is referenced, such as, The filly won the first Group 2 race of her career.

Capitalized when the group designation is used after a name of a race with the Arabic numeral.

The Dewhurst Stakes (Eng-G1).

Include the equivalent name of the race after the formal name and grade: Prix du Jockey-Club (Fr-G1) (French Derby).

See graded race.

Remember that Equineline printouts by stakes rules do not correctly reflect Remember that Equineline printouts by stakes rules do not correctly reflect Inter International Cataloging Standards rules for all countries.

For example, very few of the Japanese races listed as group races on Equineline printouts should be carried as group races in THOROUGHBRED TIMES.

Only group/graded races from countries in the “white pages” of Cataloging Standards carry that designation, except for a very small number from “blue pages” countries (such as the Japan Cup [Jpn-G1]) collected on a single page near the end of the white pages section.

Japanese races listed as group races on Equineline printouts should be carried as group races in THOROUGHBRED TIMES.

Only group/graded races from countries in the “white pages” of Cataloging Standards carry that designation, except for a very small number from “blue pages” countries (such as the Japan Cup [Jpn-G1]) collected on a single page near the end of the white pages section.

Graded or Group stakes winners Thoroughbreds Grand Prix Special grass roots/grass-roots – Two words used as a noun, hyphenated as an adjective.

Gray or grey varies by publication Greenbroke, green-broke varies by publication greyhound Ground Jury – panel of judges (NRHA) ground poles; ground rails groundwork grow Business expressions often find their way into the language, but business fads or buzzwords tend to fade away over time.

One such fad word is grow when used as a transitive verb.

In the 1990s, business consultants began to speak of “growing a business,” and soon executives all over the country were revealing their plans to “grow their business.” The verb grow is best restricted to its traditional meanings, such as to increase in size and to cultivate crops.

Horses may grow, but they are not grown; they are raised.

Corn is grown.

Businesses can grow in size, but their executives will seek to expand the business or increase sales and profits.

Thus, when you feel the urge to say, “Tom Meeker plans to grow Churchill Downs Inc.

By …,” look for a more elegant and more descriptive word or phrase.

Growthy grueling grullo guineas By definition, a guinea is 21 shillings, or in current usage a pound and a shilling.

Thus, the guinea is equal to 1.05 pounds.

Used by sales companies in England and Ireland to report sales since it includes the sales company’s 5% commission.

Guineas Capitalized and spelled out as part of a race name (One Thousand Guineas, etc.), but lowercase as currency.

Gunmetal H HBPA, Horsemens Benevolent and Protective Association HYPP, Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis HERDA, heredity equine regional dermal asthenia hackamore half-bred half brother, half sister Horses out of the same dam but by different sires.

Horses with the same sire and different dams are not considered half siblings in Thoroughbred racing.

The phrases are not hyphenated.

Half-breed half chaps half circle half halt half-interest half-length half-mile half-mile pole half pass half pirouette half-round half turn half-swedge half-steps Hall of Famer Hall of Fame See Racing Hall of Fame.

Halter Like a bridle, but lacking a bit.

Used in handling horses around the stable and when they are not being ridden. (to) halter or haltered Slang for claiming a horse.

Avoid its use in editorial matter.

See claiming.

Halter-broke halter horse Hambletonian Day Hambletonian Filly Division USTA race Hambletonian Oaks – USTA race Hambletonian Society, the Hambletonian Week hammerhead hand Four inches.

A horse’s height is measured in hands and inches from the top of the shoulder (withers) to the ground; that is, 15.2 hands is 15 hands, 2 inches, or a total of 62 inches.

Thoroughbreds typically range from 15 to 17 hands.

Handicap 1) Race for which the track handicapper assigns the weights to be carried. 2) To make selections on the basis of past performances.

Handicap horse A horse that competes in handicap races.

Handicapper 1) A person who assigns weights to horses, not a horse that competes in handicap races, which is a handicap horse. 2) A bettor who is making selections based on information of horses’ performances from previous starts.

Handily 1) Working in the morning with a strong effort. 2) A horse racing well within itself, with little exertion during a race.

Handle Amount of money wagered in the pari-mutuels on a race, a program, during a meeting, or for a year.

Hand ride Urging a horse with the hands and not using the whip.

Handbag handcrafted hand-holds go hand in hand handmade hands handyman hand walk, hand-walk varies by publication Hanover-Hempt Stake – USTA race Hanovarian hard (track) A condition of a turf course where there is no resiliency to the surface.

