Serpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….

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Guardian Premium Pine Shavings Horses-store.comSerpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….

The Names of Plants altaclerensis -is -e from Highclere, Hampshire (Alta Clara), or High Clere Nursery, Ireland altaicus -a -um, altaiensis -is -e from the Altai mountains of Central Asia altamahus -a -um from the Altamaha River, Georgia, USA alte-, alti-, alto- tall, high, altus alternans alternating, present participle of alterno, alternare, alternavi, alternatum Alternanthera Alternating-stamens, alter-ananthera (alternate ones are barren) alternatus -a -um alternating, alternatus (phyllotaxy) alterni-, alternus -a -um alternating on opposite sides, alternate, every other-, alter, alternus alternifolius -a -um with alternate leaves, alternus-folium Althaea (Althea) Healer, alqainw, a name, alqaia, used by Theophrastus althaeoides resembling Althaea, Althaea-oides alticaulis -is -e having tall stems, altus-caulis alticolus -a -um inhabiting high places, alti-colo altifrons tall-canopied, having high leafy growth, altus-(frondeo, frondere) altilis -is -e fat, large, nutritious, nourishing, alo, alere, alui, altum (alitum) altis -is -e above, on high, from afar, tall, alte altissimus -a -um the tallest (eg species of the genus), superlative of altus altus -a -um tall, high, altus alulatus -a -um with narrow wings, diminutive of alatus alumnus -a -um well nourished, flourishing, fostered, alumnus alutaceus -a -um of the texture of soft leather, alutus alveatus -a -um excavated, hollowed, trough-like, alveus, alvei alveolatus -a -um with shallow pits, honeycombed, alveolar, alveolus, alveoli alvernensis -is -e from the Auvergne, France (Arverni, Arvernus) Alyogyne Not-loosening-ovary, a-luw-gunh (indehiscent) alypum a former synonym for Globularia alyssifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Alyssum, Alyssum-folium Alyssoides.

Alyssoides resembling Alyssum, Alyssum-oides Alyssum Pacifier, a-lussa (an ancient Greek name, alussoj without-fury) ama-, am- jointly-, together-, ama amabilis -is -e pleasing, likeable, lovely, amo, amare, amavi, amatum amada from the Indian vernacular name for Curcuma amada amadelphus -a -um gregarious, am-adelfoj amagianus -a -um from the Amagi mountain, Kyushu, Japan Amana Japanese vernacular name for A.

Edulis Amanita Affectionate, amanitai, amans, amantis (attractive but toxic fly-agaric, death-cap and destroying-angel fungi) Amanitopsis resembling Amanita, amanit-oyij amanus -a -um from Amman, Jordan or Akmadagh–Amani mountains, N Syria, or Amanus mountain of S Turkey amaranthoides resembling Amaranthus, Amaranthus-oides Amaranthus (Amarantus) Unfading, a-marainw (Nicander’s name, amaranton, for the ‘everlasting’ flowers) (Amaranthaceae) amaranticolor purple, Amaranthus-coloured amarantinus -a -um not fading, amaranqinoj amaraliocarpus -a -um with fruits resembling those of Amaralia, botanical Latin from Amaralia and karpoj Amarcrinum the composite name for hybrids between Amaryllis and Crinum amarellus -a -um bitter tasted, diminutive of amarus (the Amarelle cherries are distinguished as red or yellow, with clear juice.

Morello cherries are black with coloured juice) Amarine the composite generic name for hybrids between Amaryllis and Nerine amarissimus -a -um most bitter tasted, superlative of amarus amarus -a -um bitter, amarus (as in the amaras or bitters of the drinks industry, eg Quassia amara, cognate with amarella and morello) 44 Glossary Amarygia the composite generic name for hybrids between Amaryllis and Brunsvigia Amaryllis the name of a country girl in Virgil’s writings (Amaryllidaceae) amatolae of the Amatola mountains of S Africa Amauriella Indifferent, diminutive from amauroj (stemless with short inflorescence) amauro- feeble, indifferent, gloomy, dark, amauroj, amauroamaurollepidus -a -um having dark scales, dark-bracted, amauro-lepidoj amaurus -a -um dark, without lustre, feeble, indifferent, amauroj amazonicus -a -um from the Amazon basin, S America amb-, ambi- around-, both-, ambio, ambire, ambii, ambitum; ambiambianensis -is -e from Amiens, France (Ambianum) ambigens doubtful, of uncertain relationship, ambi-(genus, generis) ambiguus -a -um of ambiguous relationship, ambigo, ambigere ambleocarpus -a -um with blunt (tipped) carpels, ambluj-karpoj ambly- blunt-, ambluj, ambluamblyandrus -a -um having blunt anthers on the stamens, ambluj-(anhr, androj) amblyanthus -a -um feeble-flowering, blunt-flowered, ambluj-anqoj amblycalyx with a blunt calyx, ambluj-kaluc amblygonus -a -um blunt-angled, ambluj-gwnia amblyodon, amblyodontus -a -um blunt-toothed, ambluj-odwn Amblyopetalum Blunt-petalled-one, ambluj-petalon amblyotis -is -e with blunt, or weak ears, ambluj-wtoj (lobes) amboinensis -is -e (amboynensis), amboinicus -a -um from Ambon (Amboina), Indonesia ambovombensis -is -e from Ambovombe, Madagascar Ambrosia Elixir-of-life, Dioscorides’ name, ambrosia, for Ambrosia maritima (divine food, food of the gods, immortality) ambrosiacus -a -um Ambrosia-like, similar to Ambrosia Ambrosina diminutive of Ambrosia ambrosioides ambrosia-like, ambrosia-oeidhj amecaensis -is -e from Ameca, Mexico amecamecanus -a -um from Amecameca, Mexico Amelanchier a Provençal name, amelancier, for A.

Ovalis (snowy-Mespilus) Amelasorbus the composite generic name for hybrids between Amelanchier and Sorbus amelloides resembling Amellus, Amellus-oides Amellus, amellus a name used by Virgil for a blue-flowered composite from the River Mella, near Mantua, Italy amentaceus -a -um having catkins, of-catkins, amentum, amenti (Ciboria amentacea grows on fallen alder and willow catkins) amenti- catkin-, amentum, amenti (literally a strap used to impart spin when throwing a javelin) americanus -a -um from the Americas, American amesianus -a -um for Frederick Lothrop Ames (1835–93), American orchidologist, or for Professor Oakes Ames (1874–1950) of Harvard Botanic Garden, orchidologist amethystea, amethystinus -a -um the colour of amethyst gems, violet, amequstoj amethystoglossus -a -um amethyst-tongued, amequstoj-glwssa (Cattleya) amianthinus -a -um violet on top or upwards, (am, ana)-ianqinoj Amicia for Jean Baptiste Amici (1786–1863), Italian physicist amicorum of the Friendly Isles, Tonga (amicus, amici, friendly) amictus -a -um clad, clothed, amicio, amicire, amictus amiculatus -a -um cloaked, mantled, with a cloak, amiculum, amiculi Ammi Sand, a name, ammh, used by Dioscorides for Carum copticum and reapplied by Linnaeus ammo- sand-, ammoj, ammh; yammoj 45 The Names of Plants Ammobium Sand-dweller, ammo-bio Ammocalamagrostis the compound name for hybrids between Ammophila and Calamagrostis Ammocharis Sand-beauty, ammo-xarieij (habitat) ammodendron tree of the sand, ammo-dendron (habitat) Ammoides, ammoides resembling Ammi, ammh-oeidhj ammoniacum gum ammoniac, ammoniakoj, of Ammon (ammonia was first noted at the temple of Ammon, Siwa, Egypt, and its modern Latin name was given in the eighteenth century) an old generic name for Dorema ammoniacum Ammophila Sand-lover, ammoj-filoj ammophillus -a -um sand-loving, ammoj-filoj (the habitat) amnicolus -a -um growing by a river, amnis-colo Amoeba Changing-one, amoibh (having no fixed shape) amoenolens delightfully scented, amoenus-olens amoenulus -a -um quite pleasing or pretty (diminutive of amoenus) amoenus -a -um charming, delightful, pleasing, amoenus Amomum, amomum Purifier, a-mwmoj (probably from an Arabic name, the Indian spice plant Amomum was used to cure poisoning) amorginus -a -um from the Greek Amorgos islands Amorpha Deformed-one, a-morfh (flowers of the genus of greyish-downy lead plant Amorpha canescens lack wing and keel petals) Amorphophallus Deformed-phallus, amorfoj-falloj (the enlarged spadix) amorphus -a -um, amorpho- deformed (a-morfh, shapeless, without form ampelas having the habit of a vine, ampeloj ampelo- wine-, vine-, grape-, ampeloj Ampelodesmos (Ampelodesma) Wine-cable, ampelo-desmoj ampeloprasum leek of the vineyard, a name, ampeloprasson, in Dioscorides Ampelopsis Vine-resembling, ampelo-oyij (Ampelidaceae ϵ Vitaceae) Ampelopteris Vine-fern, ampelo-pteruc (the scrambling habit) amphi-, ampho- on-both-sides, in-two-ways-, both-, double-, of-both-kinds-, around-, amfij, amfi-, amfoteroj, amfoamphibius -a -um with a double life, growing both on land and in water, amfi-bioj amphibolus -a -um fired at from all sides, ambiguous, doubtful, amfi-boloj (amfibolia doubt) amphicarpos with curved pods, amfi-karpoj Amphicome Haired-about, amfi-komh (the seeds have hair tufts at each end) (ϵ Incarvillea) amphidoxa of all-round glory, amfi-doca (seasonal flower and foliage colouring) amphioxys lancet-like, tapered to each end, sharp all round, amfi-ocuj amphoratus -a -um amphora-shaped, amfi-foreuj Amphorella Small-wine-jar, diminutive of amforeuj amplectens stem-clasping (leaf bases), amplector, amplecti, amplexus to embrace or encircle amplex-, amplexi- loving-, embracing-, amplexor, amplexare, amplexatus amplexans twisting together, surrounding, embracing, am-plektoj amplexicaulis -is -e embracing the stem, amplektoj-kauloj (eg the base of the leaf, see Fig. 6d) amplexifolius -a -um leaf-clasping, amplexus-folium ampli- large-, double-, amplus ampliatus -a -um enlarged, amplio, ampliare, ampliavi, ampliatum ampliceps large-headed, amplus-ceps, some interpret as clasped head, ampli-kefalh amplissimus -a -um very large, the biggest, superlative of amplus amplus -a -um eminent, large, abundant, amplus ampullaceus -a -um, ampullaris -is -e bottle-shaped, flask-shaped, ampulla ampulli- bottle-, ampulla, ampullae Amsinckia for W.

