Light Horse : BN You do remember after the second world war around….

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For the Rider Horses-store.comLight Horse : BN You do remember after the second world war around….

RM: EM: said that it often happened that you would get mobs – if you had a mob that had that particular bad strain in it you would find them all that.

But he said at that time there were half a dozen mobs of around 20 horses in that area.

They mainly run at 7s, don’t they. 5s, 7s or sometime 12.

In winter time you might find 15 or so together and spring time they split up.

If you come on to them, they’d be pleased to see you and they’d nearly follow you.

The only time you’d find smaller mobs of 2 or 3 they were usually young colts chased out.

When they said they used to catch the horses and gobble them, where did they take them to then, did they only have to take them down the river further? They were taken down from the Plain to Marengo.

They’d be going down the river and then they’d have to come back up the river. 2.4.2 Transcript of taped telephone discussion with Mr Noel MacDougall, “Marengo” Hernani 2453, immediately following the interview with Ernie Maskey, with Ernie Maskey still being present.

Recorded at Look Out Motel, Dorrigo. September 25th 2001 (RM = Robyn MacDougall, NM = Noel MacDougall, EM = Ernie Maskey, FN = Frank Nicholas, VC = Velda Chaplin, LH = Les Hume, GB = Graeme Baldwin, BN = Brad Nesbitt) RM: Hello Grandpa, how are you? NM: I’m all right, thank you.

RM: That’s good – we are all here at the motel land we are in the middle of the meeting.

I have Ernie here, Les, Graham Baldwin and the rest of members and we were just wondering if you could tell us a little bit of history of the horses and how you brought those horses out of Peak Creek.

We might start off with a little bit about the Brown’s horses.

NM: Well I don’t really know that much about it.

The origin of them but they had blood sires with their horses.

RM: the horses you got out, that was in about 1933, 34? NM: 33, yes RM: 33, there was one creamy amongst them, bays? NM: there was a creamy and white one there, a creamy white piebald one.

She belonged to an old piebald mare but we got seven there.

She belonged to Dave Hollis, she must have been one of the original ones and the creamy and white one was Ted Cobley’s strain.

RM: So how did you get them and where did you catch them? NM: We built a trap yard for them in Peak Creek.

RM: I think you hobbled them and walked them to the Plain? NM: yes.

RM: How did you get them from the Plain? NM: I think we must have driven them, I can’t remember to be honest.

I suppose we put them in with other stock horses and drove them home.

RM: Did they all turn out to be good stock horses? NM: No, two or three died, fretted to death we think.

We never saw them again after we broke them in.

We finished up with two mares, two younger mares but we never worked them because one got her eye knocked out.

But she had two or three foals for me which we worked once they were broken in.

RM: How many horses would there have been around Kitty’s Creek, Peak Creek? NM: We didn’t see any, there were none there in those days.

RM: Did you see many horses in the bush at all? NM: No.

Only the few we got were the only ones running in the river at that stage.

RM: What about after the war? NM: Well there were a few there after the war but they weren’t Brown horses, they didn’t go back to the original Brown horses.

RM: What about Newberry’s? Did you go down into Ernie’s country.

Say Combolo and in that area, were there horses down there? NM: No, not after the war.

RM: Well maybe Ernie might have a few questions to ask and that will sort of prompt you along.

EM: Hello Noel.

NM: Good Morning.

How are you? EM: Good thanks.

In the Mitchell, all my life there’s been horses in the Mitchell side.

Were they there in those years, do you know? 9 NM: I was only up there a couple of times when I was mustering and I never saw a horse or any horse tracks in the Mitchell River.

EM: Bobs Creek and Pargo and Ballards used to have horses there – not a lot, but they were the first brumby horses I’d seen.

NM: Yes but that would probably be after the War, wouldn’t it? EM: Yes NM: No well we up there, I don’t remember seeing horses in Bob’s Creek either.

EM: Oh well, you didn’t have any experience on Corner Camp, out the other side of the Mitchell? NM: No EM: No well there were horses out there from the time I was 10 years old on.

NM: Yes well that could be right too.

I was never in that area.

BN: You do remember after the second world war, around that time were there people breeding horses to sell on for people sending horses overseas for the war, for the light horse.

Do you know of any people breeding for that? NM: that was very doubtful.

They didn’t use horses at all, they used chemical warfare.

BN: I understand the Waughs used to breed horses back in the 30s NM: Who? BN: The Waughs, remember the Waughs? NM: Yes, they may have.

Turnbulls used to sell a few to the Indian Army.

LH: Yes that’s right, the Turnbulls.

NM: Dick Gilder used to buy horses for the Indian Army.

BN: Did he buy them straight from the properties or did he pick them up from the sale yards? NM: No, only from the properties.

He used to get a lot from the Turnbulls up at Kotupna.

BN: What sort of horses was he buying? Blood horses? NM: Yes, blood horses.

