Sawbuck, n

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Equi.Linn Sports Bra Athens Sawbuck, n

Sawarra nut.

Def.: See Souari nut. Sawbelly, n.

Def.: The alewife. [Local, U.S.] Sawbill, n.

Def.: The merganser. [Prov.

Eng.] Sawbones, n.

Def.: A nickname for a surgeon. Sawbuck, n.

Def.: A sawhorse. <-- 2.

A ten-dollar bill [Colloq., from the Roman X for ten].

Double sawbuck, a twenty-dollar bill –> SAwceflem, a.

Def.: See Sauseflem. [Obs.] Sawder, n.

Def.: A corrupt spelling and pronunciation of ‘solder’.
Soft sawder

, seductive praise; flattery; blarney. [Slang] Sawdust, n.

Def.: Dust or small fragments of wood 9or of stone, etc.) made by the cutting of a saw. Sawfish, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of several species of elasmobranch fishes of the genus Pristis.

They have a sharklike form, but are more nearly allied to the rays.

The flattened and much elongated snout has a row of stout toothlike structures inserted along each edge, forming a sawlike organ with which it mutilates or kills its prey. Sawfly, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of numerous species of hymenopterous insects belonging to the family Tenthredinidoe.

The female usually has an ovipositor containing a pair of sawlike organs with which she makes incisions in the leaves or stems of plants in which to lay the eggs.

The larvoe resemble those of Lepidoptera. Sawhorse, n.

Def.: A kind of rack, shaped like a double St.

Andrew’s cross, on which sticks of wood are laid for sawing by hand; — called also buck, and sawbuck. Sawmill, n.

Def.: A mill for sawing, especially one for sawing timber or lumber. Sawneb, n.

Def.: A merganser. [Prov.

Eng.] Saw palmetto.

Def.: See under Palmetto. Saw-set, n.

Def.: An instrument used to set or turn the teeth of a saw a little sidewise, that they may make a kerf somewhat wider than the thickness of the blade, to prevent friction; — called also saw-wrest. Sawtooth, n. (Zool.) Def.: An arctic seal (Lobodon carcinophaga), having the molars serrated; — called also crabeating seal. Saw-toothed, a.

Def.: Having a tooth or teeth like those of a saw; serrate. Sawtry, n.

Def.: A psaltery. [Obs.] Dryden. saw-whet, n. (Zool.) Def.: A small North American owl (Nyctale Acadica), destitute of ear tufts and having feathered toes; — called also Acadian owl. Saw-wort, n. (Bot.) Def.: Any plant of the composite genus Serratula; — so named from the serrated leaves of most of the species. Saw-wrest, n.

Def.: See Saw-set. Sawyer, n.

Etym. [Saw + -yer, as in lawyer.

Cf. Sawer.] 1. Def.: One whose occupation is to saw timber into planks or boards, or to saw wood for fuel; a sawer. 2. Def.: A tree which has fallen into a stream so that its branches project above the surface, rising and falling with a rocking or swaying motion in the current. [U.S.] 3. (Zool.) Def.: The bowfin. [Local, U.S.] Sax, n.

Etym. [AS. seax a knife.] Def.: A kind of chopping instrument for trimming the edges of roofing slates. Saxatile, a.

Etym. [L. saxatilis, fr. saxum a rock: cf.

F. saxalite.] Def.: Of or pertaining to rocks; living among rocks; as, a saxatile plant. Saxhorn, n. (Mus.) Def.: A name given to a numerous family of brass wind instruments with valves, invented by Antoine Joseph ‘Sax’ (known as Adolphe Sax), of Belgium and Paris, and much used in military bands and in orchestras. Saxicava, n.; pl.

E. saxicavas , L. Saxicavoe .

Etym. [NL.

See Saxicavous.] (Zool.) Def.: Any species of marine bivalve shells of the genus Saxicava.

Some of the species are noted for their power of boring holes in limestone and similar rocks. — Shortstop, n. (Baseball) Def.: The player stationed in the field bewtween the second and third bases. Short-waisted, a.

Def.: Having a short waist. Short-winded, a.

Def.: Affected with shortness of breath; having a quick, difficult respiration, as dyspnoic and asthmatic persons. May. Shortwing, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of several species of small wrenlike Asiatic birds having short wings and a short tail.

They belong to ‘Brachypterix’, ‘Callene’, and allied genera. <-- p. 1333 --> Short-wited, a.

Def.: Having little wit; not wise; having scanty intellect or judgment. Shory, a.

Def.: Lying near the shore. [Obs.] Shoshones, n.

Pl.; sing. Shoshone (. (Ethnol.) A linguistic family or stock of North American Indians, comprising many tribes, which extends from Montana and Idaho into Mexico.

In a restricted sense the name is applied especially to the Snakes, the most northern of the tribes. Shot, Def.: imp. & p.

P. Shoot. Shot, a.

Def.: Woven in such a way as to produce an effect of variegation, of changeable tints, or of being figured; as, shot silks.

See Shoot, v.

T., 8. Shot, n.

Etym. [AS. scot, sceot, fr. sce\’a2tan to shoot; akin to D. sschot, Icel. skot. See Scot a share, Shoot, v.

T., and cf. Shot a shooting.] Def.: A share or proportion; a reckoning; a scot. Here no shots are where all shares be. Chapman. A man is never . . .

Welcome to a place till some certain shot be paid and the hostess say \’bdWelcome.\’b8 Shak. Shot, n.; pl. Shotor Shots .

Etym. [OE. shot, schot, AS. gesceot a missile; akin to D. schot a shot, shoot, G. schuss, geschoss a missile, Icel. skot a throwing, a javelin, and E. shoot, v.t. See Shoot, and cf. Shot a share.] 1. Def.: The act of shooting; discharge of a firearm or other weapon which throws a missile. He caused twenty shot of his greatest cannon to be made at the king’s army. Clarendon. 2. Def.: A missile weapon, particularly a ball or bullet; specifically, whatever is discharged as a projectile from firearms or cannon by the force of an explosive. See Bar shot, Chain shot, etc., under Bar, Chain, etc. 3. Def.: Small globular masses of lead, of various sizes, — used chiefly for killing game; as, bird shot; buckshot. 4. Def.: The flight of a missile, or the distance which it is, or can be, thrown; as, the vessel was distant more than a cannon shot. 5. Def.: A marksman; one who practices shooting; as, an exellent shot.
Shot belt

, a belt having a pouch or compartment for carrying shot.
Shot cartridge

, a cartridge containing powder and small shot, forming a charge for a shotgun.
Shot garland

(Naut.), a wooden frame to contain shot, secured to the coamings and ledges round the hatchways of a ship.
Shot gauge

, an instrument for measuring the diameter of round shot. Totten.
shot hole

, a hole made by a shot or bullet discharged.
Shot locker

(Naut.), a strongly framed compartment in the hold of a vessel, for containing shot.
Shot of a cable

(Naut.), the splicing of two or more cables together, or the whole length of the cables thus united.
Shot prop

(Naut.), a wooden prop covered with tarred hemp, to stop a hole made by the shot of an enemy in a ship’s side.
Shot tower

, a lofty tower for making shot, by dropping from its summit melted lead in slender streams.