Amsinck (1752–1831), of Hamburgh 46 Glossary Amsonia for Charles Amson, eighteenth-century Virginian physician and traveller in America amurensis -is -e, amuricus -a -um from the region of the Amur river, eastern Siberia amydros indistinct, dim, amudroj amygdalifolius -a -um almond-leaved, Amygdalus-folium amygdalinus -a -um almond-like, kernel-like, of almonds, amugdalinoj amygdaloides almond-like, amugdaloj-oeidhj amygdalopersicus -a -um Persian almond, amugdaloj-persikoj amygdalus the Greek name, amugdaloj, for the almond-tree (from Hebrew, megdh-el, sacred-fruit) amylaceus -a -um starchy, floury, amulon an-, ana- upon-, without-, backwards-, above-, again-, upwards-, up-, ana-, anAnabasis Without-pedestal, ana-basij (has no gynophore) anabasis -is -e going upwards, climbing, ana-(basij, basewj) Anacampseros Love-returning, ana-kamptw-eroj (a love charm) Anacamptis Bent-back, ana-kamptw (the long spur of the flower) anacanthus -a -um lacking thorns, an-akanqa Anacardium Heart-above, ana-kardia (Linnaeus’ name refers to the shape of the false-fruit) (Anacardiaceae) Anacharis Without-charm, ana-xarij anachoretus -a -um not in chorus, growing in seclusion, ana-(xoroj, xorhtoj) Anacylus Lacking-a-circle, ana-kukloj (the arrangement of the outer florets on the disc) Anadelphia Without brothers or sisters, an-adelfoj (racemes lack homogamous pairs of spikelets) anagallidifolius -a -um Anagallis-leaved, Anagallis-folium Anagallis Unpretentious, ana-agallw, or Delighting, anagelaw anagallis-aquatica water-Anagallis (Veronica), Anagallis-aquaticus Anagyris Backward-turned, ana-guroj (the curved pods) anagyroides resembling Anagyris, Anagyris-oides curved backwards Ananas probably from a Tupi-Guarani vernacular name, nana, anana, ananas ananassus -a -um small-lipped, pineapple-like, ananas (the fruiting receptacle) anandrius -a -um unmanly, lacking stamens, anandroj ananta not-direct, uphill, endless, an-anta, an-anthj ananthocladus -a -um having non-flowering shoots, an-anqo-kladoj Anaphalis Greek name for an immortelle, derivation obscure anaphysemus -a -um turned-back-bladder, ana-fusa (the swollen tip of the curved spur), or without a bladder Anastatica, anastaticus -a -um Resurrection, anastasij (Anastatica hierochuntica, resurrection plant or rose of Jericho) anastomans intertwining, anastomozing, anastomaw (forming ‘mouths’) anastreptus -a -um twisted-backwards, curved-backwards, ana-streptoj anatinus -a -um healthy, rewarding, ana-tinw anatolicus -a -um from Anatolia, Turkish anatomicus -a -um skeletal, cut-up, ana-temnein (leaves) anceps doubtful, dangerous, two-edged, two-headed, anceps, ancipitis (stems flattened to form two edges) Anchomanes a name used by Dioscorides for another arum (the stems are prickly, agkura-mania) anchoriferus -a -um bearing flanges, anchor-like, poor Latin anchora-fero, from Greek agkura-ferw Anchusa Strangler, agxw, or Close, agxou (Aristophanes’ name, agxousa, egxousa, formerly for an alkanet, yielding a red dye) anchusifolius -a -um Anchusa-leaved, Anchusa-folium anchusoides Anchusa-like, agxousa-oeidhj ancistro- fish-hook-, agkistron Ancistrocheilus Fish-hook-lip, agkistro-xeiloj (the deflexed lip) 47 The Names of Plants Ancistrorhynchus Fish-hook-beak, agkistro-rugxoj (the shape of the pollinarium) Ancistrophyllum Fish-hook-leaved, agkistro-fullon (the leaf rachis terminates in hooked spines), or Quick-changing-leaf, the various leaflets and spines on the rachis, agxi-strofo-fullon Ancistus Barbed-one, agkistrion ancylo- hooked-, curved-, agkuloj, agkuloancyrensis-is -e from Ankara (Ancyra), Turkey andalgalensis -is -e from Andalgal, Argentina andaminus -a -um from the Andaman Islands, SE Bay of Bengal andegavensis -is -e from Angers in Anjou, France (Andegava) Andersonia for William Anderson (1750–78), botanist on Cook’s second and third voyages andersonii for Thomas Anderson (1832–70), botanist in Bengal, or for J.

Anderson (fl. 1909), who collected in the Gold Coast (Ghana), or Messrs Anderson, patrons of botany andesicolus -a -um from the S American Andes cordillera, Andes-colo andicolus -a -um from the Colombian Andean cordillera, Andes-colo andigitrensis -is -e from the Andigitra mountains, Madagascar andinus -a -um from the high Chilean Andes Andira, andina from the Brazilian vernacular name andongensis -is -e from Andonga, NW Angola Andrachne the ancient Greek name, andraxne (for an evergreen shrub) andrachnoides resembling Andrachne, andraxne-oeidhj andreanus -a -um for E.

F.

André (1840–1911) Parisian landscape gardener andrewsianus -a -um, andrewsii for H.

C.

Andrews, early nineteenth-century botanical writer andrieuxii for G.

Andrieux, plant collector in Mexico andro-, -andrus -a -um male, man, stamened-, anthered-, anhr, andr, androj, androAndrocymbium Male-cup, andro-cymbium (the petal-limbs enfold the stamens) androgynus -a -um with staminate and pistillate flowers on the same head, hermaphrodite, anhr-gunh, androgynus, androgyni Andromeda after Andromeda, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope, whom Perseus rescued from the sea monster Andropogon Bearded-male, andro-pwgwn (awned male spikelet) Androrchis Male-testicle, andr-orxij, Orchis mascula or man orchid Androsace Man-shield, andro-sakoj (the exposed stamens of heterostyled spp.) androsaceus -a -um Androsace-like (the pink and brown pileus of the horse hair fungus) androsaemifolius -a -um Androsaemum-leaved, Androsaemum-folium Androsaemum, androsaemum Man’s-blood, androj-aima (Dioscorides’ name, androsaimon, for the blood-coloured juice of the berries) andrus -a -um -stamened, anhr, andrAndryala etymology uncertain anegadensis -is -e from Anegada Island, Puerto Rica Aneilema Without-a-cover, a(n)-eiluma (the absence of an involucre) aneilematophyllus -a -um having leaves resembling those of Aneilema Anemarrhena Exposed-males, anem-arrhn (the exposed stamens) Anemia (Aneimia) Naked, aneimwn (the sori have no indusia) Anemiopsis Naked-looking, aneimwn-oyij (the sparsely leaved stems) Anemone a name used by Theophrastus.