BN: Local stock horses that Turnbulls were breeding? Do you think Turnbulls were pulling many horses out of the Gulf Country? NM: Out of where? BN: Any of those wild horses.

Do you think Turnbull would have been pulling any of those horses out and selling them on too? NM: I don’t think so.

To my knowledge they only ever went up there once, up the river chasing horses, and that was old Bob Turnbull and Bob Adams and Louis Austin and Errol Turnbull probably.

BN: Do you know when that was roughly? NM: that would have been before the war I think, about 1931/32 probably.

BN: mDid they get anything do you remember? NM: I don’t know.

Errol Turnbull had a piebald horse he used to ride, a piebald mare, well she came from there but I don’t know what numbers they got, if any.

BN: He actually had a piebald he pulled out of the river.

Any idea where he pulled that out from? NM: somewhere between Peak Creek and the Plain.

They got a few there but they were only there for a couple of days.

Old Louis Austin had a bad fall, a horse fell on him, he had a bad smash and they had to get him away and they never went back after that.

BN: That was all before the war then.

NM: Yes BN: Was that before you pulled horses out in 33 or after? NM: Before that.

BN: Any idea of how much before that? NM: Well I think it must have been about 1931/32.

We got those last few in 33 and Ted Cobley and Eddy Rhodes got most of them.

They got them after Turnbulls were there.

They built a trap yard and trapped them.

I think Turnbulls just chased them.

BN: But then he must have caught one of them.

NM: Yes LH: In more recent years there’s been a lot of horses in Combolo and down at Housewater back in the 70s.

Any idea when they first turned up in that area? NM: No I haven’t, I don’t ever remember seeing horses in Housewater either.

They would have come out of Kitty Creek probably.

RM: After the War do you think any horses were put back into the bush, anything that wasn’t wanted? Did they put old horses back in? NM: I don’t think so, I never heard of any.

RM: How about Newberrys.

Do you remember them? They had a lease down there.

Did they breed horses down there? 10 NM: No.

I don’t think so.

The horses they would have got there would have been horses that came from …anything that was branded would have had DIT on them but I don’t think Newberry’s had horses that went in there.

RM: Here’s Les to speak to you.

LH: Hello, how are you, long time no see.

In Genevieve Newbury’s book she said that they used to run horses down in the Days Water.

NM: Yes they could have LH: They used to muster them, take out the horses they wanted to break in and left the rest in there.

NM: Yes well that country was all pretty well fenced in those days and they would have stayed there.

LH: That could be pretty right NM: Yes that could be right LH: You remember the time you went in and got old Geoff Hickey out? Well just before that I think I went in there with Geoff and there was a big white tailed creamy horse in the paddock there.

Screaming around the paddock.

He was running up the river I think.

He was a brumby horse.

NM: No he would have been running around Combolo, that fellow.

LH: he wasn’t a half bad sort of a horse.

NM: no, he was a good sort of a horse.

Very good.

LH: alright Noel, we’ll see you.

NM: Right.

RM: Grandpa, Graeme Baldwin brought in a piece about the Ellis’s and we were trying to find out about an area they were speaking about called the Bluff.

Do you know where it is? LH: Noel, that’s William Ellis that dropped dead down there and they carted him out of the Bluff.

I found out that the Bluff was the name of their property near Wards Mistake that Lloyd Ellis is on now.

That was what the Bluff was all about.

I hadn’t got around to telling them yet.

I’ll put you back to Robyn again.

RM: I’ll just ask if there are any other questions.

BN: Mr.

MacDougall one of the things when Les brought in the diaries from the Newberrys, they were talking about horses being down in the Gulf country.

We were talking about last meeting about back in those days, what people meant by the Gulf Country.

Did they mean more of that Mitchell, Aberfoyle, Guy Fawkes area or did they mean the Ebor end? NM: Well I would have thought only the top end.

BN: What do you mean about the top end? NM: Well all of it probably.

From the Peak Creek up.

BN: From Peak Creek up, meaning sort of ‘over the bluff’.

People would have called the Gulf country, meaning from over the edge down into the gorges, they mean going into the Gulf.

From your remembrance Peak Creek going up the river was what people called the Gulf country.

NM: Yes BN: thank you for that because it’s good to have an understanding of what people were thinking in those days, thanks for that, that’s all the questions I have and I’ll put you back to Robyn.

RM: thanks so much, Grandpa, Ernie and I will be back there around 5 this afternoon.

FN: Is there anything else you would like to ask Ernie? BN: I guess I’m just interested, Ernie, in terms of the background.

You started at ‘Broadmeadows’ from the age of ten to fourteen.

You were born down in that country, were you? EM: I was born in Grafton and reared in Newton Boyd.

BN: So where were the rest of your family living.

EM: my Grandparents were buried at Razorback at our old home.

RM: You said that Teddy Cobley lived at Razorback.

EM: He lived at Razorback for a short time but he was up where they call Browns, just up the river called ‘East Home’, that’s the name of the place but everyone called it Browns because it was owned by Mrs.