The lead forms spherical drops which cool in the descent, and are received in water or other liquid. —
Shot window

, a window projecting from the wall.

Ritson, quoted by Halliwell, explains it as a window that opens and shuts; and Wodrow describes it as a window of shutters made of timber and a few inches of glass above them. Shot, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shotted; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shotting.] Def.: To load with shot, as a gun. Totten. Shot-clog, n.

Def.: A person tolerated only because he pays the shot, or reckoning, for the rest of the company, otherwise a mere clog on them. [Old Slang] Thou common shot-clog, gull of all companies. Chapman. Shote, n.

Etym. [AS. sce\’a2ta a darting fish, a trout, fr. sce\’a2tan.

See Shoot, v.

T.] 1. (Zool.) Def.: A fish resembling the trout. [Obs.

Or Prov.

Eng.] Garew. 2. Etym. [Perh.

A different word.] Def.: A young hog; a shoat. Shot-free, a.

Def.: Not to be injured by shot; shot-proof. [Obs.] Feltham. Shot-free, a.

Def.: Free from charge or expense; hence, unpunished; scot-free. [Obs.] Shak. Shotgun, n.

Def.: A light, smooth-bored gun, often double-barreled, especially designed for firing small shot at short range, and killing small game. Shot-proof, a.

Def.: Impenetrable by shot. Shots, n.


Def.: The refuse of cattle taken from a drove. [Prov.

Eng.] Halliwell. Shotted, a. 1. Def.: Loaded with shot. 2. (Med.) Def.: Having a shot attached; as, a shotten suture. Shotten, n.

Etym. [Properly p.


Of shoot; AS. scoten, sceoten, p.


Of sce\’a2tan.] 1. Def.: Having ejected the spawn; as, a shotten herring. Shak. 2. Def.: Shot out of its socket; dislocated, as a bone. Shough, n. (Zool.) Def.: A shockdog. Shough, interj.

Def.: See Shoo. Beau & Fl. Should, imp. of Shall.

Etym. [OE. sholde, shulde, scholde, schulde, AS. scolde, sceolde.

See Shall.] Def.: Used as an auxiliary verb, to express a conditional or contingent act or state, or as a supposition of an actual fact; also, to express moral obligation (see Shall); e.

G.: they ‘should’ have come last week; if I ‘should’ go; I ‘should’ think you could go. \’bdYou have done that you ‘should’ be sorry for.\’b8 Shak. Syn. — See Ought. Shoulder, n.

Etym. [OE. shulder, shuldre, schutder, AS. sculdor; akin to D. schoulder, G. schulter, OHG. scultarra, Dan. skulder, Sw. skuldra.] 1. (Anat.) Def.: The joint, or the region of the joint, by which the fore limb is connected with the body or with the shoulder girdle; the projection formed by the bones and muscles about that joint. 2. Def.: The flesh and muscles connected with the shoulder joint; the upper part of the back; that part of the human frame on which it is most easy to carry a heavy burden; — often used in the plural. Then by main force pulled up, and on his shoulders bore The gates of Azza. Milton. Adown her shoulders fell her length of hair. Dryden. 3. Def.: Fig.: That which supports or sustains; support. In thy shoulder do I build my seat. Shak. 4. Def.: That which resembles a human shoulder, as any protuberance or projection from the body of a thing. The north western shoulder of the mountain. Sir W.

Scott. 5. Def.: The upper joint of the fore leg and adjacent parts of an animal, dressed for market; as, a shoulder of mutton. 6. (Fort.) Def.: The angle of a bastion included between the face and flank.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Bastion. 7. Def.: An abrupt projection which forms an abutment on an object, or limits motion, etc., as the projection around a tenon at the end of a piece of timber, the part of the top of a type which projects beyond the base of the raised character, etc.
Shoulder belt

, a belt that passes across the shoulder.
Shoulder blade

(Anat.), the flat bone of the shoulder, to which the humerus is articulated; the scapula.
Shoulder block

(Naut.), a block with a projection, or shoulder, near the upper end, so that it can rest against a spar without jamming the rope.
Shoulder clapper

, one who claps another on the shoulder, or who uses great familiarity. [Obs.] Shak.
Shoulder girdle

. (Anat.) See Pectoral girdle, under Pectoral.
Shoulder knot

, an ornamental knot of ribbon or lace worn on the shoulder; a kind of epaulet or braided ornament worn as part of a military uniform.
Shoulder-of-mutton sail

(Naut.), a triangular sail carried on a boat’s mast; — so called from its shape.
Shoulder slip

, dislocation of the shoulder, or of the humerous. Swift.
Shoulder strap

, a strap worn on or over the shoulder.

Specifically (Mil. & Naval), a narrow strap worn on the shoulder of a commissioned officer, indicating, by a suitable device, the rank he holds in the service.

See ‘Illust’.

In App. Shoulder, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Shouldered (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Shouldering.] 1. Def.: To push or thrust with the shoulder; to push with violence; to jostle. As they the earth would shoulder from her seat. Spenser. Around her numberless the rabble flowed, Shouldering each other, crowding for a view. Rowe. 2. Def.: To take upon the shoulder or shoulders; as, to shoulder a basket; hence, to assume the burden or responsibility of; as, to shoulder blame; to shoulder a debt. As if Hercules Or burly Atlas shouldered up their state. Marston.
Right shoulder arms

(Mil.), a position in the Manual of Arms which the piece is placed on the right shoulder, with the lock plate up, and the muzzle elevated and inclined to the left, and held as in the illustration. — Sorcery, n.; pl. Sorceries .

Etym. [OE. sorcerie, OF. sorcerie, fr.

OF. & F. sorcier a sorcerer, LL. sortiarius, fr.

L. sors, sortis, a lot, decision by lot, fate, destiny.

See Sort, n.] Def.: Divination by the assistance, or supposed assistance, of evil spirits, or the power of commanding evil spirits; magic; necromancy; witchcraft; enchantment. Adder’s wisdom I have learned, To fence my ear against thy sorceries. Milton. Sord (? , n.

Def.: See Sward. [R.] Milton. \’d8Sordes, n.

Etym. [L., fr. sordere to be dirty or foul.] Def.: Foul matter; excretion; dregs; filthy, useless, or rejected matter of any kind; specifically (Med.), the foul matter that collects on the teeth and tongue in low fevers and other conditions attended with great vital depression. Sordet, n.

Etym. [See Sordine.] (Mus.) Def.: A sordine. Sordid, a.

Etym. [L. sordidus, fr. sordere to be filthy or dirty; probably akin to E. swart: cf.

F. sordide.

See Swart, a.] 1. Def.: Filthy; foul; dirty. [Obs.] A sordid god; down from his hoary chin A length of beard descends, uncombed, unclean. Dryden. 2. Def.: Vile; base; gross; mean; as, vulgar, sordid mortals. \’bdTo scorn the ‘sordid’ world.\’b8 Milton. 3. Def.: Meanly avaricious; covetous; niggardly. He may be old, And yet sordid, who refuses gold. Sir J.

