Thoroughbred – Developed in England in the early 1700s.
Every TB traces back to 3 foundation stallions – the Byerly Turk, the Godolphin Arabian and the Darley Arabian.
They were developed for racing, which is still the main purpose for which they are bred.
They are also used for show jumping, eventing, steeplechasing, show hunters, and foxhunting.
They are often crossed with other breeds to improve them, making them faster, lighter and more athletic.
They were also used as a foundation when creating other breeds.
They are usually between 15 and 17 hands and are most commonly bay, chestnut, and grey, and more rarely black, palomino, buckskin and white.
They sometimes have small white spots on the body, but pinto and appaloosa patterns are not recognized.
Thoroughbreds tend to be nervous and excitable.
They have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, and long legs.
Thoroughbreds are a hot-blooded breed. Arabian – Developed in and around Egypt about 2000 to 3000 years ago.
They are one of the oldest and most pure breeds known to man.
They were developed as transportation in the desert – both for riding and pulling vehicles.
They are used nowadays for endurance racing, flat racing, trail riding and showing.
They were used as one of the foundations for many breeds, and are often crossed with other breeds to improve and refine them, adding stamina, lightness and refinement.
They are usually between 14.1 and 15.1 hands and are most commonly grey, bay, chestnut, and less commonly, black and white.
Pinto, palomino, appaloosa patterns and buckskin do not occur.
Extensive white markings and white hairs throughout the body are common.
Arabians tend to be excitable and hot.
Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles.
Most display a distinctive concave, or “dished” profile.
Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup, or top of the hindquarters, and naturally high tail carriage.
They are a hot-blooded breed . Quarter Horse – Developed in Virginia, USA in the mid-1700s as a racehorse to run quarter-mile races.
They eventually became ranch horses in the west, and were used for working cattle.
They are still used as ranch horses and rodeo horses as well as racing, showing, and jumping.
They are often crossed with other breeds to add strength, substance and toughness.
They are usually between 14 and 16 hands and come in many colors, including sorrel (chestnut), bay, black, brown, buckskin, dun, red dun, gray, grullo, palomino, red roan, blue roan, bay roan, perlino and cremello.
QHs tend to be smart, sensible and steady.
They have a small, short, refined head with a straight profile, and a strong, well-muscled body, featuring a broad chest and powerful, rounded hindquarters. Appaloosa – Developed in the 1700s in the Palouse River area of Idaho by the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and were first used as transportation, and for hunting.
They were developed from the original horses brought to North America by the Spanish conquistadors.
They are now used in just about every discipline – ranch horse, western showing, English showing, jumping, eventing, dressage, trail riding and racing.
They are usually between 14 and 16 hands and can be one of several coat patterns, most with spots or roaning.
They can be any base color, but can’t have any pinto or paint patterns.
They also have several other characteristics – striped hooves, white sclera showing around the eyes, and mottled skin around the eyes and muzzle.
They often have a sparse mane and tail.
Appaloosas tend to be smart, tough, and have a lot of endurance. Warmbloods – Developed in many European countries, mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries by crossing heavy farm horses (coldbloods) with lighter, faster thoroughbreds (hotbloods).
They were mostly bred as carriage horses, but are now mostly used as sport horses, and excel as show jumpers, hunters, dressage horses and eventers, as well as in driving.
They are usually 16 – 17 hands and come in most solid colors, bay, chestnut, grey and black are most common.
They tend to be athletic, strong, and fairly steady.
Warmbloods differ from most true breeds in that most of them have open studbooks.
Individual horses are inspected and approved for registry, regardless of whether the parents are registered with that or another studbook.
In a closed studbook, individuals have to have both parents registered with the studbook.
Warmbloods are usually branded on the left haunch.
The brand identifies which breed it is.
Some breeds of warmblood are Hanoverian, Holsteiner, Rhinelander, Trakhener, Belgian warmblood, Dutch warmblood, Oldenburg. American saddlebred – Developed in the early 1800s in the southern USA as a comfortable, flashy riding horse.
They are now used mostly as show horses, both under saddle and in harness, but can also be used for dressage, jumping, and western disciplines.
They are usually 15 – 16 hands and come in bay, chestnut, grey, black, palomino, buckskin, champagne and pinto patterns.
The main characteristic of saddlebreds in their gaits.
They are shown as 3-gaited (walk-trot-canter) and 5gaited (walk, trot, canter, slow gait and rack).
The slow gait and rack are not natural, and have to be taught to the horse.
Exaggerated foot trimming and shoeing are often used to enhance the gaits.
They are generally well-proportioned, have large, wide-set expressive eyes and gracefully shaped ears set close together on a well-shaped head.
The neck is long with a fine, clean throatlatch and is arched and wellflexed at the poll.
The American Saddlebred has well-defined and prominent withers, while the shoulders are deep and sloping.
Well-sprung ribs and a strong level back also characterize the breed.
The legs are straight with broad flat bones, sharply defined tendons and sloping pasterns.
It is a gaited breed Morgan – Developed in the late 1700s in Vermont, USA, as an all-around horse that was strong enough to haul logs and work on the farm, fast enough to race, and pretty enough to pull the family carriage.
They are now used mostly for showing, but also for long-distance trail riding, ranch work and jumping.
They are usually around 14.1 – 15 hands and come in any color except appaloosa patterns, but are most commonly bay, chestnut and black.
Morgans are all descended from one foundation sire – his name was Figure, but he became known as Justin Morgan’s horse, and later, Justin Morgan, after his owner, Justin Morgan.