Brown.

Then he left there and went to Lingalong and then he lived down ?????? BN: So when you turned up at Newton Boyd, when you say 10, you had started working.

EM: Well I left school as soon as I could.

RM: You did go one day.

EM: Yes, I did go one day and I didn’t like it and I didn’t go back again.

I went to work one day and I didn’t like it either.

BN: so when you were born until say 10, you were living in Grafton? EM: No, I went to Newton Boyd, I went to Newton Boyd College.

BN: University OK.

So you were living there but you started work when you were ten.

EM: Well life was pretty hard, there were 14 kids.

My father lived there all his life and his mother and father were buried there and that’s just home that’s all.

BN: and your father was living at ‘Razorback’? 11 EM: He worked for different people around there and he droved.

RM: Are you getting at, did they buy ‘Razorback’? BN: No, Ernie has been very helpful giving information from when he started at Newton Boyd but I’m just interested in your family links all the way and it is very clear to me now that you grew up in the Newton Boyd area and your family was there for many many years before then.

LH: the only reason he went to Grafton was to get born! BN: Of course! EM: My place is just about three miles from ‘Razorback’ over at ‘Why Worry’.

BN: Sorry to get personal.

I just got interested in going right back to make sure I got a good picture.

EM: I suppose we were the only people that are not imported to Newton Boyd.

RM: That’s right LH: Last of the originals.

BN: I reckon that’s a fascinating history Ernie, I think that’s great.

FN: You did a wonderful job, you took the time to tell us that, thank you for that.

EM: Glad I could be helpful. 12 2.5 DOCUMENT PREPARED BY ROBYN MACDOUGALL, A MEMBER OF THE WORKING PARTY Because it has separate pagination, this document is included in this report as Appendix 1. 13 — FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: GB: CH: GB: CH: FN: LH: RM: CH: FN: CH: line to whom I refer that came in here in the 1870s.

And this is the one that they refer to as being the origin of all the … and the duns.

Yes.

Its bloodline is in that article as well.

The chestnut mare that went to . . .

And ultimately was the dam that Eclipse was out of, belonged to the Wrights, who of course established up here in 1885.

The bloodline of Eclipse, naming Saladin, and going right through . . .

Eclipse was actually the sire of the chestnut mare.

I think you’ll find that Saladin … Saladin was mated to that mare.

Saladin was mated to the mare but ….

The offspring was also called Saladin – the daughter was mated back to the original Saladin.

No that’s not how it works.

No, you have Saladin the little creamy.

Yes.

The chestnut mare came along.

Mated with Saladin.

Yeah.

By Eclipse.

No.

She had Eclipse.

OK.

No wait. … has provided us with some information … Even in Mr Wright’s diary here you’ll see the point you have just made.

Here he says here that this can become confusing because Eclipse is a very popular name.

But Mr Wright in his diary actually traced back through his grandfather to find it was the original Eclipse.

OK So we’re not going off on a tangent of an Eclipse there and an Eclipse there and will the real Eclipse please stand up? So what you’re saying is quite right.

When you get back into the old breeding lines you’ll find that names were very popular and often queued up again and again.

But unless, if you know the Wrights you will know that they have diaries going back to their great great great grandmother who rode up here, and they’ve got histories of their own family trees.

So they really are very good documenters.

Yep.

We’ve actually got some…. … was he a chestnut? Well actually the Radium – this old fellow I knew, he was, he was a liver? – was he? – the old fellow – the old Bridget(?) … an old fellow the other day thought that Saladin was a liver chestnut No, a little creamy fellow … There are two Saladins Saladin’s son – they call him Saladin too.

If it’s anything like our family, the Macdougalls, you can trace our horses back to the originals but you’ll find Toots out of Toots out of Toots out of Toots – no names were ever changed.

Dixies out of Dixies ….

And that’s where it becomes very confusing.

We know the lines, but it is confusing but I can imagine it’s not an uncommon thing.

I think we were lucky in one regard in that the Wrights were such good documenters.

Yep.

Yep.

OK.

If we go on a bit.

I’m now going to move on to a little bit about the horses and colour, and just a little bit more about that in terms of getting up to the origins of stock horses and light horses – the Waler.

OK.

In this area.

Mr Alex G Stuart wrote, and I can back this up with articles for each and everybody, in 1947 in Wing(?) Chronicle: perhaps close breeding of these famous horses kept their colour and stood the test of time on the rough north coast range country, to stay at their feet, sorry, to start their feet, we find no skinny toe, no sand cracks, no corns, no sidebone, no sprung tendons or splints.

And when you look at their back legs, no spavin, no ….

They’re good skinned, strong galloways, with nice hair, mane and tail, mostly cream in colour, good enough in the shoulder to carry a saddle without a crupper, and strong enough in the ribs to dispense with the necessity of breastplates.

No day too long; up to 14 stone in mounts.