Denham. Sordidly, n.

Def.: Sordidness. [Obs.] Sordidly, adv.

Def.: In a sordid manner. Sordidness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being sordid. Sordine (? , n.

Etym. [It. sordina, sordino, from sordo deaf, dull-sounding, L. surdus.

See Surd.] (Mus.) Def.: See Damper, and 5th Mute. Sore, a.

Etym. [F. saure, sore, sor; faucon sor a sore falcon.

See Sorrel, n.] Def.: Reddish brown; sorrel. [R.]
Sore falcon

. (Zool.) See Sore, n., 1. Sore, n. (Zool.) Def.: A young hawk or falcon in the first year. 2. (Zool.) Def.: A young buck in the fourth year.

See the Note under Buck. Sore, a. [Compar. Sorer (; superl. Sorest.] Etym. [OE. sor, sar, AS. s\’ber; akin to D. zeer, OS. & OHG. s, G. sehr very, Icel. s\’berr, Sw. s\’86r, Goth. sair pain.

Cf. Sorry.] 1. Def.: Tender to the touch; susceptible of pain from pressure; inflamed; painful; — said of the body or its parts; as, a sore hand. 2. Def.: Fig.: Sensitive; tender; easily pained, grieved, or vexed; very susceptible of irritation. Malice and hatred are very fretting and vexatious, and apt to make our minds sore and uneasy. Tillotson. 3. Def.: Severe; afflictive; distressing; as, a sore disease; sore evil or calamity. Shak. 4. Def.: Criminal; wrong; evil. [Obs.] Shak.
Sore throat

(Med.), inflammation of the throat and tonsils; pharyngitis.

See Cynanche. —



sore throat

. See Angina, and under Putrid. Sore, n.

Etym. [OE. sor, sar, AS. s\’ber.

See Sore, a.] 1. Def.: A place in an animal body where the skin and flesh are ruptured or bruised, so as to be tender or painful; a painful or diseased place, such as an ulcer or a boil. The dogs came and licked his sores. Luke xvi. 21. 2. Def.: Fig.: Grief; affliction; trouble; difficulty. Chaucer. I see plainly where his sore lies. Sir W.

Gold sore

. (Med.) See under Gold, n. Sore, adv.

Etym. [AS. s\’bere.

See Sore, a.] 1. Def.: In a sore manner; with pain; grievously. Thy hand presseth me sore. Ps.

“viii. 2. 2. Def.: Greatly; violently; deeply. [Hannah] prayed unto the Lord and wept sore. 1 Sam.

I. 10. Sore sighed the knight, who this long sermon heard. Dryden. \’d8Soredia, n., Def.: pl.

Of Soredium. Sorediate, a. (Bot.) Def.: Soredi\’8bferous. { Sordiferous, , a.

Etym. [Soredium + -ferous.] (Bot.) Def.: Bearing soredia; sorediate. \’d8Soredium, n.; pl. Soredia .

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Bot.) Def.: A patch of granular bodies on the surface of the thallus of lichens. Soree (, n. (Zool.) Def.: Same as Sora. Sorehead, n.

Def.: One who is disgruntled by a failure in politics, or the like. [Slang, U.S.] Sorehon, n.

Etym. [Corrupted from sojourn, Scot. soirne, sorn.] Def.: Formerly, in Ireland, a kind of servile tenure which subjected the tenant to maintain his chieftain gratuitously whenever he wished to indulge in a revel. Spenser. Sorel, n.

Etym. [A diminutive.

See Sore reddish brown.] 1. (Zool.) Def.: A young buck in the third year.

See the Note under Buck. Shak. 2. Def.: A yellowish or reddish brown color; sorrel. Sorely, adv.

Def.: In a sore manner; grievously; painfully; as, to be sorely afflicted. \’d8Sorema, n.

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Bot.) Def.: A heap of carpels belonging to one flower. Soreness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being sore; tenderness; painfull; as, the soreness of a wound; the soreness of an affliction. \’d8Sorex, n.

Etym. [L., a shrew.] (Zool.) Def.: A genus of small Insectivora, including the common shrews. Sorgne, n. (Zool.) Def.: The three-beared rocking, or whistlefish. [Prov.

Eng.] Sorghum, n.

Etym. [NL., probably of Chinese origin.] (Bot.) (a) Def.: A genus of grasses, properly limited to two species, Sorghum Halepense, the Arabian millet, or Johnson grass (see Johnson grass), and S.

Vulgare, the Indian millet (see Indian millet, under Indian). (b) Def.: A variety of Sorghum vulgare, grown for its saccharine juice; the Chinese sugar cane. Sorgo, n.

Etym. [Cf.

It. sorgo.

See Sorghum.] (Bot.) Def.: Indian millet and its varieties.

See Sorghum. \’d8Sori, n., Def.: pl.

Of Sorus. Soricine, a.

Etym. [L. sorricinus, fr. sorex a shrew.] (Zool.) Def.: Of or pertaining to the Shrew family (Soricidoe); like a shrew in form or habits; as, the soricine bat (Glossophaga soricina). Sorites, n.

Etym. [L., from Gr. swreiths (sc. syllogismos), properly, heaped up (hence, a heap of syllogisms), fr. swros a heap.] (Logic) Def.: An abridged form of stating of syllogisms in a series of propositions so arranged that the predicate of each one that precedes forms the subject of each one that follows, and the conclusion unites the subject of the first proposition with the predicate of the last proposition, as in following example; — The soul is a thinking agent; A thinking agent can not be severed into parts; That which can not be severed can not be destroyed; Therefore the soul can not be destroyed.
Destructive sorities

. See under Destructive. <-- Sorites paradox, (philos.) The paradox that arises from the assertion that if one item is removed from a heap (sorites) of objects, what remains is still a heap.

Continued application of that rule for any finite heap ultimately causes a contradiction, when the heap has no objects left.

Similar definitional problems prompted the invention of fuzzy logic –> Soritical, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to a sorites; resembling a sorites. Sorn, v.


Etym. [See Sorehon.] Def.: To obtrude one’s self on another for bed and board. [Scot.] Sir W.

Scott. Sorner, n.

Def.: One who obtrudes himself on another for bed and board. [Scot.] De Quncey. Sororal, a.

Etym. [L. soror sister: cf.

F. sororal.] Def.: Relating to a sister; sisterly. [R.] Sororicide (?; 277), n.

Etym. [L. sororocida, and sororicidium; soror a sister + caedere to kill.] Def.: The murder of one’s sister; also, one who murders or kills one’s own sister. Johnson. — Spekboom, n.

Etym. [D., lit.

Fat tree.] (Bot.) Def.: The purslane tree of South Africa, — said to be the favorite food of elephants. Balfour (Cyc.

Of India). Speke, v.

I. & t.

Def.: To speak. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spekehouse, n.

Def.: The parlor or reception room of a convent. [Obs.] Spelding, n.