Hardboot A Kentucky horseman.

The term Kentucky hardboot is redundant.

Hardball, play hardball hard-knocker A toughhorse who makes a lot of starts.

Hard-knocker hard-knocking (adj.) hard-mouthed Harness Horsemen International USTA harnessmaker harness racing Harness Racing Museum & Hall of Fame Harrow Implement or unit with pulling teeth, or tines, used to rake and loosen the upper surface of a track.

Hatmaker haunches-in haute-ecole hay belly hay burner hayloft hayride head Circumstances in which it is permissible as a reference to a group of horses— never.

It is just as easy, and a great deal more accurate, to call horses horses as it is to designate them as so many head.

They may also be referred to as yearlings, colts or fillies, Thoroughbreds, individuals, animals, broodmares, stallions, bloodstock, two-year-olds, three-year-olds, youngsters, breeding stock, horses in training, and so on, as the case may be.

Also, in the specific instance of auction sales, they may be properly mentioned as lots, although the latter term is clumsy and should be used only in desperation.

Head A margin between horses.

One horse leading another by the length of its head.

Head case headgear headlines Style will vary by publication.

Head of the stretch Beginning of the straight run to the finish line.

Head-on (adj.

And adv.) Head2Head Wager offered on eight races in Breeders’ Cup World Thoroughbred Championships.

Head-to-head Running on even terms.

Head case headgear head pole, burr head pole headset, head-set varies by publication headstall heart bars heart-bar shoe heat – If a race is held in heats (rather than eliminations and a final) such as the Little Brown Jug, if the first heat is divided into two or three eliminations, with the top finishers advancing to the second heat, those races are “first-heat eliminations.” Hoof Beats heat 1) A race decided by two or more individual races over the same distances and between the same horses on the same day.

Not used in flat racing today, though it was common in the 19th century.

Still used in harness racing today. 2) A breeding term.

See estrus.

Heaves Emphysema.

See chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Heaves heavy (track) Wettest possible condition of a turf course; not usually found in North America.

Heel heel crack A crack on the heel of the hoof.

Also called a sand crack.

Helmet A lightweight fiberglass cap worn by riders to prevent head injuries.

It is required equipment that is not considered part of a jockey’s riding weight.

Hematoma A blood-filled area resulting from injury.

Hemisphere Capitalize Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, etc.; lowercase in other uses—the Eastern and Western hemispheres, the hemisphere.

Hemorrhage heterozygous high-point – hyphen when used as a modifier Capitalized when used as part of a title, lowercase otherwise Paint Horse Journal high rollers high weight Refers to highest weight assigned or carried in a race.

Kelso was assigned high weight of 136 pounds for the Brooklyn Handicap.

Highweight (n.) 1) Horse assigned or carrying the highest weight in a race.

Kelso was the highweight in the Brooklyn.2) Horse assigned the highest weight on the Experimental Free Handicap, a division of the International Classification, or one of many free handicaps in individual countries, and often viewed as the equivalent of a champion in the absence of official championships.

See Eclipse Award, champion.

Highweighted highweighted (adj.) For horses carrying equal high weights, use co-highweight and co-highweighted.

The same principle appliesed, co-topweight, and co-topweighted.

Hind foot hind leg hindquarter hippology Historic USTA races Historic-Harriman Cup 2-year-old colt trot Historic-Acorn 2-year-old filly trot Historic-Goshen Cup 2-year-old colt pace Historic-Debutante 2-year-old filly pace Historic-Historic Cup 3-year-old colt trot Historic-Coaching Club Oaks 3-year-old filly trot Historic-Jersey Cup 3-year-old colt pace Historic-Ladyship 3-year-old filly pace Historic-Titan Cup FFA trot hobbles hock A large joint just above the shin bone in the rear legs.

Corresponds to the level of the knee of the front leg.

Homebred A horse bred by its owner.

Homestretch Long section of racetrack closest to the stands.

Hood A (usually) nylon covering that goes over a horse’s head; blinkers or earmuffs are attached to it.

Hoof The foot of the horse.

Consists of several parts that play an integral role in supporting the weight of the horse.

Hopefully It means in a hopeful manner.

Do not use it to mean it is hoped.

Right: It is hoped that we will complete our work in June.

Right: We hope that we will complete our work in June.

Wrong: Hopefully we will complete our work in June.

Hopped A horse that has been illegally stimulated with a drug.

Horse When reference is made to sex, a horse is an ungelded male five years old or older.