Now if we wanted a definition of a brumby that’s not jolly-well bad is it? In other words they were pretty good tough sound little horses that came out of this range country.

The same article, for which I have provided you copies, speaks about the taffies, palominos, and pseudo-albinos existing even in those times, all evident today, in the Guy Fawkes Australian brumbies.

In the official account given of what is an Australian stock horse, this is from 1974, I quote: almost all of the remaining 40% of stockhorse bloodlines are of specific stockhorse bloodlines which have been developed in the Hunter Valley and the New England range area of New South Wales since the beginning of this century or possibly earlier.

Now that’s here for you as well.

So you’re looking for backup in terms of writing, certainly they’ve been round for a long time.

When we talk about the origin of the Australian stockhorse, and again I quote, the genesis of equine history on the Australian 21 continent commenced with the arrival of seven horses at Sydney Cove, with the First Fleet on 26th January 1788.

Hate to tell you, two got away the same day ….

During the 185 years which elapsed since that time … the Australian stockhorse has evolved as a type.

The first seven horses had been bought from the Cape of Good Hope by Governor Phillip, and in succeeding years, … horses mainly … and draught-type were imported from the same source until 74, until 1974 … in 1794 the horse population stood at 20.

They didn’t breed too quickly, you know the way things go, they didn’t sort-of get going very well.

In 1795 a cargo of 41 horses was loaded at Cape Town.

Only 33 survived the voyage.

The scarcity of horses ended up costing a fortune.

Now this is when the stallion Rockingham arrives, which was 1795.

So he comes up in your travels, anything relating back to him, you at least know where he came into the picture of things.

The first Arabs came in, bought in by Mr Robert Campbell, in 1806.

Now I don’t now what sort of things you’re looking for in terms of proving ….

But that’s FN: this may be – it may be useful information CH: Well see then – you get up to your 1840s when the squatting era began and in these articles here you’ll find that the horses were allowed to free-range right across the country.

So their origins can be as old as that.

There were no fences.

In 1885 Mr Wright brought a stallion bought a station sorry called Kangaroo Hills in the New England Ranges between Guyra and Ebor.

He referred in his diary to a stallion called Eclipse and his 15 mares, and also mentioned 15 geldings, the working horses at the station.

Eclipse is thought to be, in pedigree circles, the horse that has so much influence on the stockhorses in the Hunter Valley and the New England ranges.

Many of the Wright horses trace back to Radium, … some having a double-cross, that is they’re line-bred.

Bloodlines and dates are included in the copy article.

When we get past the stockhorse that were kicking around here in the 18, middle of the 1800s, we go on to the origins of the lighthorse.

Now we’re up to 1886.

In 1886 Tenterfield provided a portion of … up to Clarence light horse had transferred to the … infantry in 1888.

A half company of mounted infantry had been formed in Inverell early in 1889.

The squadrons of the six that entered the Ambar camp near Maitland in 1907 came from the Tenterfield, Glen Innes, Inverell, Armidale, Guyra, Tamworth and Manilla, a strength of 96 … the force. 15 officers, 258 other rank and 249 horses.

They all worked hard in this area and we’re told that these were a lot of horses that were also put back into the area, I don’t know – it’s going back a long way.

Reference will show that the …, most of the people there supplied many of their own horses, and they were supplied from brumbies, according to an officer’s account.

I’ve copied that for you.

That actual account, in the newspaper here, called the Australian lighthorse.

And he refers to the … times … One other, perhaps two other, points that I’d like to make before I close.

The international importance of the Australian brumby to the world’s horse industry I don’t think has been addressed at all.

So perhaps if I could just read you the next page, and finish on the next one after that.

The Australian brumby has potentially an important future role in the world’s horse industry, which has been internationally recognised and must now be recognised by our own Government.

In the last decade the United Nations has recognised that the principle of preservation is of equal merit and importance for remnant populations of wild an … species.

It has implemented a global program for the conservation of domestic animal diversity.

The United Nations particularly state it considers Australia will be a good gene pool for some of these breeds that are being lost, and has emphasized that in some of the original wildstocks, if some of the original wildstocks are not retained, the genetic material may be lost forever.

The UN scientists consider that in the future we may well have need of certain breeds for their genetic predispositions to resist disease, adaptation to certain climatic conditions, as well as undefined characteristics of yet unknown importance.

Scientists state that particular breeds have become adapted to their local environment, and may have genetic resistance to particular diseases.

They emphasize that while domestic animal populations have adapted to low input areas where there is a shortage of feed – or to the local climate – further, the scientists have conceded that it will be never be possible to re-synthesize these breeds in the timeframe required when the world may require to use them.

In these modern days of shuttle stallions, artificial insemination and the competitiveness of the marketplace, the UN has recognised breeding stockbase for horses and other domestic animals has been proven to be narrowing at an accelerated rate.

The United Nations geneticists have already described domestic species preservation as a race against the clock.

The UN scientists have already conceded the race against – that the race in the case of cattle diversity or biodiversity genetics may already be lost.