Etym. [Scot. speld to spread out, spelder to split.

Spread open; cf.

G. spalten split.] Def.: A haddock or other small fish split open and dried in the sun; — called also speldron. [Scot.] Spelicans, n.


Def.: See Spilikin. Spelk, n.

Etym. [AS. spelc, spilc, a little rod by which a thing is kept straight, a splint for binding up broken bones, akin to Icel. spelkur, pl., a splint.

Cf. Spell a splinter.] Def.: A small stick or rod used as a spike in thatching; a splinter. [Prov.

Eng.] Grose. Spell, n.

Etym. [OE. speld, AS. speld a spill to light a candle with; akin to D. speld a pin, OD. spelle, G. spalten to split, OHG. spaltan, MHG. spelte a splinter, Icel. spjald a square tablet, Goth. spilda a writing tablet.

Cf. Spillsplinter, roll of paper, Spell to tell the letters of.] Def.: A spelk, or splinter. [Obs.] Holland. Spell, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spelled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spelling.] Etym. [AS. spelian to supply another’s place.] Def.: To supply the place of for a time; to take the turn of, at work; to relieve; as, to spell the helmsman. Spell, n. 1. Def.: The relief of one person by another in any piece of work or wathing; also, a turn at work which is carried on by one person or gang relieving another; as, a spellat the pumps; a spell at the masthead. A spell at the wheel isc called a trick. Ham.


Encyc. 2. Def.: The time during which one person or gang works until relieved; hence, any relatively short period of time, whether a few hours, days, or weeks. Nothing new hass happened in this quarter, except the setting in of a severe spell of cold weather. Washington. 3. Def.: One of two or more persons or gangs who work by spells. [R.] Their toil is so extreme that they can not endure it above four hours in a day, but are succeeded by spells. Garew. 4. Def.: A gratuitous helping forward of another’s work; as, a logging spell. [Local, U.S.] Spell, n.Etym. [AS. spell a saying, tale, speech; akin to OS. & OHG. spel, Icel. spjall,Goth. spill.

Cf. Gospel, Spell to tell the letters of.] 1. Def.: A story; a tale. [Obs.] \’bdHearken to my ‘spell’.\’b8 Chaucer. 2. Def.: A stanza, verse, or phrase supposed to be endowed with magical power; an incantation; hence, any charm. Start not; her actions shall be holy as You hear my spell is lawful. Shak. Spell, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Spelled ( or Spelt (; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Spelling.] Etym. [OE. spellen, spellien, tell, relate, AS. spellian, fr. spell a saying, tale; akin to MHG. spellen to relate, Goth. spill.e Spell a tale.

In sense 4 and those following, OE. spellen, perhaps originally a different word, and from or influenced by spell a splinter, from the use of a piece of wood to point to the letters in schools: cf.

D. spellen to spell.

Cf. Spell splinter.] 1. Def.: To tell; to relate; to teach. [Obs.] Might I that legend find, By fairies spelt in mystic rhymes. T.

Warton. 2. Def.: To put under the influence of a spell; to affect by a spell; to bewitch; to fascinate; to charm. \’bd’Spelled’ with words of power.\’b8 Dryden. He was much spelled with Eleanor Talbot. Sir G.

Buck. 3. Def.: To constitute; to measure. [Obs.] The Saxon heptarchy, when seven kings put together did spell but one in effect. Fuller. 4. Def.: To tell or name in their proper order letters of, as a word; to write or print in order the letters of, esp.

The proper letters; to form, as words, by correct orthography. The word \’bdsatire\’b8 ought to be spelled with i, and not with y. Dryden. 5. Def.: To discover by characters or marks; to read with difficulty; — usually with ‘out’; as, to spell out the sense of an author; to spell out a verse in the Bible. To spell out a God in the works of creation. South. To sit spelling and observing divine justice upon every accident. Milton. Spell, v.

I. 1. Def.: To form words with letters, esp.

With the proper letters, either orally or in writing. When what small knowledge was, in them did dwell, And he a god, who could but read or spell. Dryden. 2. Def.: To study by noting characters; to gain knowledge or learn the meaning of anything, by study. [Obs.] Where I may sit and rightly spell Of every star that heaven doth shew, And every herb that sips the dew. Milton. Spellable, a.

Def.: Capable of being spelt. Carlyle. Spellbound, a.

Def.: Bound by, or as by, a spell. Speller, n. 1. Def.: One who spells. 2. Def.: A spelling book. [U.

S.] Spellful, a.

Def.: Abounding in spells, or charms. Here, while his eyes the learned leaves peruse, Each spellful mystery explained he views. Hoole. Spelling, n.

Def.: The act of one who spells; formation of words by letters; orthography. Spelling, a.

Def.: Of or pertaining to spelling.
Spelling bee

, a spelling match. [U.S.]
Spelling book

, a book with exercises for teaching children to spell; a speller.
Spelling match

, a contest of skill in spelling words, between two or more persons. Spellken, n.

Def.: A theater. [Slang] Byron. Spellwork, n.

Def.: Power or effect of magic; that which is wrought by magic; enchantment. Like those Peri isles of light That hang by spellwork in the air. Moore. Spelt, Def.: imp. & p.


Of Spell.

Spelled. Spelt, n.

Etym. [AS. spelt, fr.

L. spelta.] (Bot.) Def.: A species of grain (Triticum Spelta) much cultivated for food in Germany and Switzerland; — called also German wheat. Spelt, n.

Etym. [See Spalt.] (Metal.) Def.: Spelter. [Colloq.] Spelt, v.

T. & i.

Etym. [See Spell a splinter.] Def.: To split; to break; to spalt. [Obs.] Mortimer. Spelter, n.

Etym. [Cf.

LG. spialter, G. & D. spiauter.

Cf. Pewter.] (Metal.) Def.: Zinc; — especially so called in commerce and arts. Spelunc, n.

Etym. [L. spelunca cave.] Def.: A cavern; a cave. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. — Sprigtail, n. (Zool.) (a) Def.: The pintail duck; — called also sprig, and spreet-tail. [Local, U.S.] (b) Def.: The sharp-tailed grouse. [Local, U.S.] Spring, v.

I. [imp. Sprang or Sprung (; p.

P. Sprung; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Springing.] Etym. [AS. springan; akin to D. & G. springen, OS. & OHG. springan, Icel. & Sw. springa, Dan. springe; cf.