Horseflesh Horsemen’s Benevolent and Protective Association National organization of horsemen composed of individual state organizations.

Can be abbreviated HBPA on second reference.

Does not require abbreviation on first reference.

See abbreviations.

Horse of the Year H and Y are capitalized for country and national awards only, all lowercase for state awards and for phrases such as horse of the meeting.

Canadian Horse of the Year With Approval, 1994 Horse of the Year.

The same rule applies to Broodmare of the Year (B and Y are capitalized for national award only, designated by the Kentucky Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders).

See Broodmare of the Year.

Horseplayer horsepower horse racing (n.

And adj.) horsing Behavior of a mare in heat (in season).

See estrus.

Hot-walk hot walker Person or automatic machine who walks horses to cool them out after workout or races.

See cooling out.

Hog-tied Holland –should be Netherlands USTA home betting homemade home page hometown homozygous Honor Roll – APHA, AQHA capitalized when referring to a specific title, otherwise lowercase hoof care hoof pick hoofprint hoofed hoof wall hooves hopefully – Avoid using unless a direct quote.

Instead say it is hoped or supporters of the bill hope. . . hors concours hors d’ouevres horseback horse-drawn horsehair horse-lover Horse of the Year horseman, horsemen horseplayer horsemanship horse names – capitalize, no quotation marks horse owner horse people, horse person horsepower horse race.

Horse racing horseshoes, horseshoer, horseshoeing horse show horsesitter horsewoman hot blooded hot dog hotheaded House Bill, Senate Bill – HB and SB acceptable on second reference.

Housebroke however – There are two uses for this word.

Use the comma after “however” if you can substitute the word “though” for “however.” Don’t use the second comma if you can substitute the word “but.” hub rail hung A horse that does not advance its position in a race when called upon by its jockey.

Hunt coat (two words) hunter and/or jumper – no slash or dash between; separate disciplines.

Prefer not to combine these terms unless in a direct quote.

Hunt seat – hyphenate only when used as an adjective hunter-under-saddle hyaluronic acid A normal component of joint fluid.

Also can be a man-made intra-articular medication used to relieve joint inflammation.

Hyperelsastosis cutis (HC) hyphens The hyphen is one of the least correctly used and most abused, punctuation marks.

It is used properly to form compound words, to divide words in composition, in figures, in some abbreviations, and to distinguish meanings of similarly spelled words.

It also is used correctly in noun constructions used as adjectives.

The general rule for hyphens is that like characters take the hyphen, unlike characters do not.

A-bomb, U-boat, 20-20 vision, 3D, B60, MiG17, 3to-2, secretary-treasurer, south-southwest, north-central.

Exceptions—4-H Club, $20-million.

Adjectival use of hyphens must be clear.

The six-foot man eating shark was killed (the man was killed).

The six-foot man-eating shark was killed (the shark was killed).

For race records and career totals, avoid the use of hyphenation in the following constructions.

He won 2-of-3 starts, and He retired with a 10-3-6 record for 32 lifetime starts.

Spell out numbers under ten.

He won two of three starts.

He won ten races in 32 lifetime starts with three seconds and six thirds.

Suspensive hyphenation The A- and H-bombs were exploded.

The five- and six-yearolds attend morning classes.

Do not use suspensive hyphens in large numbers.

He said the remodeling would cost between $10-million and $15-million.

Never use the hyphen with adverbs ending in ly.

Badly damaged, heavily favored, fully informed.

The hyphen also serves to distinguish meanings of similarly spelled words.

Recover, re-cover; resent, re-sent.

The hyphen frequently separates a prefix from a proper noun.

Pre-Raphaelite, unAmerican, nonThoroughbred.

Always used in quoting odds with the word “to”: 2.40-to-1.

Use hyphens in scores and votes.The Pirates won 2-1.

The breeders’ association president was turned out of office in a 48-2 vote.

Used to divide words between lines.

Check dictionary on proper breaking of words.

Words containing a hyphen should be divided only at the hyphen.

Washington- based, not Wash- on the first line and ington-based on the second.

When at all possible, no more than two consecutive lines should end with a hyphenated word.

The hyphen should not be used to separate most numbers in a range.

He conceded eight to ten pounds to his opponents. I IFR, International Finals Rodeo IPRA, International Pro Rodeo Association ie – Latin for “that is.” i.v.

Inbreeding in hand, in-hand – walk him in hand; in-hand classes in foal icing 1) A physical therapy procedure, properly known as cryotherapy. 2) When a horse is stood in a tub of ice or ice packs are applied to the legs to reduce inflammation or swelling.