Possibly a corruption of Naaman, a Semitic name for Adonis, from whose blood sprung the crimson-flowered Anemone coronaria Anemonella Little-Anemone-resembling, diminutive termination anemones of or upon Anemone (Urocystis smut fungus) anemoniflorus -a -um Anemone-flowered anemonifolius -a -um Anemone-leaved, Anemone-folium anemonoides Anemone-like, Amenone-oides 48 Glossary Anemopaegma Wind-sportive, anemoj-paignhmwn (paignia, sport) anethiodorus -a -um Anethum-scented, smelling of dill, Anethum-odorus Anethum Undesireable, aneqelhtoj, an ancient Greek name anfractifolius -a -um having twisted leaves, anfractus-folium anfractus -a -um, anfractuosus -a -um twisted, twining, bent, winding, anfractus Angelica Angel, the name, herba angelica, in Matthaeus Sylvaticus (healing powers, see Archangelica) Angelonia the South American vernacular name, angelon, for one species angio- urn-, vessel-, enclosed-, (aggeion, aggoj vessel, receptacle, urn) angiocarpus -a -um enclosed fruit, aggeio-karpoj (the perianth segments fuse to the fruit) Angiopteris Winged-vessel, aggeion-pteruc (the aggregated sporangia) anglicus -a -um, anglicorum English, of the English, Anglia, Anglicus anglorum of the English people, Angles angolanus -a -um, angolensis -is -e from Angola, W Africa angraecoides resembling Angraecum, Angraecum-oides Angraecopsis Angraecum-like, Angraecum-oyij Angraecum a Malayan name, angurek, for epiphytes angui-, anguinus -a -um serpentine, anguis, anguis, a serpent; eel-like, wavy, anguilla, anguillae, an eel anguiceps snake-headed, anguis-ceps (floral structure) anguifugus -a -um snake-banishing, angui-fugus Anguillulina Minute-eel, diminutive of anguilla (an eelworm causing galls on about 330 plant species) angularis -is -e angular, angulus, anguli angulatus -a -um somewhat angled, angulatus anguligerus -a -um hooked, having hooks, angulus-gero angulosus -a -um having angles, angular, angulus, anguli Anguria a Greek name for a cucumber, agguron angustatus -a -um somewhat narrow, angustus, angusti angusti-, angustus -a -um narrow, angustus, angustiangustiflorus -a -um narrow-flowered, angusti-flora angustifolius -a -um narrow-leaved, angusti-folium angustior narrower, comparative of angustus angustisectus -a -um narrowly divided, angusti-(seco, secare, secui, sectum) (leaves) angustissimus -a -um the most narrow, superlative of angustus anhweiensis -is -e from Anhui province, China Anigosanthus, Anigosanthos Open-flower, anoigoj-anqoj (the expanding inflorescence stalks) anis-, ani- not equal-, unequal-, dissimilar-, an-isoj anisandrus -a -um having unequal stamens, an-isoj-anhr Anisanthus (Anisantha) Unequal-flower, anisoj-anqoj (flowers vary in their sexuality) anisatus -a -um Anise-scented, from Anisum Aniseia Different, anisoj aniso- unequally-, unequal-, uneven-, anisoj, anise-, dill-, anison (anisum) Anisochylus Unequal-lipped, anisoj-xeiloj Anisodontia Unequal-toothed, anisoj-odontoj anisodorus -a -um Anise-fragrant, anisum-odoro Anisodus Unequal-toothed, anisoj-odouj Anisopappus Unequal-pappus, an-iso-pappus Anisophyllea Unequal-leaved, aniso-fullon (the pairs of large, maturing, and small, transient, leaves) anisophyllus -a -um with leaves that are oblique at the base, an-isoj-fullon Anisopus Unequal-stalked, a(n)-iso-pouj (the nodal inflorescences) Anisosorus Differing-sori, aniso-soroj (some are straight and others lunate) Anisostichus Unequally lined, anisoj-stixoj 49 The Names of Plants Anisotes Inequality, an-isothj Anisotome Unequally cut, aniso-tomh (the divisions of the leaves) anisum aniseed, anison (an old generic name, anison, for dill or anise) ankylo- crooked-, agkuloj annae for the Roman goddess Anna Perenne annamensis -is -e from Anam, Vietnam annectens fastening upon, binding to, present participle of an-(necto, nectere, nexi; nexui, nexum) Annona (Anona) from the Haitian vernacular name, menona (Annonaceae) annosus -a -um long-lived, aged, annosus (parasitic and growing for several years) annotinus -a -um one year old, last year’s, annotinus (with distinct annual increments) annularis -is -e, annulatus -a -um ring-shaped, having rings, annulus, annuli (markings) annuus -a -um one year’s, annual, annuus ano- upwards-, up-, anw, towards the topAnoda Without-joint, a-nodus (pedicel feature distinguishes from Sida) Anodia Impervious, anodoj anodontus -a -um with outwards-pointing teeth, anw-(odouj, odontoj) Anogeissus Towards-the-top-tiled, anw-geisson (the scale-like fruiting heads) Anogramma Towards-the-top-lined, anw-grammh (the sori first mature towards the tips of the pinnae) anomalus -a -um unlike its allies, out of the ordinary, anomalous, an-omaloj Anomatheca unequal-boxes, anwma-qhkh (anther structure) (ϵ Lapeyrousia) anomocarpus -a -um having variable fruit shapes, anwmoioj-karpoj Anomochloa Lawless-grass, anomoj-xloh Anonidium Like-Annona Anoplobatus Unarmed-thornbush, anoploj-batoj Anoplophytum Unarmed-plant, anoploj-futon (ϵ Tillandsia) Anopterus Winged-upwards, anw-pteron (the seeds) anopetalus -a -um erect-petalled, anw-petalon anoplo- unarmed-, thornless-, anoploj Anoplophytum Unarmed-plant, anoploj-futon (ϵ Tillandsia) Anopyxis Upright-capsule, anw-pucij (the fruit is held upright until it dehisces) anosmus -a -um without fragrance, scentless, an-osmh ansatus -a -um having a handle, ansa, ansae Ansellia for Mr Ansell, collector for RHS Chiswick on the ill-fated Niger Expedition of 1841 anserinifolius -a -um with leaves similar to those of Potentilla anserina (which Linnaeus called goose-weed, Gåsört), anserina-folium anserinoides anserina-like, anserina-oides anserinus -a -um of goose greens, of the goose, anser, anseris ansiferus -a -um bearing a handle, ansa-fero (petiolate or petiolulate); some interpret as sword-bearing antalyensis -is -e from Antalya, SW Turkey antanambensis -is -e from Antanamba, Madagascar antarcticus -a -um from the Antarctic continent, ant-arktikoj (opposite to the north) ante- before-, ante, antea Antennaria, antennaria Feeler, antenna, antennae (literally, projecting like a boat’s yard-arm, the hairs of the pappus) antenniferus -a -um bearing antennae, with ‘feeler-like’ stamens, antenna-(fero, ferre, tuli, latum) anthelminthicus -a -um vermifuge, worm expelling, anti-(elminj, elminqoj) anthemi- Anthemis-, chamomile-, anqemoeij anthemifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Anthemis Anthemis Flowery, anqoj (name, anqemij, used by Dioscorides for a plant also called xamaimhlon and leukanqemon) 50 Glossary anthemoides Anthemis-like, anqemij-oeidhj -anthemus -a -um, -anthes -flowered, anqemij Anthericum, anthericum from Theophrastus’ name, anqerikoj, used by Linnaeus for an asphodel (St Bernard’s lily), originally an ear of corn or a stalk antherotes brilliant-looking, anqew-wthj -antherus -a -um -flowering, anqhroj, anqhra (in the botanical sense, -stamens, or anthered) -anthes, -anthus -a -um -flowered, anqoj anthiodorus -a -um fragrant-flowered, anthus-odorus antho- flower-, anqoj, anqoAnthocercis Rayed-flower, anqoj-kerkij Anthoceros Flower-horn, anqo-keraj (the conspicuously elongate, dark-brown, bivalved capsules) Anthocleista Closed-flower, anqo-kleistoj (the flower-shape) anthocrene fountain of flowers, anqo-krhnh Antholyza Rage-flower, anqo-lussa (resemblance of flower to animal’s maw) anthomaniacus -a -um frenzied-flowering, anqoj-maniakoj Anthophorus Flower-bearing, anqo-fora (the clustered spikelets fall together) anthopogon bearded-flowered, anqoj-pwgwn (Rhododendron anthopogon’s weird flowers) anthora resembling Ranunculus thora in poisonous properties, an-thora Anthospermum Flower-seed, anqo-sperma (dioecious) anthosphaerus -a -um globe-flowered, anqo-sfaira Anthostema Floral-crown, anqo-stemma (the heads of flowers) Anthoxanthum Yellow-flower, anqoj-canqoj (the spikelets at anthesis) anthracinus -a -um black-as coal, anqrac, anqrakoj anthracophilus -a -um growing on burnt wood, liking living-coal, (anqrac, anqrakoj)-filew Anthriscus from a Greek name, aqruskon, for another umbellifer (chervil) anthropophagorus -a -um of the man-eaters, anqrwpo-fagew (Cannibal tomato) anthropophorus -a -um man-bearing, anqrwpo-fora (flowers of the man orchid) Anthurium Flower-tail, anq-oura (the tail-like spadix) -anthus -a -um -flowered, anqoj anthyllidifolius -a -um with Anthyllis-like leaves, Anthyllis-folium; having leaves tubercled above, an-tulh-folium Anthyllis Downy-flower, anq-ullij (the name used by Dioscorides, for the calyx hairs) anti- against-, opposite-, opposite-to-, for, like-, false-, anti-, antiAntiaris Against-association (the Javan vernacular name, antja, for the upas tree, Antiaris toxicaria (George Stevens (1736–1800) fabricated the upas tree’s reputed ability to cause the death of anyone who sleeps beneath it.