Gr. Cf. Springe, Sprinkle.] 1. Def.: To leap; to bound; to jump. The mountain stag that springs From height to height, and bounds along the plains. Philips. 2. Def.: To issue with speed and violence; to move with activity; to dart; to shoot. And sudden light Sprung through the vaulted roof. Dryden. 3. Def.: To start or rise suddenly, as from a covert. Watchful as fowlers when their game will spring. Otway. 4. Def.: To fly back; as, a bow, when bent, springs back by its elastic power. 5. Def.: To bend from a straight direction or plane surface; to become warped; as, a piece of timber, or a plank, sometimes springs in seasoning. 6. Def.: To shoot up, out, or forth; to come to the light; to begin to appear; to emerge; as a plant from its seed, as streams from their source, and the like; -often followed by ‘up’, ‘forth’, or ‘out’. Till well nigh the day began to spring. Chaucer. To satisfy the desolate and waste ground, and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth. Job “viii. 27. Do not blast my springing hopes. Rowe. O, spring to light; auspicious Babe, be born. Pope. 7. Def.: To issue or proceed, as from a parent or ancestor; to result, as from a cause, motive, reason, or principle. [They found] new hope to spring Out of despair, joy, but with fear yet linked. Milton. 8. Def.: To grow; to prosper. What makes all this, but Jupiter the king, At whose command we perish, and we spring? Dryden.
To spring at

, to leap toward; to attempt to reach by a leap.
To spring forth

, to leap out; to rush out.
To spring in

, to rush in; to enter with a leap or in haste.
To spring on


, to leap on; to rush on with haste or violence; to assault. Spring, v.

T. 1. Def.: To cause to spring up; to start or rouse, as game; to cause to rise from the earth, or from a covert; as, to spring a pheasant. 2. Def.: To produce or disclose suddenly or unexpectedly. <-- to spring a surprise on s.o. --> She starts, and leaves her bed, amd springs a light. Dryden. The friends to the cause sprang a new project. Swift. 3. Def.: To cause to explode; as, to spring a mine. 4. Def.: To crack or split; to bend or strain so as to weaken; as, to spring a mast or a yard. 5. Def.: To cause to close suddenly, as the parts of a trap operated by a spring; as, to spring a trap. 6. Def.: To bend by force, as something stiff or strong; to force or put by bending, as a beam into its sockets, and allowing it to straighten when in place; — often with ‘in’, ‘out’, etc.; as, to spring in a slat or a bar. 7. Def.: To pass over by leaping; as, to spring a fence.
To spring a butt

(Naut.), to loosen the end of a plank in a ship’s bottom.
To spring a leak

(Naut.), to begin to leak.
To spring an arch

(Arch.), to build an arch; — a common term among masons; as, to spring an arcg over a lintel.
To spring a rattle

, to cause a rattle to sound.

See Watchman’s rattle, under Watchman. —
To spring the luff

(Naut.), to ease the helm, and sail nearer to the wind than before; — said of a vessel. Mar.

Dict. —
To spring a mast

(Naut.), to strain it so that it is unserviceable. Spring, n.

Etym. [AS. spring a fountain, a leap.

See Spring, v.

I.] 1. Def.: A leap; a bound; a jump. The prisoner, with a spring, from prison broke. Dryden. 2. Def.: A flying back; the resilience of a body recovering its former state by elasticity; as, the spring of a bow. 3. Def.: Elastic power or force. Heavens! what a spring was in his arm! Dryden. 4. Def.: An elastic body of any kind, as steel, India rubber, tough wood, or compressed air, used for various mechanical purposes, as receiving and imparting power, diminishing concussion, regulating motion, measuring weight or other force. 5. Def.: Any source of supply; especially, the source from which a stream proceeds; as issue of water from the earth; a natural fountain. \’bdAll my ‘springs’ are in thee.\’b8 Ps.

L”vii. 7. \’bdA secret ‘spring’ of spiritual joy.\’b8 Bentley. \’bdThe sacred ‘spring’ whence and honor streams.\’b8 Sir J.

Davies. 6. Def.: Any active power; that by which action, or motion, is produced or propagated; cause; origin; motive. Our author shuns by vulgar springs to move The hero’s glory, or the virgin’s love. Pope. 7. Def.: That which springs, or is originated, from a source; as: (a) A race; lineage. [Obs.] Chapman. (b) Def.: A youth; a springal. [Obs.] Spenser. (c) Def.: A shoot; a plant; a young tree; also, a grove of trees; woodland. [Obs.] Spenser.

Milton. 8. Def.: That which causes one to spring; specifically, a lively tune. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. 9. Def.: The season of the year when plants begin to vegetate and grow; the vernal season, usually comprehending the months of March, April, and May, in the middle latitudes north of the equator. \’bdThe green lap of the new-come ‘spring’.\’b8 Shak. 10. Def.: The time of growth and progress; early portion; first stage. \’bdThe ‘spring’ of the day.\’b8 1 Sam.

Ix. 26. O how this spring of love resembleth The uncertain glory of an April day. Shak. 11. (Naut.) (a) Def.: A crack or fissure in a mast or yard, running obliquely or transversely. (b) Def.: A line led from a vessel’s quarter to her cable so that by tightening or slacking it she can be made to lie in any desired position; a line led diagonally from the bow or stern of a vessel to some point upon the wharf to which she is moored.
Air spring

Boiling spring

, etc.

See under Air, Boiling, etc. —
Spring back

(Bookbinding), a back with a curved piece of thin sheet iron or of stiff pasteboard fastened to the inside, the effect of which is to make the leaves of a book thus bound (as a ledger or other account or blank book) spring up and lie flat.
Spring balance

, a contrivance for measuring weight or force by the elasticity of a spiral spring of steel.
Spring beam

, a beam that supports the side of a paddle box.

See Paddle beam, under Paddle, n. —
Spring beauty

. (a) (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Claytonia, delicate herbs with somewhat fleshy leaves and pretty blossoms, appearing in springtime. (b) (Zool.) A small, elegant American butterfly (Erora loeta) which appears in spring.

The hind wings of the male are brown, bordered with deep blue; those of the female are mostly blue. —
Spring bed

, a mattress, under bed, or bed bottom, in which springs, as of metal, are employed to give the required elasticity.
Spring beetle

(Zool.), a snapping beetle; an elater.
Spring box

, the box or barrel in a watch, or other piece of mechanism, in which the spring is contained.
Spring fly

(Zool.), a caddice fly; — so called because it appears in the spring.
Spring grass

(Bot.), a vernal grass.

See under Vernal. —
Spring gun

, a firearm disharged by a spring, when this is trodden upon or is otherwise moved.
Spring hook

(Locomotive Engines), one of the hooks which fix the driving-wheel spring to the frame.
Spring latch

, a latch that fastens with a spring. <-- p. 1394 --> —
Spring lock

, a lock that fastens with a spring.
Spring mattress

, a spring bed.
Spring of an arch

(Arch.) See Springing line of an arch, under Springing.
Spring of pork

, the lower part of a fore quarter, which is divided from the neck, and has the leg and foot without the shoulder. [Obs.] Nares. Sir, pray hand the spring of pork to me. Gayton.
Spring pin

(Locomotive Engines), an iron rod fitted between the springs and the axle boxes, to sustain and regulate the pressure on the axles.
Spring rye

, a kind of rye sown in the spring; — in distinction from ‘winter rye’, sown in autumn.
Spring stay

(Naut.), a preventer stay, to assist the regular one. R.


Dana, Jr. —
Spring tide

, the tide which happens at, or soon after, the new and the full moon, and which rises higher than common tides. See Tide. —
Spring wagon

, a wagon in which springs are interposed between the body and the axles to form elastic supports.
Spring wheat

, any kind of wheat sown in the spring; — in distinction from ‘winter wheat’, which is sown in autumn. { Springal, Springald (?), Springall }, a.