He won just about every weight-pulling contest and race he ever entered.
Morgans are known for their versatility, toughness and endurance.compact and refined in build, the Morgan has strong legs, an expressive face, large eyes, well-defined withers, laid back shoulders, an upright, well arched neck, and a clean cut head .
The back is short and hindquarters are strongly muscled, with a long and well-muscled croup.
The tail is attached high and carried gracefully and straight.
They appear to be a strong powerful horse,and the breed is well known as an easy keeper. Standardbred – Developed in the USA in the late 1800s for harness racing at the trot and pace.
They are still used mostly for racing.
Many become useful riding horses after their racing careers are over.
They are often used by the Amish as carriage horses.
They are usually between 16 and 17 hands, and come in bay, chestnut, black and grey.
The name come from the fact that when the breed was developed, a horse had to meet a standard of trotting a mile in 2 minutes, 30 seconds, or less.
Standardbreds are either trotters or pacers, and must maintain their gait during a race.
Standardbreds are tough, and are usually steadier and quieter than their close relative, the thoroughbred.
Their heads are refined and straight with broad foreheads, large nostrils, and shallow mouths.
The typical Standardbred body is long, with the withers being well defined, with strong shoulders and the muscles being long and heavy.
The neck of the standardbred is muscular and should be slightly arched, with a length of medium to long.
Their legs are muscular and solid with muscles on the inside and outside of the legs, with generally very tough and durable hooves. Tennessee Walking Horse – Developed in the southern USA in the late 1800s as a plantation owner’s horse.
They were used for overseeing the plantation, and for general transportation.
Nowadays, they are used mainly as a show horse, but are also used for trail riding, and for hunting dog field trials.
They are usually between 15 and 16 hands, and come in any color, including pinto patterns.
Tennessee walkers are quiet, easygoing, tough horses.
Their gaits, which are all naturally occuring, include walk, running walk, and canter, and are very smooth.
Their animated way of going is often enhanced by special trimming and shoeing, and abusive practices that take that action to extremes are not uncommon at shows.
The Tennessee Walker is a tall horse with a long neck and sloping shoulder.
The head is traditionally large but refined in bone, with small well-placed ears.
The Tennessee Walker is a gaited breed. Mustang – the mustang is a breed of feral horse developed in the USA in the 1500s and 1600s.
They originated from horses that escaped from the Spanish explorers and from settlers.
Nowadays they are used as general all-around horses – mainly in western disciplines but can be used in many different disciplines.
Mustangs are around 13 to 15 hands and come in any color.
They have low-set tails and short stature, however, their overall appearance is well-balanced.
Their strong hoofs and legs make them less prone to injury, as compared to other horse breeds.
All the decades spent in the wild has made this breed of horses to be extremely rugged, with great endurance level.
They are very sure-footed. Percheron – Developed in the Perche valley in France in the 1600s and 1700s.
They were first developed as war horses, then were used to pull coaches, then later, to do farm work.
They are used today mainly as draft horses, doing farm work and pulling wagons and carts for exhibition, competition, and recreation.
They are also ridden, and used for ranch work, foxhunting and jumping.
In France, they are mainly bred for meat.
They are usually between 17 and 18 hands and are usually black or grey, but can also be bay, chestnut or roan in America.
They are generally easygoing, steady horses, and have a lot of knee action.
The head has a straight profile, broad forehead, large eyes and small ears.
The chest is deep and wide and the croup long and level.
The feet and legs are clean and heavily muscled.
The overall impression of the Percheron is one of power and ruggedness.
The percheron is a draft breed. Clydesdale – Developed in Scotland in the 1600s and 1700s to pull wagons, haul heavy loads and do farm work.
They are still used for farm work, but are most commonly used for exhibition, showing, and recreational driving.
They are usually between 16 and 18 hands and come in black , chesnut, and most commonly bay.
They often have extensive white markings, white spots on the body, and roaning throughout, but they aren’t true roans.
The Clydesdale horse is lively and intelligent with good temperament.
The Clydesdale horse is lively and intelligent with good temperament.
The feet must be round and open with hoof heads wide and springy.
The horse must have action, but not exaggerated, the inside of every shoe being made visible to anyone walking behind.
The forelegs must be well under the shoulders, not carried bull-dog fashion, in fact must hang straight from shoulder to fetlock joint, with no openness at the knee, yet with no inclination to knock.
The hind legs must be similar, with the points of the hocks turned inwards rather than outwards, and the pasterns must be long.
Distinctive long, silky hair below the knees and hocks draw attention to the stylish lifting of the feet at the trot.
The head must have an open forehead, broad across the eyes, the front of the face must be flat, neither dished nor roman, wide muzzle, large nostrils and a bright, clear, intelligent eye.
A well-arched and long neck must spring out of an oblique shoulder with high withers, while the back should be short, with well-sprung ribs, and the thighs must be packed with muscle and sinew.
The Clydesdale is a draft breed. Shire – Developed in the shire region of England in the 1500s and 1600s, first as a war horse, then as a horse for hauling freight.
They are used nowadays for farm work, , but are most commonly used for exhibition, showing, and recreational driving.
They are usually between 17 and 18 hands and come in black, bay and grey.
Mares and geldings can be roan.
The head of a Shire is long and lean, with large eyes, set on a neck that is slightly arched and long in proportion to the body.
The shoulder is deep and wide, the chest wide, the back muscular and short and the hindquarters long and wide.
There is not to be too much feathering on the legs, and the hair is fine, straight and silky.
The Shire is lively and intelligent with good temperament.
The shire is a draft breed.
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