Malayan, upas, poison) anticarius -a -um from the area around Caria, anti-Caria; from Antequera, Andalusia, S Spain Anticharis Lacking-charm, anti-xarieij (formerly Doratanthera, leathery flowered) antichorus -a -um distinctive, standing apart from the throng, anti-xoroj anticus -a -um turned inwards towards the axis, in front, anticus (antonym, posticus) Antidesma Against-a-band, anti-desmoj antidysentericus -a -um against dysentery, anti-dus-enteria (use in medical treatment) Antigonon Opposite-angled, anti-gonon (the zig-zag stems of coral vine) antillarus -a -um from either the Greater or Lesser Antilles, West Indies antioquiensis -is -e from Antioquia, Colombia antipodus -a -um from the Antipodes, antipodhj (from the other side of the world, literally, with the feet opposite) antipolitanus -a -um from the Antibes (Antipolis) 51 The Names of Plants antipyreticus -a -um against fire, anti-(pyra, pyrae) (the moss Fontinalis antipyretica was packed around chimneys to prevent thatch from igniting); others interpret as against fevers antiquorum of the ancients, of the former, old-world, antiquus, anticus antiquus -a -um traditional, ancient, antiquus antirrhiniflorus -a -um Antirrhinum-flowered, Antirrhinum-florum antirrhinoides resembling Antirrhinum, anti-rinoj-oeidhj, Antirrhinum-oides Antirrhinum Nose-like, anti-(rij, rinoj) (a name, antirrinon, used by Dioscorides) Antrophyum Upwards-brooding, an-trwfh (the creeping rhizomes) antrorsus -a -um forward or upward facing, antero-versus Anubias for Anubis, son of Nephthytis and Typhonis anulatus -a -um with rings (anulus, anuli) on, ringed, anulatus -anus -a -um suffix to imply -having, -belonging to, -connected with, -from anvegadensis -is -e see andegavensis anvilensis -is -e from Anvil Creek area on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA ap- without-, up-, before-, apo; towards-, to-, apApargia Of-neglect, apo-argia (old meadowland provenance, ϵ Leontodon) aparine a name, aparinh, used by Theophrastus for goosegrass (clinging, seizing) apenninus -a -um (appenina) of the Italian Apennines Apera a meaningless name used by Adanson aperantus -a -um open-flowered.

Aper-anthus aperti-, apertus -a -um open, bare, naked, past participle of aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum apetalus -a -um without petals, a-petalon aphaca a name, afakh, used in Pliny for a lentil-like plant, fakoj aphan-, aphano- unseen-, inconspicuous-, not-seen, a-faneroj, afantoj, afanaphanactis resembling the Andean genus Aphanactis (Erigeron aphanactis) Aphananthe Inconspicuous-flower, afan-anqoj Aphanes Inconspicuous, unnoticed, afanhj, Aphelandra Simple-male, afelhj-anhr aphelandraeflorus -a -um with flowers similar to those of Aphelandra aphelandroides resembling Aphelandra, afelhj-anhr-oeidhj, Aphelandra-oides aphthosus -a -um with an ulcerated or tubercled throat, afqai (suggesting thrush) Aphyllanthes, aphyllanthes Leafless-flower, a-fullon-anqoj (flowers on rush-like stems); with apetalous flowers, aphyllus -a -um without leaves, leafless, a-fullon (perhaps at flowering time) apianus -a -um of bees, liked by bees, apis apiatus -a -um bee-like, spotted, api-atus apicatus -a -um with a pointed tip, capped, apex, apicis apiculatus -a -um with a small broad point at the tip, apiculate, diminutive of apex (see Fig. 7e) (apicula, a small bee) apifer -era -erum bee-like, bee-bearing, apis-fero (flowers of the bee orchid), beeflowered apii- parsley-, Apiumapiifolius -a -um celery-leaved, Apium-leaved, Apium-folium Apios Pear(-rooted), apion Apium a name, apium, used in Pliny for celery-like plants (apion in Dioscorides).

Some relate it to the Celtic ‘apon’, water, as its preferred habitat (Apiaceae ϵ Umbelliferae) apo- up-, without-, free-, from-, apo Apocynum Against-dogs, apo-(kuwn, kunoj), Dioscorides’ name, apokunon, for Cionura oreophila and redefined by Linnaeus (Dog’s-bane Apocynum venetum is supposed to be poisonous to dogs) (Apocynaceae) apodectus -a -um acceptable, welcome, apo-dektoj apodus -a -um without a foot, stalkless, a-(pouj, podoj) Aponogeton Without-trouble-neighbour, aponoj-geitwn (analogy with Potamogeton) (some derive it from the Celtic, apon) (water hawthorn) (Aponogetonaceae) 52 Glossary aporo- without means of achieving-, without thoroughfare-, a-poroj appendiculatus -a -um with appendages, appendaged, appendicula, appendiculae applanatus -a -um flattened out, ap-planus applicatus -a -um enfolded, placed close together, ap-(plico, plicare, plicavi (plicui), plicatum (plicitum)) appressus -a -um lying close together, adpressed, ad-(presso, pressare) appropinquatus -a -um near, approaching, appropinquo, appropinquare, appropinquavi, appropinquatum (resemblance to another species) approximans drawn close together but not united, to the nearest, ad-proximus approximatus -a -um near together, ad-proximus apricus -a -um sun-loving, of exposed places, apricus (cognate with praecox) aprilis -is -e of April, Aprilis (the flowering season) Aptenia Wingless, a-(pthn, pthnoj) (the capsules) apterus -a -um without wings, wingless, a-pteron Aptosimum Not-falling, a-(ptwma, ptwsij, ptwsimoj) (persistent capsules) apulus -a -um from Apulia, S Italy apus lacking a stalk, a-pouj aquaticus -a -um living in water, aquaticus aquatilis -is -e living under water, aquatilis Aquifolium Thorny-leaved, acus-folium (a former generic name for Ilex) (Aquifoliaceae) aquifolius -a -um holly-leaved, with pointed leaves, spiny-leaved, acus-folium Aquilegia Eagle, aquila (claw-like nectaries) or from medieval German Acheleia, Akelei aquilegifolius -a -um with Aquilegia-like leaves, Aquilegia-folium aquilinus -a -um of eagles, eagle-like (Linnaeus noted that in the obliquely cut rhizome of Pteridium the appearance of the vasculature ‘refert aliquatenus aquilam imperialis’, suggests to some extent the imperial eagle) aquilus -a -um blackish-brown, swarthy, aquilus aquosus -a -um rainy, humid, damp, aquosus arabicus -a -um, arabus -a -um of Arabia, Arabian (Arabia, Arabiae) Arabidopsis Arabis-resembling, Arabis-opsis Arabis Arabian, arabia, arabiae (derivation obscure) Arachis ancient Greek name for a leguminous plant, arakoj, arachus in Galen (groundnut).

Some translate it as a-raxij, without a branch arachniferus -a -um cobwebbed, bearing a weft of cobweb-like hairs, araxnh-ferw Arachniodes Spider-like, araxnh-wdhj arachnites spider-like, araxnh-ithj arachnoides, arachnoideus -a -um cobwebbed, araxnh-oeidhj, covered in a weft of hairs aragonensis -is -e from Aragon, NE Spain (Aragonia) araiophyllus -a -um slender leaved, araio-fullon Araiostegia Thin-cover, araioj-stegh (the indusium) Aralia origin uncertain, could be from French Canadian, aralie (Araliaceae) aralioides resembling Aralia, Aralia-oides araneosus -a -um spider-like, like a cobweb, arania, araneosus aranifer -era -erum spider-bearing, aranea-fero araraticus -a -um from Agri Dagi (Ararat mountains), Turkey araroba the Brazilian name for the powdery excretion produced by Andira araroba aratophyllus -a -um with plough-like leaves, aratrum, aratri, a plough araucanus -a -um from the name of a tribal area of Chilean Indians in southern Chile Araucaria from the Chilean name, araucaros, for the tree (Araucariaceae) araucarioides resembling Araucaria, Araucaria-oides Araujia from the Brazilian name for the cruel plant arborea-grandiflora tree-like and large-flowered, arbor-grandis- floris arborescens becoming or tending to be of tree-like dimensions, arbor-essentia 53 The Names of Plants arboreus -a -um tree-like, branched, arbor; arbos, arboris arboricolus -a -um living on trees, arbori-colo (symbionts, parasites and saprophytes) arbortristis -is -e melancholy-tree, arbor-tristis (Oxydendron arbortristis, the sorrowful tree) arbor-vitae tree of life, arbor-(vita, vitae) (N American equivalence of Thuja occidentalis with the Mediterranean Cupressus as durable and fragrant, and planted in graveyards) arbusculus -a -um, arbuscularis -is -e small-tree, shrubby (diminutive of arbor) arbustivus -a -um coppiced, growing with trees, of plantations, arbustum, arbusti arbutifolius -a -um with Arbutus-like leaves, Arbutus-folium Arbutus the ancient Latin name, arbutus, or Celtic arboise for a rough fruit arcadensis -is -e from Arcady, Arcadian, from paradise arcadiensis -is -e Arcadian, from Peloponnese, S Greece arcanus -a -um of coffins, of boxes, of cages, arcanus (use in basketry) Arceuthobium Juniper-life, arkeuqoj-bios (European species is a parasite on Juniperus) Archaefructus Ancient-fruit, archi-fructus (Chinese fossilized fruit) archaeo- ancient, arxaioj Archangelica supposedly revealed to Matthaeus Sylvaticus by the archangel as a medicinal plant arche-, archi- beginning-, original-, primitive-, arxharcheri for S.

Archer, who sent plants from Barbados to Kew archonto- majestic-, ruler-, arxwn, arxontoj Archontophoenix Majestic-fig, arxontoj-foinic (Queen Alexandra’s fig) arct-, arcto- bear-, arktoj, northern-, Arctanthemum Northern-flower, arkt-anqemion (arctic Chrysanthemum arctium) Arcterica Arctic-Erica, arktoj-ereikh, arcticus-Erica arcticus -a -um of the Arctic regions, Arctic, arktikoj, arcticus Arctium Bear-like, arktoj (a name in Pliny, the shaggy hair) arctopoides bear’s-foot-like, resembling Arctopus, arkto-podoj-oeidhj Arctopus Bear’s-foot, arkto-pouj Arctostaphylos Bear’s grapes, arkto-stafulh (this is the Greek version of uva-ursi, giving one of the repetitive botanical binomials, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) Arctotis Bear’s ear, arkt-wtoj Arctous, arctous Boreal-one, arktoj, or That-of-the-bear, arktwoj (the black bearberry) arcturus -a -um bear’s-tail-like, arkt-oura (cognate with arctium and arctous) arcuatus -a -um curved, arched, bowed, arcus ardens glowing, fiery, ardens, ardentis ardesiacus -a -um slate-grey, slate-coloured, modern Latin from French, ardoise ardeus -a -um shining, burning, ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum; from Tivoli (Ardea Tibur), Lazio, Italy Ardisea Pointed, ardij (the anthers are shaped like spear-heads) Ardisiandra Ardisia-anthers, ardij-androj ardoinoi for H.