Etym. [Scot. springald, springel, fr.

Scot. & E. spring.] Def.: An active, springly young man. [Obs.] \’bdThere came two ‘springals’ of full tender years.\’b8 Spenser. Joseph, when he was sold to Potiphar, that great man, was a fair young springall. Latimer. Springal, n.

Etym. [OF. espringale; of Teutonic origin, akin to E. spring.] Def.: An ancient military engine for casting stones and arrows by means of a spring. Springboard, n.

Def.: An elastic board, secured at the ends, or at one end, often by elastic supports, used in performing feats of agility or in exercising. { \’d8Springbok, Springbuck }, n.

Etym. [D. springbok; springen to spring, leap + bok a he-goat, buck.] (Zool.) Def.: A South African gazelle (Gazella euchore) noted for its graceful form and swiftness, and for its peculiar habit of springing lighty and suddenly into the air.

It has a white dorsal stripe, expanding into a broad patch of white on the rump and tail.

Called also springer. [Written also springboc, and springbock.] Springe, n.

Etym. [From Spring, v.

I.: cf.

G. sprenkel, Prov.

E. springle.] Def.: A noose fastened to an elastic body, and drawn close with a sudden spring, whereby it catches a bird or other animal; a gin; a snare. As a woodcock to mine own springe. Shak. Springe, v.


Def.: To catch in a springe; to insnare. [R.] Springe (? , v.


Etym. [OE. sprengen.

See Sprinkle.] Def.: To sprinkle; to scatter. [Obs.] He would sowen some difficulty, Or springen cockle in our cleane corn. Chaucer. Springer, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, springs; specifically, one who rouses game. 2. Def.: A young plant. [Obs.] Evelyn. 3. (Arch.) (a) Def.: The impost, or point at which an arch rests upon its support, and from which it seems to spring.

Hence: (b) Def.: The bottom stone of an arch, which lies on the impost.

The skew back is one form of springer. (c) Def.: The rib of a groined vault, as being the solid abutment for each section of vaulting. 4. (Zool.) Def.: The grampus. 5. (Zool.) Def.: A variety of the field spaniel.

See Spaniel. 6. (Zool.) Def.: A species of antelope; the sprinkbok. Springhalt, n. (Far.) Def.: A kind of lameness in horse.

See Stringhalt. Shak. Springhead, n.

Def.: A fountain or source. Springiness, n.

Def.: The state or quality of being springly. Boyle. Springing, n. 1. Def.: The act or process of one who, or that which, springs. 2. Def.: Growth; increase; also, that which springs up; a shoot; a plant. Thou blessest the springing thereof. Ps.

Lxv. 10.
Springing line of an arch

(Arch.), the horizontal line drawn through the junction of the vertical face of the impost with the curve of the intrados; — called also spring of an arch. Springle, n.

Def.: A springe. [Prov.

Eng.] Springlet, n.

Def.: A little spring. But yet from out the little hill Oozes the slender springlet still. Sir W.

Scott. Springtail, n. (Zool.) Def.: Any one of numerous species of small apterous insects belonging to the order Thysanura.

They have two elastic caudal stylets which can be bent under the abdomen and then suddenly extended like a spring, thus enabling them to leap to a considerable distance.

See Collembola, and Podura. Springtide, n.

Def.: The time of spring; springtime. Thomson. Springtime, n.

Def.: The season of spring; springtide. Springy, a. [Compar. Springier; superl. Springiest.] Etym. [From Spring.] 1. Def.: Resembling, having the qualities of, or pertaining to, a spring; elastic; as, springy steel; a springy step. Though her little frame was slight, it was firm and springy. Sir W.

Scott. 2. Def.: Abounding with springs or fountains; wet; spongy; as, springy land. Sprinkle, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Sprinkled (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Sprinkling (?).] Etym. [OE. sprenkelen, freq.

Of sprengen to sprinkle, to scatter, AS. sprengan, properly, to make to spring, causative of springan to spring; akin to D. sprenkelen to sprinkle, G. sprengen.

See Spring, v.

I., and cf. Sprent.] 1. Def.: To scatter in small drops or particles, as water, seed, etc. 2. Def.: To scatter on; to disperse something over in small drops or particles; to besprinkle; as, to sprinkle the earth with water; to sprinkle a floor with sand. 3. Def.: To baptize by the application of a few drops, or a small quantity, of water; hence, to cleanse; to purify. Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience. Heb.

X. 22. — Steeler, n. (Shipbuilding) Def.: Same as Stealer. Steelhead, n. 1. (Zool.) Def.: A North Pacific salmon (Salmo Gairdneri) found from Northern California to Siberia; — called also hardhead, and preesil. 2. (Zool.) Def.: The ruddy duck. Steeliness, n.

Def.: The quality of being steely. Steeling, n.

Def.: The process of pointing, edging, or overlaying with steel; specifically, acierage.

See Steel, v. Steely, a. 1. Def.: Made of steel; consisting of steel. \’bdThe ‘steely’ point of Clifford’s lance.\’b8 Shak. Around his shop the steely sparkles flew. Gay. 2. Def.: Resembling steel; hard; firm; having the color of steel. \’bdHis hair was ‘steely’ gray.\’b8 The Century. She would unarm her noble heart of that steely resistance against the sweet blows of love. Sir P.

Steely iron

, a compound of iron containing less than one half of one per cent of carbon. Steelyard, n.

Etym. [So named from a place in London called the Steelyard, which was a yard in which steel was sold.] Def.: A form of balance in which the body to be weighed is suspended from the shorter arm of a lever, which turns on a fulcrum, and a counterpoise is caused to slide upon the longer arm to produce equilibrium, its place upon this arm (which is notched or graduated) indicating the weight; a Roman balance; — very commonly used also in the plural form, ‘steelyards’. Steem, n. & v.

Def.: See Esteem. [Obs.] Spenser. Steem, n. & v.

Def.: See 1st and 2nd Stem. [Obs.] Chaucer. Steen, n.

Etym. [AS. st.

See Stone.] [Written also stean.] 1. Def.: A vessel of clay or stone. \’bdAn huge great earth-pot ‘steane’.\’b8 Spenser. 2. Def.: A wall of brick, stone, or cement, used as a lining, as of a well, cistern, etc.; a steening. Steen, v.


Etym. [AS. st to adorn with stones or gems.

See Stone.] Def.: To line, as a well, with brick, stone, or other hard material. [Written also stean, and stein.] \’d8Steenbok, n.

Etym. [D. steen stone + bok buck.] (Zool.) Def.: Same as Steinbock. Steening, n.

Def.: A lining made of brick, stone, or other hard material, as for a well. [Written also steaning.] { Steenkirk, Steinkirk (?) }, n.

Etym. [So called from the battle of Steinkirk, in 1692, on which occasion the French nobles had no time to arrange their lace neckcloths.] Def.: A kind of neckcloth worn in a loose and disorderly fashion. Steep (st, a.