IM Abbreviation for intramuscular; an injection given in a muscle.

IMAX Impaction A type of colic caused by a blockage of the intestines by ingested materials (constipation).

Impost Weight carried by a horse or assigned to a horse.

Impostor Not imposter.

Inbreeding The mating of closely related individuals, resulting in a pedigree with at least one common ancestor duplicated on both the sire’s and dam’s side of the pedigree.

In Thoroughbreds, horses with one or more duplicated ancestors within the first four or five generations are generally considered inbred, while duplications of ancestors in more distant generations are often referred to as “linebreeding.” No spaces between generational readings: 3×3.

In or near Refer to locations of farms and racetracks as being in a particular city and state.

Near will be used to denote where the city is located if that information is presented.

Inc.

Abbreviation for incorporated.

It is usually not needed, but when used no commas precede or follow Inc. (nor Ltd.); do not spell out.

He works for J.

C.

Penney Inc.

Full time.

Incorporated Always abbreviated Inc.

When used in conjunction with a company name.

Index, indexes industrywide in foal Pregnant mare.

Inferior check ligament A direct continuation of the posterior (back) ligaments of the knee (carpus), located below the knee.

Function is in support of the deep flexor tendon.

Infield Area encompassed by the inner rail of the racetrack.

In hand Running under moderate control, at less than top speed.

Initials – Initials in a person’s name require periods and a space between first and second initial.

Paint Horse Journal inlaid inner-city kids Inter Dominion Championships USTA races Inter Dominion Pacing Championship Inter Dominion Trotting Championship Intermediate I/II International Stallion Stake USTA races International Stallion Stake-Whitehorse Farms 2-year-old colt pace International Stallion Stake-Winback Farm 2–year-old filly pace International Stallion Stake-Castleton Cup 2-year-old colt trot International Stallion Stake-Hunterton/Stoner Creek 2-year-old filly trot Internet, internet varies by publication Inter-track Initials A middle initial should be used in a name when the person commonly uses the initial.

John R.

Gaines, John P.

Moynihan, George W.

Bush.

See names. inquiry A review of the running of the race to check into a possible infraction of the rules, called by the stewards.

Also, a sign flashed by officials on the tote board on such occasions.

If lodged by a jockey, it is called an objection.

See objection.

Internet terminology In the 1990s, use of the computer Internet exploded in American society and in the Thoroughbred industry.

Here are proper forms of commonly used words and phrases: Internet Capitalized in all references.

World Wide Web Capitalized and spelled out in first reference.

Web Capitalized and appropriate second reference for World Wide Web.

Web address Web page Website One word.

Online Lowercase.

Off-line Lowercase and hyphenated.

E-mail Lowercase, hyphenated, and not italicized.

Dot.com Term to describe an Internet company.

URL uniform resource locator When providing a World Wide Web address, give the full address and italicize: www.thoroughbredtimes.com.

On second reference, address can be shortened, but still italicized: thoroughbredtimes.com.

In Web addresses without www, include entire address: http://address.com.

On second reference, address can be shortened, but still italicized.

Insensitive laminae The layer just under the wall of the hoof; similar to the human fingernail.

It is an integral structure that helps to attach the hoof wall to the underlying coffin bone.

Interstate Horseracing Act The only instance where “horse racing” is one word.

Enacted by Congress in 1978.

Intertrack intertrack wagering Can be abbreviated ITW on second reference.

In the bridle See on the bit.

In the money A horse that finishes first, second, or third.

Intra-articular Within a joint Irish rail Movable rail.

Irons See stirrups.

Ischemia Deficiency of blood supply, which may be temporary or permanent.

Caused by the shutting down of blood vessels.

Isolation barn A facility used to separate horses to ensure that illness is not carried into the area.

Italics Titles of books, magazines, newspapers, plays, movies, long musical compositions, long poems, and names of trains, planes, and ships.

To emphasize a word or larger element in a sentence or to refer to a word as a word.

To indicate a foreign word or phrase which has not been Anglicized.

Check the dictionary to see whether a foreign word or phrase you want to use has been Anglicized.

Italicize quotes from poetry or songs.

Use quotation marks for short stories, television shows, short poems, etc.

See quotation marks for full list.

Its vs.

It’s – It’s means it is.

Do not use it’s as a possessive.

ITW Abbreviation for intertrack wagering on second reference.

IVAbbreviation for intravenous; an injection given in the vein.

Ivermectin J

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