It states that domestic animals are a critical component of biodiversity and we – the developed world – have narrowed our total animal genetic base, much more than that of say, plant breeds.

Deliberate total eradication of Australia’s remnant wild horses, rather than a preservation through managing, within a sanctuary, of the historical range area, will be seen internationally as irresponsible and even stupid and evil.

Not only will we be undoing the work of our wild horses survival and development within its own range areas for all those … years but Australia would be justifiably condemned for being unconcerned with the brumby’s heritage value, to the people of its own country, and for their future genetic value for the world horse industry.

The UN has estimated that Europe has lost half the breeds of domestic animals that existed at the turn of the century.

Worse still, worldwide, a breed of domestic animals becomes extinct each week. 22 FN: CH: FN: CH: FN: RM: CH: FN: CH: FN: CH: Internationally, there are numerous examples of remnant wild horses being re-introduced to their country’s historical range areas, … national parks.

I go on now to two last points.

I have here two definitions, one of the Australian brumby and one of the Waler.

They’re not mine.

I took them from an international book.

I was curious to see how other people saw us.

The Australian brumby is a wild horse descended from domestic horses which were turned loose on the ranges during the mid-nineteenth century gold rush.

That’s 1850.

The origin of the term brumby is not known though it probably derives from an aboriginal word baroomby, meaning wild.

It is the horse of Australia’s history.

Their words, not mine.

I like it, but it’s theirs.

The Waler, it says, is a saddle horse, named after its state of origin – New South Wales, which in the early days of settlement, was the name given to all newly inhabited areas of Australia.

Horses were not indigenous to Australia, and the first ones were imported by European settlers in the late 18th century.

These initially came from South Africa and subsequently from Europe, with the English Thoroughbred and the Arab being much in demand by breeders.

Waler is a result of crossing hack mares with Arab Thoroughbred Anglo Arab stallions, which gives the horse … Not bad either.

The last thing I would like to address is, brumby heritage in terms of, if you like, what has been termed by … other people – the emotional heritage.

I think even Dr English referred to that.

So I don’t think you can walk away from it. … I call it our colonial living heritage, and horse of Australian history.

We already have that ….

The Australian brumby is the horse of Australia’s history.

It is part of our nation’s natural living heritage, and our last surviving link to our wild colonial past.

All Australians, city and country alike, acknowledge this feeling of a living link to our heritage through the Australian brumby, as proven when we showcased our horses to the world in the opening ceremony of the 2000 Olympic Games in September, and each year, at the display in the Great Australian Muster at the Royal Easter Show in Sydney.

It is of interest to note, that many of the horses participating in the Olympic opening ride, were in fact from the New England northern tablelands.

Australian horse lineage derived from the wild horses, has been internationally recognised for its inherent toughness.

In the minds of many Australians whether they are descendants from our indigenous, convict colonials or our many peoples lineage, be they horsemen or not, city or country, there is a feeling of having a living link and a connection to our country’s heritage through the Australian brumby.

Goodness me, they can’t be all country people down at the [show].

In this year of Federation, the National Heritage Trust, and other such funding sources, must be recommended to secure and allocate funding for the … and preservation through management of the Australian brumby.

Many of us cannot trace our own pre-convict, indigenous and multicultural ancestral and family histories, let alone prove the heritage value that we place on an Australian brumby.

But like most people in this land, we have relied on a strong oral history of the Australian brumby handed down to us by our forefathers, and the only history and heritage that many Australians have, is within this last 200 years.

Thank you.

Thank you very much.

Is this you that’s put that together? I do what I’m told, but yes I ultimately did it.

It’s an enormous effort.

Absolutely.

I get a lot of input from people.

They have marvellous information.

I’m like a clearing house, if you like.

I’m not meant to be here.

I’m not the delegate, by the way.

My delegate is in Sydney today, otherwise he would be herw … Well is there any discussion there? Any questions or points that people would like to raise with Christine? They only thing that I felt, I think that’s fantastic.

Now how do we get it back to our response? That’s a very – OK, it’s a general overview, but I think that this committee we have to zero in on this … You’re going back to saying you want evidence, like written down lineage evidence, and I’m telling you now, the only evidence many of us in this country has ever had, was oral, and it didn’t matter whether you were indigenous or a convict descendant, you only had oral.

Half the convicts that arrived here, didn’t come out on a P&O boat, they were brought out here chained neck, hand and foot.

They were usually teenagers and they, they just forgot about what went before.

And it was no hope of going home.

It more or less started with them.

Unfortunately, that’s the same with the horses.

But in fact you’ve provided a reasonable amount of documentary evidence which is going to be very useful to us A little bit, but the problem we’re facing I think – not we, but you – is that whoever decided to get stuck in the mud of saying you’ve got to have documented proof, must come from England, where you’ve got a studbook going back to the 1600s and a tiny little pocket handkerchief country that you could just run from there to there and grab another horse very easily.