Def.: Bright; glittering; fiery. [Obs.] His eyen steep, and rolling in his head. Chaucer. Steep, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Steeped (st; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Steeping.] Etym. [OE. stepen, probably fr.

Icel. steypa to cause to stoop, cast down, pour out, to cast metals, causative of st to stoop; cf.

Sw. stopa to cast, to steep, Dan. stobe, D. & G. stippen to steep, to dip.

Cf. Stoop, v.

T.] Def.: To soak in a liquid; to macerate; to extract the essence of by soaking; as, to soften seed by steeping it in water.

Often used figuratively. Let fancy still my sense in Lethe steep. Shak. In refreshing dew to steep The little, trembling flowers. Wordsworth. The learned of the nation were steeped in Latin. Earle. Steep, v.


Def.: To undergo the process of soaking in a liquid; as, the tea is steeping. [Colloq.] Steep, n. 1. Def.: Something steeped, or used in steeping; a fertilizing liquid to hasten the germination of seeds. 2. Def.: A rennet bag. [Prov.

Eng.] Steep, a. [Comper. Steeper; superl. Steepest.] Etym. [OE. steep, step, AS. ste\’a0p; akin to Icel. steyp steep, and st to stoop, Sw. stupa to fall, to tilt; cf.

OFries. stap high.

Cf. Stoop, v.

I., Steep, v.

T., Steeple.] 1. Def.: Making a large angle with the plane of the horizon; ascending or descending rapidly with respect to a horizontal line or a level; precipitous; as, a steep hill or mountain; a steep roof; a steep ascent; a steep declivity; a steep barometric gradient. 2. Def.: Difficult of access; not easy reached; lofty; elevated; high. [Obs.] Chapman. 3. Def.: Excessive; as, a steep price. [Slang] Steep, n.

Def.: A precipitous place, hill, mountain, rock, or ascent; any elevated object sloping with a large angle to the plane of the horizon; a precipice. Dryden. We had on each side naked rocks and mountains broken into a thousand irregular steeps and precipices. Addison. Bare steeps, where desolation stalks. Wordsworth. Steep-down, a.

Def.: Deep and precipitous, having steep descent. [R.] Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire. Shak. Steepen, v.

I. [imp. & p.

P. Steepened (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Steepening.] Def.: To become steep or steeper. As the way steepened . . .

I could detect in the hollow of the hill some traces of the old path. H.

Miller. Steeper, n.

Def.: A vessel, vat, or cistern, in which things are steeped. Steepiness, n.

Def.: Steepness. Howell. Steepish, a.

Def.: Somewhat steep. Carlyle. Steeple, n.

Etym. [OE. stepel, AS. st\’c7pel, st; akin to E. steep, a.] (Arch.) Def.: A spire; also, the tower and spire taken together; the whole of a structure if the roof is of spire form.

See Spire. \’bdA weathercock on a ‘steeple’.\’b8 Shak.
Rood steeple

. See Rood tower, under Rood.
Steeple bush

(Bot.), a low shrub (Spiroea tomentosa) having dense panicles of minute rose-colored flowers; hardhack.
Steeple chase

, a race across country between a number of horsemen, to see which can first reach some distant object, as a church steeple; hence, a race over a prescribed course obstructed by such obstacles as one meets in riding across country, as hedges, walls, etc.
Steeple chaser

, one who rides in a steeple chase; also, a horse trained to run in a steeple chase.
Steeple engine

, a vertical back-acting steam engine having the cylinder beneath the crosshead.
Steeple house

, a church. [Obs.] Jer.

Taylor. — Steganopod, n. (Zool.) Def.: One of the Steganopodes. \’d8Steganopodes, n.


Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Zool.) Def.: A division of swimming birds in which all four toes are united by a broad web.

It includes the pelicans, cormorants, gannets, and others. Steganopodous, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having all four toes webbed together. \’d8Stegnosis, n.

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. See Stegnotic.] (Med.) Def.: Constipation; also, constriction of the vessels or ducts. Stegnotic, a.

Etym. [Gr. (Med.) Def.: Tending to render costive, or to diminish excretions or discharges generally. — n.

Def.: A stegnotic medicine; an astringent. \’d8Stegocephala, n.


Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Paleon.) Def.: An extinct order of amphibians found fossil in the Mesozoic rocks; called also Stegocephali, and Labyrinthodonta. The under side of the body was covered with bony plates.

Some of the Stegocephala were of very large size, and the form of the body varied from short, stout forms to others that were as slender as serpents. \’d8Stegosauria, n.


Etym. [NL.

See Stegosaurus.] (Paleon.) Def.: An extinct order of herbivorous dinosaurs, including the genera Stegosaurus, Omosaurus, and their allies. \’d8Stegosaurus, n.

Etym. [NL., fr.

Gr. (Paleon.) Def.: A genus of large Jurassic dinosaurs remarkable for a powerful dermal armature of plates and spines. Steik, v.


Def.: See Steek. [Scot.] Stein, n. & v.

Def.: See Steen. Steinbock, n.

Etym. [G. stein stone + bock buck, D. bok.

Cf. Steenbok.] (Zool.) (a) Def.: The European ibex. (b) Def.: A small South African antelope (Nanotragus tragulus) which frequents dry, rocky districts; — called also steenbok. [Written also steinboc, and steinbok; also called stonebock, and stonebuck.] Steingale, n.

Def.: The stannel. [Prov.

Eng.] Steining, n.

Def.: See Steening. Steinkirk, n.

Def.: Same as Steenkirk. Steinkle, n.

Def.: The wheater. [Prov.

Eng.] \’d8Stela, n.; pl. Steloe .

Etym. [L., from Gr. (Gr.

Antiq.) Def.: A small column or pillar, used as a monument, milestone, etc. \’d8Stele, n.

Etym. [NL.] Def.: Same as Stela. One of these steles, containing the Greek version of the ordinance, has recently been discovered. I.

Taylor (The Alphabet). Stele, n.

Etym. [See Stale a handle.] Def.: A stale, or handle; a stalk. [Obs.] Chaucer.

Holland. Stelene, a.

Etym. [See Stela.] Def.: Resembling, or used as, a stela; columnar. [R.] Stell, v.


Etym. [AS. stellan. \’fb163.] Def.: To place or fix firmly or permanently. [Obs.] Shak. Stell, n.

Etym. [See Stell, v.

T.] 1. Def.: A prop; a support, as for the feet in standing or cilmbing. [Scot.] 2. Def.: A partial inclosure made by a wall or trees, to serve as a shelter for sheep or cattle. [Prov.

Eng. & Scot.] { Stellar, Stellary (?), } a.

Etym. [L. stellaris, fr. stella a star.

See Star.] 1. Def.: Of or pertaining to stars; astral; as, a stellar figure; stellary orbs. [These soft fires] in part shed down Their stellar virtue. Milton. 2. Def.: Full of stars; starry; as, stellar regions. { Stellate, Stellated (?), } a.

Etym. [L. stellatus, p.p.