Ardoino (1819–74), of Mentone, author of the flora of the Maritime Alps ardonensis-is -e from the Ardon river area, Caucasus, SW Russia ardosiacus -a -um slate-grey, modern Latin from French, ardoise, slate arduennensis -is -e from the Ardennes, France/Belgium (Arduenna) arduinoi for Pietro Arduino (1726–1805), botanist at Padua Areca from the Malabar vernacular name, areek (betel nut palm) (Arecaceae ϵ Palmae) arecina Areca-like, Areca Aregelia for E.

A.

Von Regel (1815–92), of St Petersburg Botanic Garden (ϵ Neoregelia) Aremonia derived from a Greek plant name, aremon, for Agrimonia 54 Glossary aren-, areba-, areni-, areno- sand-, of sandy habitats, harena, harenae, arena, arenae Arenaria Sand-dweller, (h)arena, (h)arenae arenarius -a -um, arenosus -a -um growing in sand, of sandy places, (h)arenosus arenastrus -a -um resembling Arenaria, Arenaria-aster arendsii for Georg Adalbert Arends (1863–1952), German nurseryman of Wuppertal–Ronsdorf Arenga from the Malaysian vernacular name for Arenga caudata arenicolus -a -um sand-dwelling, (h)arena-colo arenivagus -a -um straggling across the sand, arena-(vagor, vagare, vagatus) arenosus -a -um gritty, sandy, harenosus areolatus -a -um with angular spaces or scars, areola, areolae (in or on stems or leaves) arequipensis-is -e from Arequipa region of southern Peru arequitae from Arequit, Peru aretioides resembling Aretia, Aretia-oides (Androsace) arfakianus -a -um from the Arfak mountains, western New Guinea or Irian Jaya Argemone a name, argemwnh, used by Dioscorides for a poppy-like plant used medicinally as a remedy for cataract argent-, argente-, argenti- silver-, silvery-, shining-, argentum, argenti argentatus -a -um silvered, silver-plated, argentatus argentauratus -a -um silvery-gilded, argentum-aureum argenteo-, argenteus -a -um, argentus -a -um silvery, of silver, argenteus argenteoguttata guttating silvery drops, argentum-(guttata, guttatae) argentifolius -a -um silvery-leaved, argentum-folium argentissimus -a -um most silvery, purest, superlative of argentus argi- whitened-, clay-, arghj, argi-, argilla.