Whereas here, when you had all your squattocracy running around that they just went shh let the horses go there were no fences, and the only time they bothered to muster them was when it was – the war came along and they were worth a quid! That’s about it! You can’t dismiss either the oral history side or the emotive side, because I’m telling you either one is at the peril of losing our own wild horse.

You won’t get any arguments from people around this table Well unfortunately your terms of reference have really I think put a ball and chain around your feet. 23 — 44 2.12 PUBLISHED GENETIC STUDIES OF WILD AND/OR ENDANGERED POPULATIONS OF HORSES10 Bailey, E.

And Lear, T.L. (1994) Comparison of Thoroughbred and Arabian horses using RAPD markers.

Animal Genetics 25 (Supplement 1): 105-108 Bjørnstad, G.

And Røed, K.H. (2001) Breed demarcation and potential for breed allocation of horses assessed by microsatellite markers.

Animal Genetics 32: 59-65 Bowling, A.

T. (1994) Population genetics of Great Basin feral horses.

Animal Genetics 25 (Supplement 1): 67-74 Bowling, A.T., Del Valle, A.

And Bowling, M. (2000) A pedigree-based study of mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence variation among Arabian horses.

Animal Genetics 31: 1-7 Canon, J., Alexandrino, P., Bessa, I., Carleos, C., Carretero,Y., Dunner, S., Ferran,N., Garcia, D., Jordana, J., Laloe, D., Pereira, A., Sanchez, A.

And Moazami-Goudarzi, K. (2001) Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes.

Genetics, Selection, Evolution 33: 311-332 Cothran, eg and Kovac, M. (1997) Genetic analysis of the Croatian Trakehner and Posavina horse breeds.

Zivocisna Vyroba 42 (5): 207-212 Cothran, eg, Santos, S.A., Mazza, M.C.M., Lear, T.L.

And Sereno, J.R.B. (1998) Genetics of the Pantaneiro horse of the Pantanal region of Brazil.

Genetics and Molecular Biology 21 (3): 343-349 Cothran, eg, van Dyk, E.

And van der Merwe, F.J. (2001) Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Nambia Desert, Namibia.

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 72 (1): 18-22 Cothran, eg and Singer, F. (2000) Analysis of genetic variation in the Pryor Mountain wild horse herd.

U.S.

Geological Survey, Fort Collins,CO Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (eds Singer, F.J.

And Schoenecker, K.A.): 91-104 Cothran, eg, Mancilla, R., Oltra, J.

And Oritz, M. (1993) Genetic analysis of the Chilote Horse from the Island of Chiloe – Chile.

Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 2: 137-146 Cothran, eg and van Dyk, E. (1998) Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds.

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 69 (4):120-125 Eding, H.

And Meuwissen, T.H.E. (2001) Marker-based estimates of between and within population kinships for the conservation of genetic diversity.

Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 118: 141-159 Horin, P., Cothran, eg, Trtková, K., Marti, E., Glasnak, V., Henney, P., Vyskocil, M.

And Lazary, S. (1998) Polymorphism of Old Kladruber horses, a surviving but endangered baroque breed.

European Journal of Immunogenetics 25: 357-363 Jordana, J., Pares, P.M.

And Sanchez, A. (1995) Analysis of genetic relationships in horse breeds.

Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 15 (7): 320-328 Kim, K-i., Yang, Y-H., Lee, S-S., Park, C.

Ma, R., Bouzat, J.L.

And Lewin, H.A. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of Cheju horses to other horse breeds as determined by mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

Animal Genetics 30: 102-108 Kinghorn, B.P.

And Shepherd, R.K. (2001) A graphic display of genetic distances between populations.

Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics 14: 273-276 Lister, A.M., Kadwell, M., Kaagan, L.M., Jordan, W.C., Richards, M.B.

And Stanley, H.F. (1998) Ancient and modern DNA in a study of horse domestication.

Ancient Biomolecules 2: 267-280 Lister, A.M. (2001) Tales from the DNA of domestic horses.

Science 291: 218 Miller, P.S. (1995) Selective breeding programs for rare alleles: examples from the Przewalski’s horse and California condor pedigrees.

Conservation Biology 9 (5): 1262-1273 Oakenfull, E.A.

And Ryder, O.A. (1998) Mitochondrial control region and 12S rRNA variation in Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii).

Animal Genetics 29: 456-459 Pitra, C., Curson, A., Nürnberg, P., Krawczak, M.

And Brown, S. (1996) An assessment of inbreeding in Asian wild horse (Equus przewalskii Poliakov 1881) populations using DNA fingerprinting.

Archive für Tierzucht 39 (6): 589-596 Vila, C., Ellegren, H., Gotherstrom, A., Leonard, J.A.

And Wayne, R.K. (2001) Tales from the DNA of domestic horses.

Science 474: 218-219 10 Since all of this material has been published and is therefore publicly available, copies of these items have not been included in this report.

