Immaturity and Fear Young horses are influenced by ‘group’ behaviour to an unfamiliar situation, sight, movement or noise.
They will overreact to stimuli that they eventually become accustomed to by repetitive exposure or confidence gained as they mature.
Recent studies indicate that whilst imprinting newborn foals by rubbing, strolung and close human contact is helpful in handling, horses left to weanling age quickly become accustomed to careful handling and the only difference was the size and strength of the young horse as it grew and developed to yearling age.
Domesticated horses are not generally “feral” by nature and most have a trusting attitude unless they are suddenly disturbed or subjected to rough handling or unfamiliar objects or circumstances.
Problem horses that have, for a variety of reasons, become difficult need expert, professional re-education. Inof*Behaviour The common term ‘hot’ behaviour is usually related to increased activity or excitement that often results from intake of high energy feeds or excess energy intake relative to daily work or exercise needs.
Many horses are fed much more energy to maintain condition than they can utilize in daily exercise.
Energy needs at 120% above daily needs, irrespective of the source of energy, will often trigger over-energetic, “hot” behaviour. “Spring Fever” is a term used to describe more reactive and excitable behaviour of horses that are grazing high quality spring pastures, usually containing a high proportion of Non-Structural Carbohydrates (NSC) or soluble sugars that over-supply energy relative to needs for grazing or lightly worked horses.
Restricting grazing to limit carbohydrate intake, as well as reducing the intake of fructan sugars or excess carbohydrates that can trigger a larninitic or founder episde in heavy ‘cresty’ horses, will often help to ‘cool’ them down for traini b a r $Grain Intake Feeding of carbohydrate cereal grains can increase the minutes to leach out high energy sugars and air drying in a overall energy available to idle and lightly worked horses, with net from overnight for the morning feed, or vice versa, is risk of “hot”, energetic, “up on the toes” behaviour – in short, useful to thin down overweight horses, whilst still providing dequate bulk.
It is also mandatory for horses and ponies the horse has excess energy relative to needs and “feels” good.
Restricted to a hay diet during Spring to reduce the Horses are herbivore foraging animals that have only low risk of laminitis or founder.
Levels of starch (glycanase) enzymes available to digest high levels of NSC’s (sugars and starches) in their small intestine, with the large capacity hindgut uniquely adapted to digestion Breed Palatad Narvow Babarriour of structural carbohydrates, such as cellulose from pasture.
It is well recognised that some breeds of horses have a Mares Behawing Badly tendency to be more “spirited” and “reactive” when fed and In mares that become more aggressive, dominant and managed under identical conditions as other horses of similar maturity. “Hot blooded” horses (those having a red cell count arch their necks when being handled and walked, a above 8.0 million red cellslcubic mm), such as Thoroughbreds, testosterone (male hormone) producing ovarian tumour Arabians, Standardbreds and Quarter Horses, have been bred may be the underlying cause, especially if the mare and selected to be ‘fright’ and ‘flight’ reactive, whereas coldbecomes progressively more dominant and aggressive to blooded horses including most pony breeds, Draughts and handle or with other horses.
In this case, an ultrasound Miniatures (those having a red cell count below 7.0 million red scan of the ovaries can be carried out by your vet to cellslcubic mm) are generally less “reactive”.
Warmbloods are determine any abnormalities in ovarian size or consistency.
A mix of hot-blooded and cold-blooded horses, and generally Although specialised hormone therapy can be prescribed, removal of a cancerous ovary is the best long term option – have quieter temperaments.
Of course, individuals of any breed can have a “reactive” temperament and vary in their genetic mares can still breed successfully with one properly ability to learn and be trained.
Functioning ovary. Soaking hay in doublc ils volumc of lukc-warm walcr for 60 cdfeed: – W h a t d d e y E m ? There are a very large number of “cool” and “calm” feed available as pre-mixed feeds on the market.
Most of these contain ingredients, including grains and byproducts that have slow release blend of NSC’s, or are b a d on carriers such as seed hulls, pollard and bran that are digested predominately by microbial fermentation of fibre in the large intestine.
High fat feeds, containing bases such as rice bran, crushed oil seed meals, as well as raw or refined vegetable oils, or Omega-3 and 6 blended oils, are often included to provide protein and fat as more slowly digested energy sources.
Extruded and micronised grain based feeds are also considered to be “cooler” than raw cereal grain mixes as they are digested in the small intestine to give usable energy, with a reduced risk of overload of undigested starch into the hindgut where it ferments rapidly to lactic acid.
However, intakes have to be carefully controlled with 2 smaller feeds per day to ensure these feeds provide energy for exercise but do not overload excess into the hindgut.
High lactic acid build-up in the hindgut can trigger nervous behaviour, and toxin release, that can trigger soreness in the feet, and in severe overloads, of both raw or processed d n s , onset of laminitis and founder.
Dr Richards considers that inclusion of glycanase enzymes into heat-processed feeds would improve both the feed utilization and ocerall health of horses fed on rations high in extruded or micronised feeds.
Many oil seed and other grains are also regarded as ‘cool feeds’ because they contain little if any raw starch or NSC’s, with energy provided by protein, fat and fermentable fibre.
These include lupins (33%crude protein, 7% fat), canola meal (32% crude protein, 5 7 % fat), copra meal ((23% crude protein, 7% fat – must be soaked if more than 500g fed in a single meal), sunflower seeds (23% crude protein, 26% fat – a very high energy ‘cool’ grain), tick (faba) beans (23% crude protein, 4% fat) and full fat extruded soya bean meal (38% crude protein, 18% fat).
One or two of these sources are usually mixed 1520% by weight with rice bran, pollard or bran as a ‘cool’ energy mix, along with chaff and hay.
Limiting access to cereal grain starches will help to reduce the risk of “hot” behaviour.
Oats has a reputation of being a “hot” feed which is due technically to its high content of soluble smaller particle starches that are readily absorbed (75%) from the small intestine, rapidly increasing blood glucose concentrations and muscle glycogen storage – both of which can lead to over energetic and fizzy behaviour.
Corn and barley have 1 digestible starch s o u r c ~ during breakdown in the small intestine and barley generally is a Cbcoole~~y feed, although excess o f any grain relative to exercise needs, is likely to cause “hot” behaviour. Did You Know ??? that helps to improve condition and could be in part due to its relatively content (5mglkg) which has an effect of provide specific amino acids for muscle bulk as an aid in improving topline and muscle strength when directed in conjunction with exercise. ASmahUlaolsperaCksm There are a number of reasons for normally placid horses that cope well with everyday life to change their demeanour and become agitated, unsettled and less cooperative often when travelled and competed in different situations.
Gastric Acid Irritation One of the common causes for “good at home, but bad away” behaviour is related to gastric acid ‘reflux’ or ‘heartburn’ in horses being travelled or competed.
Many horses are considered “nervy” or ‘”fizzy” away from home as they become anxious, agitated, “starry eyed” and are unable to concentrate or keep their mind on the job when being competed, often after travelling.
Dr Scott McLure in Alabama USA has associated irritation of the upper unprotected gastric lining with travelling and change of location in horses, with up to 80% of horses exhibiting reddening and inflammation of the upper gastric lining and oesophageal (gullet) reflux area, as well as development of
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