Argillae, argiargillaceus -a -um growing in clay, whitish, clay-like, of clay, argilla, argillae argillicolus -a -um living on clay soils, argilla-colo argipeplus -a -um white-robed, argi-peplum argo- bright, pure white-, silvery-, argoj Argocoffopsis Looking-like-silvery-Coffea, argo-coffea-opsis argolicus -a -um from the area of Argolis peninsula, NE Peloponnese, S Greece argophloius -a -um having shining bark, argoj-floioj argophyllus -a -um silvery-leaved, argoj-fullon Argostemma Bright-crown, argoj-stemma argun, argunensis -is -e from the northern Manchurian republic of Argun arguti- clear, graceful; sharply saw-toothed, sharp, argutus, argutiargutifolius -a -um with sharply toothed leaves, arguti-folium argutus -a -um sharply toothed or notched; clear, graceful, argutus Argylia for Archibald Campbell, of Whitton, Middlesex, third Duke of Argyll and plant introducer (Lycium barbarum was wrongly labelled as tea, Duke of Argyll’s tea-plant) argyr-, argyro- silvery, silver-, arguroj, arguro-, argurargyraceus -a -um resembling silver, arguroj argyraeus -a -um silvery-white, argureioj Argyranthemum, argyranthus -a -um Silver-flower, argur-anqemion (formerly included in Chrysanthemum) argyratus -a -um, argyrites silvered, arguroj Argyreia, argyreus -a -um Silvery-one, argureioj, argureoj (with a silvery appearance of the leaves) argyrellus -a -um silverish, pale silver, diminutive of arguroj argyrocalyx silver-calyxed, arguro-kaluc argyrocarpus -a -um silver-fruited, arguro-karpoj argyrocoleon sheathed in silver, arguro-koleoj argyrocomus -a -um silver-leaved, arguro-komh Argyroderma Silver-skin, arguro-derma (the foliage colour) argyroglochin silver-tipped, silver-pointed, arguro-glwxij 55 The Names of Plants Argyrolobium Silver-podded-one, arguro-loboj argyrophyllus -a -um silver-leaved, arguro-fullon argyrotrichus -a -um silver-haired, arguro-trixoj Argyroxiphium Silver-sword-like, arguro-cifoj-eidoj (for the leaves) arhizus -a -um lacking roots, rootless, not rooted, a-riza ari- ArumAria, aria a name, aria, used by Theophrastus for a whitebeam arianus -a -um from Afghanistan, Afghan, after the Alexandrian priest Arius (c. 250–336) founder of the creed of Arianism aridi- withered, meagre, dry, aridus aridicaulis -is -e having dry or withered-looking stems, aridi-caulis aridus -a -um of dry habitats, dry, arid, aridus arietinus -a -um like a ram’s head, ram-horned, aries, arietis, arietinus arifolius -a -um Arum-leaved, Arum-folium ariifolius -a -um, ariaefolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Sorbus aria arillatus -a -um with seeds having a partially enveloping funicular expansion or aril, arillatus arilliformis -is -e bag-shaped, arillus-forma aripensis -is -e from the environs of Mount Aripo, Trinidad -aris -is -e -pertaining to Arisaema Blood-Arum, aron-aima (spathe colour) Arisarum a name used by Dioscorides -aristus -a -um -ear of corn, arista, aristae (used for awns or awn-like appendages) aristatus -a -um with a beard, awned, aristate, arista (see Fig. 7g) Aristea Point, arista, aristae (the acute leaf tips) Aristida Beard, arista (the barley-like appearance due to conspicuous awns) aristideus -a -um bristled, like an ear of corn, arista, aristae Aristolochia Best-childbirth, aristoj-loxoj, Theophrastus’ name, aristoloxia, for one species (abortifacient property) (Aristolochiaceae) aristolochioides birthwort-like, resembling Aristolochia, aristo-loxoj-oeidhj aristosus -a -um with a strong beard, heavily awned, comparative of arista Aristotelia for Aristotle of Stagira (384–322 bc), Greek philosopher aristuliferus -a -um bearing small awns, of noble bearing, arista-fero -arius -a -um -belonging to, -having ariza from a vernacular name for Browneia in Bogotá, Colombia arizelus -a -um notable, eye-catching, conspicuous, ari-(zhlow, zhlwtoj) arizonicus -a -um from Arizona, USA arkansanus -a -um from Arkansas, USA armandii for Père Armand David (1826–1900), Jesuit missionary and plant collector in China armatissinus -a -um most protected or armed, superlative of armatus armatus -a -um thorny, armed, armatus armeniacus -a -um Armenian (mistakenly for China), the dull orange colour of Prunus armeniaca fruits armentalis -is -e of the herd, armentum, armentalis armenus -a -um, armeniacus -a -um from Armenia, Armenian Armeria, armeria ancient Latin name for a Dianthus, French, armoires armiferus -a -um bearing arms, armoured, armifer, armiferi; (arma, armorum)-fero armigerus -a -um arms-bearer, armiger, armigeri Armillaria Braceleted-one, armilla a bracelet (the collar round the stipe of honey fungus Armilleria mellea) armillaris -is -e, armillatus -a -um bracelet-like, having a collar, armilla, armillae armoraceus -a -um horse-radish-like, resembling Armoracia Armoracia of uncertain meaning, armorakia, used by Columela and Pliny, formerly for a cruciferous plant, possibly the widespread Raphanus raphanistrum rather than Armoracia rusticana (horse radish) armoraciifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Armoracia 56 — calycoideus -a -um calyx-like, kaluko-oeidhj, calyx-oides Calycolobus Calyx-lobed-one, kaluko-loboj (the two enlarging calyx lobes) Calycoma Leafy-calyx, kaluc-komh (foliate sepals) 86 Glossary Calycophyllum Calyx-leaf, kaluko-fullon (the leaf-like expansion of one calyx lobe) Calycopteris Winged-calyx, kaluko-pteron (the conspicuous keels of the calyx tube) calycosus -a -um with a conspicuous calyx, kaluc, Calycotome Severed-calyx, kaluc-tomh (abscission of the upper part of the calyx before anthesis) calyculatus -a -um with a calyx-like bracts, resembling a small calyx, calyculatus Calydorea Beautiful-gift, kaloj-dorea calymmatosepalus -a -um having enveloping sepals, veiled by the sepals, kalummaskeph Calypso for Calypso, mythological nymph calyptr-, calyptro- hooded-, lidded-, kaluptra, kaluptro-, kaluptw, kaluptoj calyptraeformis -is -e veil-like, kaluptra-forma (the conical pileus) Calyptranthes Veiled-flower, kaluptra-anqoj (the calyx is calyptrate) calyptratus -a -um with a cap-like cover over the flowers or fruits, kaluptra Calyptridium Small-covering, diminutive from kaluptra Calyptrocalyx Covering-calyx, kaluptra-kaluc (the leafy-based spadices) Calyptrochilum Covered-lip, kaluptro-xeiloj Calyptrogyne Covered-pistil, kaluptra-gunh calyptrostele having a sheathed style, kaluptro-sthlh Calystegia (Calistegia, Calycostegia) Calyx-cover, kaluc-stegh (bearbind’s calyx is at first obscured by two large bracts or prophylls) Calythrix (Calycothrix, Calytrix) Calyx-hair, kaluc-qric (the hair-like calyx apices) camaldulensis -is -e from the Camaldoli gardens near Naples camanchicus -a -um of the area of the Camanche tribe, USA Camaridium Arched, kamara (the apex of the stigma) Camarotis Vaulted-lobe, kamara-wtoj (the form of the lip) camarus -a -um, -camarus -a -um arched, chambered, vaulted, kamara, kamarh, camera, camerae; a W Indian name, kamara Camassia a N American Indian name, quamash, for an edible bulb cambessedesii for Jaques Cambessedes (1799–1863), co-author of Flora Basilae Meridionalis cambodgensis -is -e from Kampuchea, SE Asia (Cambodia or, when in French control, Cambodge) cambodiensis -is -e from Cambodia cambogiensis -is -e from Cambodia cambrensis -is -e, cambricus -a -um Welsh, from Wales (Cambria) Camelina Dwarf-flax, xamai-linon (a name used by l’Obel) Camellia for Georg Joseph Kamel (Cameli) (1661–1706), Moravian Jesuit botanist, plant illustrator and traveller in Luzon camelliiflorus -a -um Camellia-flowered, Camellia-florum camelopardalis -is -e giraffe-like, with tawny spots, kamhlopardalij camelorus -a -um of camels, kamhloj (they feed upon the camel thorn, Alhagi camelorum, also known as the manna plant because of the crust of dried honeydew forming on the leaves overnight) cameronicus -a -um, cameroonianus -a -um from Cameroon, W Africa cammarus -a -um lobster, cammarus (from a name used by Dioscorides) Camoensia for the Portuguese poet, Luis Camoens Campanaea Bell, campana, campanae (shape of the corolla) campanellus -a -um resembling a small bell, diminutive of campana campani- bell-, campana campaniflorus -a -um with bell-like flowers, campana-florum campanilis -is -e bell-tower-like, from Italian (the tall bell-flowered inflorescences) Campanula Bell-like, diminutive of campana (Campanulaceae) campanulae of harebell, living on Campanula (coleopteran gall weevil) campanularius -a -um, campanulatus -a -um, campanulus -a -um bell-shaped, bellflowered, diminutive of campana campanuloides resembling Campanula, Campanula-oides 87 The Names of Plants campanus -a -um Capuan, from Campania, Italy campbelliae, campbellii for Mrs and Dr Archibald Campbell (1805–74) respectively (he travelled with Hooker in the Himalayas) campechianus -a -um of the Campeche area of the Mexican Yucatan peninsula campester -tris -tre of the pasture, from flat land, of the plains, campester camphorus -a -um, camphoratus -a -um camphor-like scented, from Arabic, kafur, Sanskrit, Karpura Camphorosma, camphorosmae Camphor-odour, kamfor-osmh (the fragrance) campicolus -a -um living on plains, of flat areas, campus-colo campinensis -is -e from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil camporus -a -um of plains, savanna and open woodland, campus, campi camposii for Dom Pedro del Campo, of Granada, Spain (c. 1849) campto- bending-, curved-, kamptoj camptocladus -a -um having bent or arching branches, kampto-kladoj Camptomanesia for Count Rodriguez de Camptomanes, Spanish patron of botany camptophyllus -a -um having curved leaves, kampto-fullon Camptosema curved-standard, kampto-shma (the lateral appendages of the vexillum) Camptosorus Curved-sorus, kampto-soroj camptotrichus -a -um with curved hairs, kampto-(qric, trixoj) Campsidium Resembling-Campsis Campsis Curvature, kamph (the bent stamens of trumpet creepers) campto- (kampto-) bent-, kamph, kamptw camptodon hooked teeth, kamptw-odontoj Camptosorus Curved-sorus, kamptw-soroj Camptostylus Bent-style, kamptw-stuloj (the long curved style) Camptothecium Bent-theca, kamptw-qhkh (the curved capsule) campyl-, campylo- bent-, curved-, kampuloj, kampuloCampylanthus Curved-flower, kampuloj-anqoj campylocalyx with a curved calyx (tube), kampuloj-kaluc campylocarpus -a -um having curved fruits, kampuloj-karpoj Campylocentrum Curved-spur, kampuloj-kentron campylocladus -a -um with flexible or curved branches, kampuloj-kladoj campylogynus -a -um having a curved ovary, kampuloj-gunh Campylopus Curved-stalk, kampuloj-pouj Campylotropis Curved-keel, kampuloj-tropij (the curved, rostrate keel petals) camschatcensis -is -e from the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia camtschatcensis -is -e, camtschaticus -a -um from the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia camulodunus -a -um from Colchester (Camulodunum), Essex, England canadensis -is -e from northern American continent, from Canada, Canadian canaliculatus -a -um furrowed, channelled, canalis Cananga from a Tagalog name, alang ilang, Cananga odorata, for the tree, the perfume produced from its flowers, and from the macassar or kenanga oil produced canangoides resembling Cananga, Cananga-oides canariensis -is -e of bird food, from the Canary Isles (Canaria insula, dog island, one of the Insulae fortunatae) Canarina from the Canary Islands, Canaria insula canarinus -a -um canary yellowish, resembling Canarium Canarium the Malayan vernacular name, canari, for Canarium commune Canavalia from the Malabar vernacular name, canavali canbyi for William Marriott Canby (1831–1904), American botanist cancellatus -a -um cross-banded, chequered, latticed, cancelli, cancellorum (a grating, crossbars or barrier, cognate with chancel, and chancellor, the porter who manned the barrier) cancroides somewhat crab-like, (cancer, cancri)-oides candelabrus -a -um candle-tree, like a branched candlestick, candelabrum 88 Glossary candelaris -is -e taper or candle-like, with tall tapering stems, candela, candelae candelilius -a -um small candles, diminutive from candela candens dazzling-white, candens, candentis candicans white, hoary-white, with white woolly hair, present participle of candico Candollea, candollei for Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778–1841), Professor of Botany at Geneva candidissimus -a -um the whitest, superlative of candidus candidulus -a -um off-white, whitish, diminutive of candidus candidus -a -um shining-white, candidus (candeo, candere) candiae from Crete, Cretan (Candia) candius -a -um from Crete, Cretan (Candia) Canella Little reed, diminutive of Canna (for the rolled, peeling bark) (Canellaceae) canephorus -a -um like a basket bearer, bearing a basket-like structure, kaneon-fora canescens turning hoary-white, with off-white indumentum, present participle of canesco, canescere caninus -a -um of the dog, sharp-toothed or spined, repellent to dogs, usually implying inferiority, wild or not of cultivation, canis, canis canis-dalmatica white with spots, like a Dalmatian dog Canistrum Wicker-basket, canistrum, canistri (the inflorescence) Canna, canna Reed, canna, cannae (an uncertain comparison for Indian shot) (Cannaceae) cannabifolius -a -um with Cannabis-like leaves cannabinus -a -um Cannabis-like (leaves of hemp agrimony, wild hemp, kannabij agria of Dioscorides) Cannabis Hemp, kannabij (Dioscorides’ name for hemp) (Cannabaceae) cannalinus -a -um somewhat like Canna, reed- or pipe-like, canna cannifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Canna cano- grey-, white-, hoary-, canus canocarpus -a -um hoary-fruited, cano-carpus canovirens greyish-green, cano-virens -cans -being (eg albicans being white) Canscora from a Malabari vernacular name, kansjan-cora, for Canscora perfoliata cantabile having a smooth or flowing habit, Italian for singable cantabricus -a -um from Cantabria, N Spain cantabrigiensis -is -e from Cambridge (Cantabrigia) cantaburiensis -is -e from Canterbury (Cantaburia) (England, New Zealand or USA) cantalupensis -is -e from Villa Mandela (Cantalupo), between Tivoli and Arsoli, Italy, where warty melons (Cantaloups) were first raised from seed canterburyanus -a -um for Alfred Milner (1845–1925), Viscount Canterbury, of Sturry Court, Kent Cantharellula feminine diminutive of Cantharellus Cantharellus Little-tankard, diminutive of cantharus (the fruiting body of the edible chanterelle fungus) (cantharis, Spanish-fly beetle) Canthium from the Malabar vernacular name, cantix cantianus -a -um from Kent, England (Cantium) cantonensis -is -e, cantoniensis -is -e from Kuangchou, or Guangzhuo, SE China (Canton) Cantua from a Peruvian vernacular name, cantu, for C.