Copies obtained by the Working Party are included in the papers of the Working Party, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney 45 Vila, C., Leonard, J.A., Gotherstrom, A., Marklund, S., Sandberg, K., Liden, K., Wayne, R.K.

And Ellegren, H. (2001) Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages.

Science 291: 474-477 2.13 OTHER PUBLISHED MATERIAL PERUSED BY THE WORKING PARTY11 Anon. (2000) The Bicentennial National Trail Information Booklet. [PO Box 259, Oberon, NSW 2787] Anon. (2001) Domestication: a life line for the brumby.

Hoofbeats: Riding,Training, Horsekeeping 23 (3): 21-23 Anon. (1985) Centenary recalls days of Light Horse.

The Armidale Express February 8: 7 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Anon. (1995) Kaimanawa Wild Horses Plan.

Department of Conservation, Wanganui, New Zealand, 93 pp.

Anon. (2001) Working together.

The Green Horse June/July: 29 Anon. (2001) Workshopping the Brumby.

The Veterinarian October: 8 Barton, R.D. (1917) Reminiscences of an Australian Pioneer.

Tyrrell’s, Sydney Bean, C.E.W. (1946).

Anzac to Amiens: A Shorter History of the Australian Fighting Services in the First World War.

Australian War Memorial, Canberra Cameron, E.Z., Linklater, W.L., Minot, E.O.

And Stafford, K.J. (2001) Population dynamics 1994-98, and management, of Kaimanawa wild horses.

Department of Conservation, Wellington, NZ, pp 165 Campbell, E.R.

And Harvie, P.G. (Eds) (1983).

Song of the Pen: A.B. “Banjo” Paterson, Complete Works 19011941.

Lansdowne Press, Dee Why, NSW Campbell, E.R.

And Harvie, P.G. (Eds) (1988).

A Literary Heritage: ‘Banjo’ Patterson.

Landsdowne Press, Sydney.

Cannon, M. (1973) Australia in the Victorian Age: 2.

Life in the Country.

Currey O’Neil, South Yarra Chauvel.

C. (1940).

Forty Thousand Horsemen [Film].

National Film and Sound Archive, Canberra.

Cluny, J. (1973) Origin of the Australian Stock Horse.

HOOFS and HORNS October: 75-79 [provided by the Brumby Heritage and Protection Society] Cooper, D.D. (1974).

The Lesson of the Scaffold: the Public Execution Controversy in Victorian England.

Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio.

Curby, P. (1994) European disturbance history: specific sites in Chaelundi State Forest.

Dorrigo Interim EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) Supporting Document No.4: 1-15. (State Forests of NSW) Davis, T.

And Leys, N.

Minister’s sermon on the mounts.

Sydney Morning Herald June 27: 26 Dobbie, W.R., Berman, D.McK.

And Braysher, M.L. (1993) Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Horses.

Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra Emsley, C. (1996).

Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900.

Longman, London Fahey, E.J. (1984) The Settlement of Guy Fawkes and Dorrigo (revised edition).

North Coast News Pty Ltd, Coffs Harbour Genett (1984) Origins of equine colour.

HOOFS and HORNS March: 107-110 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Gilbert, C. (1993).

Capital punishment in New South Wales [Current Issues: background paper].

New South Wales Parliamentary Library, Sydney Gower, J. (1999) Horse Colour Explained: a Breeder’s Perspective.

Kangaroo Press, Roseville, NSW [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Gower, P. (1973) Wrights since 1885.

HOOFS and HORNS September: 39-42 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Gower, P. (1974) What is an Australian Stock Horse? HOOFS and HORNS February: 66-71 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Gower, P. (1974) The Saladin Bloodline.

Pp? in Australian Stock Horse Stallion Pedigree Book Volume 1.

Australian Stock Horse Society, PO Box 288, 48 Guernsey Street Scone NSW 2337 Great Britain.

Royal Commission on Capital Punishment (1953) Royal Commission on Capital Punishment, 1949-1953: Report.

HMSO, London 11 Since all of this material has been published and is therefore publicly available, copies of these items have not been included in this report.

Copies obtained by the Working Party are included in the papers of the Working Party, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney 46 Gullett, H.S. (1939).

The Imperial Force in Sinai and Palestine 1914-1918 [Vol VII of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18] (7th edn).

Angus and Robertson, Sydney Hall, R.J.G. (1967).

The Australian Light Horse.

W.D.

Joynt & Company, Blackburn, Victoria Idriess, I.L. (1953) Stout hearts that never failed.

As You Were (Australian War Memorial, Canberra): 107-110 Jones, I. (1987) The Australian Light Horse.

Time-Life Books, North Sydney [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Killmier, J. (1973) Saladin in retrospect.

HOOFS and HORNS April: 38-40 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] McKnight, T. (1976) Friendly Vermin: A Survey Of Feral Livestock In Australia.

University of California Press, Berkeley, California McLynn, F. (1989).

Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth-Century England.