Of stellare to set or cover with stars, from stella a star.

See Stellar.] 1. Def.: Resembling a star; pointed or radiated, like the emblem of a star. 2. (Bot.) Def.: Starlike; having similar parts radiating from a common center; as, stellate flowers. Stellation, n.

Def.: Radiation of light. [Obs.] — Stiff-necked, a.

Def.: Stubborn; inflexibly obstinate; contumacious; as, stiff-necked pride; a stiff-necked people. Ex.

“ii. 9. Stiff-neckedness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being stiff-necked; stubbornness. Stiffness, n.

Def.: The quality or state of being stiff; as, the stiffness of cloth or of paste; stiffness of manner; stiffness of character. The vices of old age have the stiffness of it too. South. Stifftail, n.

Def.: The ruddy duck. [Local, U.S.] Stiff-tailed, a. (Zool.) Def.: Having the quill feathers of the tail somewhat rigid. Stifle, n.

Etym. [From Stiff.] (Far.) Def.: The joint next above the hock, and near the flank, in the hind leg of the horse and allied animals; the joint corresponding to the knee in man; — called also stifle joint.

See ‘Illust’.

Under Horse.
Stifle bone

, a small bone at the stifle joint; the patella, or kneepan. Stifle, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stifled; p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stifling.] Etym. [Freq.

Of OE. stif stiff; cf.

Icel. st\’c6fla to dam up.] 1. Def.: To stop the breath of by crowding something into the windpipe, or introducing an irrespirable substance into the lungs; to choke; to suffocate; to cause the death of by such means; as, to stifle one with smoke or dust. Stifled with kisses, a sweet death he dies. Dryden. I took my leave, being half stifled with the closeness of the room. Swift. 2. Def.: To stop; to extinguish; to deaden; to quench; as, to stifle the breath; to stifle a fire or flame. Bodies . . . stifle in themselves the rays which they do not reflect or transmit. Sir I.

Newton. 3. Def.: To suppress the manifestation or report of; to smother; to conceal from public knowledge; as, to stifle a story; to stifle passion. I desire only to have things fairly represented as they really are; no evidence smothered or stifled. Waterland. Stifle, v.


Def.: To die by reason of obstruction of the breath, or because some noxious substance prevents respiration. You shall stifle in your own report. Shak. Stifled, a.

Def.: Stifling. The close and stifled study. Hawthorne. Stifler, n. 1. Def.: One who, or that which, stifles. 2. (Mil.) Def.: See Camouflet. Stigma, n.; pl.

E. Stigmas , L. Stigmata .

Etym. [L., a mark, a brand, from Gr. See Stick, v.

T.] 1. Def.: A mark made with a burning iron; a brand. 2. Def.: Any mark of infamy or disgrace; sign of moral blemish; stain or reproach caused by dishonorable conduct; reproachful characterization. The blackest stigma that can be fastened upon him. Bp.

Hall. All such slaughters were from thence called Bartelmies, simply in a perpetual stigma of that butchery. Sir G.

Buck. 3. (Bot.) Def.: That part of a pistil which has no epidermis, and is fitted to receive the pollen.

It is usually the terminal portion, and is commonly somewhat glutinous or viscid.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Stamen and of Flower. 4. (Anat.) Def.: A small spot, mark, scar, or a minute hole; — applied especially to a spot on the outer surface of a Graafian follicle, and to spots of intercellular substance in scaly epithelium, or to minute holes in such spots. 5. (Pathol.) Def.: A red speck upon the skin, produced either by the extravasation of blood, as in the bloody sweat characteristic of certain varieties of religious ecstasy, or by capillary congestion, as in the case of drunkards. 6. (Zool.) (a) Def.: One of the external openings of the tracheoe of insects, myriapods, and other arthropods; a spiracle. (b) Def.: One of the apertures of the pulmonary sacs of arachnids.

See ‘Illust’.

Of Scorpion. (c) Def.: One of the apertures of the gill of an ascidian, and of Amphioxus. 7. (Geom.) Def.: A point so connected by any law whatever with another point, called an ‘index’, that as the index moves in any manner in a plane the first point or stigma moves in a determinate way in the same plane. 8. pl. (R.


Ch.) Def.: Marks believed to have been supernaturally impressed upon the bodies of certain persons in imitation of the wounds on the crucified body of Christ.

See def. 5, above. \’d8Stigmaria, n.

Etym. [NL.

See Stigma.] (Paleon.) Def.: The fossil root stem of a coal plant of the genus Sigillaria. \’d8Stigmata, n.; Def.: pl.

Of Stigma.Def.: Stigmatic, n. 1. Def.: A notorious profligate or criminal who has been branded; one who bears the marks of infamy or punishment. [R.] Bullokar. 2. Def.: A person who is marked or deformed by nature. Shak. { Stigmatic, Stigmatical (?), } a.

Etym. [See Stigma.] 1. Def.: Marked with a stigma, or with something reproachful to character. 2. Def.: Impressing with infamy or reproach. [R.] 3. (Bot., Anat., etc) Def.: Of or pertaining to a stigma or stigmata.
Stigmatic geometry

, Stigmatics

, that science in which the correspondence of index and stigma (see Stigma, 7) is made use of to establish geometrical proportions. Stigmatically, adv.

Def.: With a stigma, or mark of infamy or deformity. Stigmatist, n.

Def.: One believed to be supernaturally impressed with the marks of Christ’s wounds.

See Stigma, 8. Stigmatization, n. 1. Def.: The act of stigmatizing. 2. (R.


Ch.) Def.: The production of stigmata upon the body.

See Stigma, 8. Stigmatize, v.

T. [imp. & p.

P. Stigmatized (?); p.

Pr. & vb.

N. Stigmatizing (?).] Etym. [F. stigmatiser, Gr. 1. Def.: To mark with a stigma, or brand; as, the ancients stigmatized their slaves and soldiers. That . . .

Hold out both their ears with such delight and ravishment, to be stigmatized and bored through in witness of their own voluntary and beloved baseness. Milton. 2. Def.: To set a mark of disgrace on; to brand with some mark of reproach or infamy. To find virtue extolled and vice stigmatized. Addison. Stigmatose, a. (Bot.) Def.: Same as Stigmatic. Stigonomancy, n.

Etym. [Gr. -mancy.] Def.: Divination by writing on the bark of a tree. Stike, n.

Etym. [See Stich.] Def.: Stanza. [Obs.] Sackville. Stilar, a.

Etym. [From Stile a style.] Def.: Of or pertaining to the style of a dial. [Written also stylar.] Stilbene, n.

Etym. [See Stilbite.] (Chem.) Def.: A hydrocarbon, C14H12, produced artificially in large, fine crystals; — called also diphenyl ethylene, toluylene, etc. Stilbite, n.

Etym. [Gr. F. stilbite.] (Min.) Def.: A common mineral of the zeolite family, a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime, usually occurring in sheaflike aggregations of crystals, also in radiated masses.

It is of a white or yellowish color, with pearly luster on the cleavage surface.

Called also desmine.

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