Buxifolia cantuariensis -is -e from Canterbury (Durovernum or Cantaburia) canus -a -um whitish-grey, white, caneo, canere, canui caoutchouc from the Amerindian vernacular name, cauchuc, for the solidified latex of Hevea brasiliensis capax wide, broad, able, fit, capax capensis -is -e from Cape Colony, or Cape of Good Hope, S Africa caperatus -a -um of goats, caper, capri caperratus -a -um wrinkled, caperro, caperrare 89 The Names of Plants capillaceus -a -um, capillaris -is -e hair-like, very slender, capillus, capilli capillaensis -is -e from either Capilla near Buenos Aires, or Capilla del Monte near Cordoba, Argentina capillatus -a -um long-haired, capillatus capillifolius -a -um with thread-like leaves, capillus-folium capilliformis -is -e hair-like, thread-like, capillus-forma capillipes with a very slender stalk, capillus-pes capillus-junonis Juno’s-hair, capillus-iunonis (Jupiter’s wife, ϵ Hera) capillus-veneris Venus’ hair, capillus-(Venus, Veneris) capinensis -is -e from Capina, Brazilian Amazonia capistratus -a -um muzzled, strap-like, haltered, capistrum, capstri capitatus -a -um growing in a head, head-like, caput, capitis (inflorescence or stigma) capitellatus -a -um growing in a small head, small head-like, diminutive of capitatus capitis-york from the Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia, (caput, capitis)York capitulatus -a -um having a small head, capitulum capituliflorus -a -um having flowers in small heads, diminutive of capitus capituliformis -is -e shaped into small capitulae, capitulum-forma capnodes, capnoides smoke-coloured, kapnoj-oeidhj Capnophyllym Smoke-leaf, kapnoj-fullon capollin, capulin from a vernacular name for the fruit of Prunus cerasifera salicifolia cappadocicus -a -um, cappadocius -a -um from Cappadocia, Asia Minor (Turkey) Capparis from the Arabic, kabar, for capers, through Greek, kapparij (Capparidaceae ) capra, capri- of the goat, goat-like (smell), capra, caprae capraeus -a -um of the roe, reddish, caprea, capreae Capraria Of-the-she-goat, capra, caprae (can also mean with the smell of arm-pits) capreolatus -a -um sprawling between supports, twining, winding, tendrilled, capreolus capreolus the roe deer, roebuck-coloured, capreolus capreus -a -um, caprinus -a -um goat, of goats, capra, caprae capricornus -a -um, capricornu of the winter solstice, of capricorn or the goat’s horn, capra-cornu Caprifolium Goat-leaf, caprae-folium (an old generic name) (Caprifoliaceae) Capriola Uncultivated, caprificus (ϵ Cynondon) Capsella Little-case, diminutive of capsa (the form of the fruit of shepherd’s purse) capsicastrum resembling Capsicum, biting, peppery, Capsicum-astrum Capsicum Biter, kapto (the hot taste of peppers), or Case, capsa capsularis -is -e producing capsules, capsular-fruited, capsula, capsulae capuli, capulinos see capollin caput, capitis head, caput, capitis (cognate are the Italian cabochia, French caboche and English cabbage) caput-avis bird’s-head, caput-avis caput-bovis ox-head, caput-(bos, bovis) caput-galli cock’s-head, caput-gallus caput-medusae Medusa’s head, caput-Medusa caput-viperae adder’s-head, snake-headed, serpentine, caput-(vipera, viperae) caracalla for Emperor Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus) (188–217), who gave Roman citizenship to all free people of the then empire, in ad 212; some interpret as spiralled or to do with charcoal caracalus -a -um lynx-like (Felis caracala), having black (ear-like) tufts, Turkish, kara-kulak, black-ears caracarensis -is -e from the Cara Cara mountains of Bolivia caracasanus -a -um from Caracas, Venezuela Caragana the Mongolian name, caragan, for the plant caraguatatubus -a -um from Caraguatatuba, Brazil 90 Glossary caraguatus -a -um a S American vernacular name for fibres of Eryngium pandanifolium, and other plants, or from the Caraguata river of Uruguay, or Caraguatay, Paraguay Caralluma possibly a Telinga (British India) vernacular name, Car-allum caramanicus -a -um from Karaman, Turkey, a former principality of Anatolia carambola a Portuguese vernacular name for the carambola-tree (Averrhoa carambola) caramicus -a -um from Karamea, New Zealand carana a vernacular name for the balsam resin from species of Protium carandas the Malayan vernacular name, karandang, for Christ’s thorn (Carissa carandas) Carapa from a S American vernacular name, caraipa, for Carapa procera carassanus -a -um from Carassa, Minas Gerais, Brazil carataviensis -is -e from Karatau, Kazakhstan carbonarius -a -um of charcoal burners, of burnt ground, carbonarius, carbonari (Poliota habitat) carchariodontus -a -um having sharp teeth, karxar-odontoj Cardamine Dioscorides’ name, kardaminh, for cress cardaminifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Cardamine cardaminioides resembling Cardamine, kardaminh-oeidhj Cardaminopsis Cardamine-resembling, kardaminh-oyij Cardamon the Greek name, kardamon, for garden cress cardamomum ancient Greek name for the Indian spice, kardamwmon Cardaria Heart-like, kardia (the fruiting pods) cardi-, cardio- heart-shaped-, kardia, kardiocardiacus -a -um antispasmodic, dyspeptic, of heart conditions, kardiakoj (medicinal use) Cardiandra Heart-shaped-stamens, kardia-anhr (the shape of the anthers) cardianthus -a -um with heart-shaped flowers, kardia-anqoj cardinalis -is -e deep-scarlet, the colour of the cassock worn by a Cardinal, upon whom the Roman Church hinges (cardo, a hinge) cardiobasis -is -e heart-shaped base, kardio-basij Cardiocrinum Heart-lily, kardio-krinon (the leaves of giant lilies) cardiopetalus -a -um with heart-shaped petals, kardio-petalon cardiophyllus -a -um with heart-shaped leaves, kardio-fullon Cardiospermum Heart-seed, kardio-sperma (refers to the white, heart-shaped aril on the black seeds) cardiostictus -a -um with heart-shaped markings, kardio-stiktoj cardius -a -um for the heart, kardia carduacus -a -um thistle-like, carduus, cardui; cardus carduchorus -a -um of the Kurdes (Carduchoi), from Kurdistan carduelinus -a -um somewhat thistle-like, carduus cardui- Carduus-, thistle-, living on Carduus (symbionts, parasites and saprophyts) Carduncellus, carduncellus -a -um Little-Cardunculus Cardunculus, cardunculus -a -um Thistle-like, small thistle-like, diminutive of carduus (cognate with cardoon) Carduus Thistle, a name, carduus, in Virgil; Celtic, ard, for a prickle Careya for Reverend William Carey (1761–1834) of Serampore, botanist and linguist careyanus -a -um, careyi for John Carey (1797–1880), plant collector in America Carex Cutter, keiro (the sharp leaf margins of many) caribaceus -a -um, caribaeus -a -um from the Caribbean (Caribaea) Carica From-Caria (mistakenly thought to be the provenance of the Pawpaw, Carica papaya) (Caricaceae) carici- sedge-, carex, caricis caricifolius -a -um with sedge-like leaves, Carex-leaved, carici-folius caricinus -a -um, caricosus -a -um sedge-like, resembling Carex 91 The Names of Plants caricoides resembling Carex, carex-oides caricis -is -e of Carex, caricis caricus -a -um, cariensis -is -e from the ancient region of Caria, SW Anatolia, Turkey cariflorus -a -um having keeled or boat-shaped flowers, carina-florus carinalis -is -e keel-like, carina carinatus -a -um keeled, having a keel-like ridge, carina, carinae carinellus -a -um having a small keel, diminutive of carina carinensis -is -e from Karin on the N coast of Somalia carinthiacus -a -um from Kärnten (Carinthia), S Austria carinulatus -a -um slightly keeled, diminutive from carina cariocae, cariocanus -a -um from the Carioca mountain range, Brazil caripensis -is -e from Caripito and environs of Rio Caribe, N Venezuela Carissa from Sanskrit, krishna-pakphul, for Carissa carandas, Christ’s thorn or carunda; some derive from Italian for beloved but etymology is unclear carissimus -a -um most esteemed or revered carlcephalum for the Viburnum hybrid between V.

Carlesii and V.

Macrocephalum carlesii for William Richard Carles (1848–1929), British Consul in China, who collected Viburnum carlesii in W Korea (1889) Carlina for Charlemagne (742–814), Carolinus, his army was supposed to have been cured of the plague with a species of Carlina, which the Archangel had revealed to him carlinus -a -um thistle-like, like Carlina, of Carlina carlsruhensis -is -e either from Karlsruhe, SW Germany, or from Carlsruhe, Poland Carludovica for Charles IV of Spain (1748–1819) and his wife Louisa (1751–1819) carmanicus -a -um from the region of Kerman, Iran (Carmannia of Alexandrian times) carmesinus -a -um carmine-like, reddish-purple, medieval Latin from Arabic, kirmiz or qirmiz (vide kermesinus) Carmichaelia, carmichaelii for Captain Dugald Carmichael (1772–1827), plant hunter, author of Flora of Tristan da Cunha carminatus -a -um relieving flatulence, carmino, carminare, carminavi, carminatum (carmen, carminis, song, prophecy, formula, moral text, cognate with charm) carmineus -a -um carmine, Arabic kirmiz or qirmiz (vide kermesinus) carnauba Tupi vernacular for the wax palm, Copernicia cerifera, and its leaf-wax Carnegiea for the Scottish philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919) carneolus -a -um fleshy, flesh-coloured, succulent, carneus carneus -a -um, carnicolor the colour of flesh, of flesh, caro, carnis; carneus carniolicus -a -um from Carniola, Slovenia carnosiflorus -a -um having fleshy flowers, carnosus-florum carnosulus -a -um somewhat fleshy, diminutive of carnosus carnosus -a -um pulpy, fleshy, thick and soft textured, carnosus carnulosus -a -um somewhat fleshy, diminutive of carnosus caroli for Carl Ludwig Ledermann (1875–1958), Swiss curator of Victoria Botanic Garden, Cameroon carolinae-septentrionalis from North Carolina carolinianus -a -um, carolinensis -is -e, carolinus -a -um of N or S Carolina, USA carota the old name, karwton, for carrot (Daucus carota) caroviolaceus -a -um fleshy-violet coloured (caro, caronis)-violaceus carpathicus -a -um, carpaticus -a -um, carpathus -a -um from the Carpathian mountains between Vienna and Romania carpathus -a -um from the Carpathian mountains Carpenteria for William M.