Routledge, London Mitchell, E. (1971).

Light Horse to Damascus.

Hutchinson of Australia, Richond, Victoria Mitchell, E. (1978).

Light Horse: the Story of Australia’s Mounted Troops.

Macmillan, South Melbourne Muir Watson, S. (2001) Culling or Killing? Hoofbeats June/July: 54-55 Newbury, G. (1969) Echoes On The Wind.

The Author, 5 Coates Avenue, Glen Innes (republished in 1986 as Mother of Ducks with Echoes on the Wind, by Genevieve Newbury, published by the author, 5 Coates Avenue, Glen Innes, NSW [ISBN 0 9589219 0 3]) Newbury, G. (prior to 1982) Mother Of Ducks.

The Author,5 Coates Avenue, Glen Innes (republished in 1986 as Mother of Ducks with Echoes on the Wind, by Genevieve Newbury, published by the author, 5 Coates Avenue, Glen Innes, NSW [ISBN 0 9589219 0 3]) Olsen, S. (1975) The Coffin Bay Brumbies.

HOOFS and HORNS August: 12-13, 18 Patterson, A.B. (1894).

Brumby’s Run (a poem).

The Bulletin 13 Jan 1894; republished in Saltbush Bill, J.P.

And Other Verses, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1917 Phillips W.H.J. (2001).

Australians in World War I: Light Horse in Sinai. [Living History Series].

Phillips Publications, 3/1A King St, Coffs Harbour, NSW Potter, H. (1993).

Hanging in Judgement: Religion and the Death Penalty in England from the Bloody Code to Abolition.

SCM Press, London Ramson, W.S. (1966) [Explanation of the origin of the term brumby] pp. 119-120 in Australian English: An Historical Study Of The Vocabulary 1788-1898.

Australian National University Press, Canberra Rolls, E.C. (1969) They All Ran Wild: The Story Of Pests On The Land In Australia.

Angus and Robertson, Sydney Semmler, C. (1974) The Banjo of the Bush: The Life and Times of A.B. “Banjo” Paterson (2nd edn).

University of Queensland Press, Brisbane Semmler, C. (ed.) (1992) A.B. “Banjo” Paterson: Bush Ballads, Poems, Stories and Journalism.

University of Queensland Press, Brisbane Walker, K. (1963) The Timor pony.

HOOFS and HORNS September: 54 [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] Wright, P.A. (1971) Memories of a Bushwacker.

Published by the author.

Yarwood, A.T. (1989) Walers: Australian Horses Abroad.

Melbourne University Press, at the Miegunyah Press [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society and by the chairman of the Working Party] 2.14 UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL PERUSED BY THE WORKING PARTY12 Anon. (2001) Tabulum and the Light Horse Tradition.

Htpp://www.lighthorse.org.au/military/tabulum.htm. [23 July 2001] Greer, K. (2001) Extreme Greenies must be Reined In.

The Brumby Heritage and Protection Society (now renamed the Australian Brumby Heritage Society) media release, 18th June [provided by the Australian Brumby Heritage Society] 12 A copy of most of these items has been deposited with the papers of the Working Party, State Library of New South Wales 47 Halkett, R.J. (1996) A genetic analysis of the Kaimanawa horses and comparisons with other equine types.

MSc Thesis, Massy University, New Zealand (courtesy of Dr I.

Anderson) Pryor, J.H. (2001) The transportation of cavalry horses by sea from Thucydides to the Boer War: a tale of men’s inhumanity to animals.

Seminar paper presented in Dept of History, University of Sydney, on 14th May Reimann, A. (2000) The pony and Coffin Bay National Park.

Unpublished typescript February, 4 pages [provided by Tom Genschwitz, National Parks & Wildlife South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage, Port Lincoln, South Australia; 14 Aug 2001] Waler Horse Society of Australia Inc (2001) Locating, preserving, assessing and managing feral Walers and specific Brumbies of potential heritage value.

Unpublished paper 2.15 OTHER RELEVANT SOURCES Chauvel, Charles (1940) Forty thousand horsemen [videorecording] produced and directed by Charles Chauvel, National Film and Sound Archive, Canberra 2.16 WEB SITES RELEVANT TO THIS REPORT http://www.unesco.org/whc/intro-en.htm http://www.ahc.gov.au/heritag http://www.heritage.gov.au http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au http://www.wildhorseandburro.blm.gov/summary.html http://www.kbrhorse.net/wclo/vrwpa01.html http://www.coffinbaypony.asn.au http://www.earsaustralia.homestead.com/HomePage.html http://www.lighthorse.org.au/ http://www.walerhorse.com/ www.doc.govt.nz/cons/pests/horse/muster.html 48 APPENDIX 1 THE HISTORY OF THE GUY FAWKES RIVER AUSTRALIAN BRUMBIES AND THE BRUMBIES OF THE NORTHERN TABLELANDS Collected and compiled by Robyn MacDougall of Newton Boyd, NSW December 2001

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