Carpenter (1811–1848), Professor at Louisiana carpetanus -a -um of the Carpetano tribe, from the Toledo area of Spain carpini- hornbeam-like-, Carpinus- (followed by a structure, eg leaf or fruit) carpini of hornbeam, living on Carpinus (symbionts, parasites and saprophytes) carpinifolius -a -um hornbeam-leaved, Carpinus-folium carpinoides resembling Carpinus, Carpinus-oides 92 Glossary Carpinus, carpinus the ancient Latin name, carpinus, for hornbeam, some derive it from Celtic, car-pix, for a wood-headed yoke carpo-, carpos-, -carpus -a -um (karpo-) fruit-, -fruited, -podded, karpoj, karpo-, botanical Latin carpus Carpobrotus Edible-fruit, karpo-brwtuj (the edible fruiting structure of hottentot fig) Carpodetus Bound-fruit, karpo-dethj (external appearance of the putaputawheta fruit) Carpodinus Top-like-fruit, karpoj-dineuw Carpolyza Angry-fruit, karpoj-lussa (its dehiscence) carpophilus -a -um fruit liking, karpoj-filh (fungus on rotting beech-mast) carrerensis -is -e from Carrera Island, Trinidad Carrichtera for Bartholomaeus Carrichter, physician to Maximillian II, author of Kreutterbüch (1575) Carrierea, carrierei for E.

A.

Carrière (1816–96), French botanist carringtoniae for Lady Carrington, wife of the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Charles Robert Wynn Carrington carsonii for Alexander Carson (1850–96), who collected plants in Tanganyika cartagensis -is -e from Cartagena, either Spain or Colombia (Carthago Nova) cartagoanus -a -um from Cartago, Costa Rica carthaginiensis -is -e from Carthage (Carthago), Tunis carthamoides resembling Carthamus, Carthamus-oides Carthamus Painted-one, from Hebrew, qarthami, an orange-red dye (false saffron, Arabic, safra, is made from safflower, Carthamus tinctorius) carthusianorum, carthusianus -a -um of the Grande Chartreuse Monastery of Carthusian Monks, Chartreuse (Carthusia), France cartilagidens having firm but not bony teeth, cartilago-dens cartilagineus -a -um, cartilaginus -a -um cartilage-like, cartilago, cartilaginis (texture of some part, eg leaf margin) cartwrightianus -a -um for J.

Cartwright, who, as British Consul in Constantinople, discovered Crocus cartwrightianus (c. 1844) Carum from Caria, Dioscorides’ name, karwj, for caraway carunculatus -a -um with a prominent caruncle, carunculus (seed coat outgrowth, usually obscuring the micropyle, literally a bit of flesh) carunculiferus -a -um bearing a caruncle, carunculus-fero carvi (carui) from Arabic, karwiya, caraway (Pliny derives it from an origin in Caria, Asia Minor) carvifolius -a -um caraway-leaved, carui-folium Carya Walnut, karua (Dion’s daughter, Carya, was changed into a walnut tree by Bacchus) caryo- (karyo-) nut-, clove-, karuon, karuoCaryocar Nut, karuon (for the butter-nut) (Caryocaraceae) caryocarpus -a -um having dry indehiscent fruits, karuo-karpoj Caryolopha Nut-crest, karuo-lofia (the nutlets are borne in a ring) caryophyllacearus -a -um of chickweeds, living on Caryophyllaceae (Melampsorella, basidiomycete witches broom on Abies and telutospore phase on Cerastium and Stellaria) caryophyllaceus -a -um, caryophylleus -a -um resembling a stitchwort, clove-pink coloured, from Arabic, karanful, for cloves or clove pinks caryophylloides resembling Dianthus caryophyllus, clove-pink-like Caryophyllus Nut-leaved, karuofullon (a former generic name for clove tree, Arabic karanful, Eugenia caryophyllata); clove-fragrance or colour in other genera has transferred this meaning to the epithet, and given such cognate names as gillyflower (Dianthus caryophyllus, Orobanche caryphyllacea, Cyperus caryophyllea) caryopteridifolius -a -um Caryopteris-leaved, Caryopteris-folium Caryopteris Wing-nut, karuo-pteruc (the fruit-body splits into four winged nutlets) Caryota a name, karuotij, used by Dioscorides for a date palm 93 The Names of Plants caryotideus -a -um like a small palm, Caryota-like caryotifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of fish-tail palms, Caryotafolium caryotoides resembling Caryota, Caryota-oides cascadenis -is -e from the volcanic Cascade mountain range from British Columbia to California, or from waterfalls elsewhere cascarillus -a -um resembling the purgative Croton cascarilla (cascara sagrada, Spanish for sacred cascara, was once a common laxative/purgative, made from the bark of Rhamnus purschiana) cashemirianus -a -um, cashmiriensis -is -e from Kashmir cashew from the Tupi vernacular name, acaju, for the nuts Casimiroa for Cardinal Casimiro Gomez de Ortega (1740–1818), Spanish botanist caspicus -a -um, caspius -a -um of the Caspian area Cassia a name, kasia, used by Dioscorides from a Hebrew plant name, quetsi’oth, used by Linnaeus for C. fistula (medicinal senna) cassidius -a -um helmet-shaped, cassis, cassidis Cassine, cassine from a N American vernacular name for hottentot cherry (formerly the generic name for Mauricenia capensis) cassinifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Cassine, Cassine-folium cassinoides resembling Cassine, Cassine-oides (hottentot-cherry-like) Cassinia for Count A.

H.

G.

De Cassini (1781–1832), French botanist cassioides resembling Cassia, kasia-oeidhj Cassiope, cassiope for the Queen of Ethiopia and mother of Andromeda in Greek mythology; heath-like, Cassiope-like Cassipourea from a vernacular name from Guyana cassubicus -a -um from Gdansk, Danzig (Cassubia), Poland Castalia Spring-of-the-Muses, at Castalia, Mount Parnassus, Greece (ϵ Nymphaea) Castanea old Latin name, castanea, for the sweet chestnut, from the Greek kasta (cognate with Kastanis and Chestnut) castaneaefolius -a -um, castaneifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Castanea castaneus -a -um, castanus -a -um chestnut-brown, castanea, castanae castanii-, castani- chestnut-, chestnut-brown-, castanea castaniifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of the chestnut, castanea-folius castanioides resembling Castanea, castanea-oides castanopsicolus -a -um living on Castanopsis, Castanopsis-colo (epiphytic) Castanopsis Chestnut-like, kasta-oyij, castanea-opsis Castanospermum Castanea-seeded, kasta-sperma castellanus -a -um of a fortress, castellanus; from Castille, Spain (Castella) castello-paivae for Baron Castello de Paiva, of Portugal castellorus -a -um of strongholds or high places, castellum, castelli Castilleja for Domingo Castillejo (1744–93), Spanish botanist of Cadiz castus -a -um chaste, clean, flawless, spotless, pure, castus Casuarina Cassowary-like, from the Malayan vernacular name, pohon kasuari (compares the pendulous branches with the feathers of Cassuarius cassuarius) (Casuarinaceae) casuarinoides resembling Casuarina, Casuarina-oides cat-, cata-, cato- below-, outwards-, downwards-, from-, under-, against-, alongCatabrosa Eating-up, katabrwsij to swallow (the nibbled appearance of the tip of the lemmas, and also much liked by cattle) catacanthus -a -um having downwards-pointing thorns, kat-akanqoj catacosmus -a -um adorned, katakojmew catafractus -a -um enclosed, armoured, closed in, mail-clad, katafraktoj catalaunicus -a -um from Catalonia, Montserrat, Spain (Catalaunia) catalinae from Catalina, USA Catalpa, catalpa from an E Indian vernacular name, katuhlpa catalpifolius -a -um Catalpa-leaved, Catalpa-folius catamarcensis -is -e from Caramarca, NW Argentina 94 Glossary Catananche, catananche Driving-force, katanagke (of Cupid’s dart, used by Greek women in love potions) cataphractus -a -um enclosed, covered, shut in, covered in armour, katafraktoj, cataphractes, cataphractae cataphysaemus -a -um having a swollen lower portion, kata-fusaw Catapodium Trivial-stalk, kata-podion (the spikelets are subsessile) catappa from a native E Indian name for olive-bark tree cataractae, cataractarus -a -um, (catarractae, catarractarum) growing near waterfalls, tumbling like a waterfall, katarakthj cataractalis -is -e cascading, katarakthj cataria of cats, late Latin, cattus, old name for catmint (herba cataria) Catasetum Downwards-bristle, kata-seta (the two cirri on the column) catawbiensis -is -e from the area of the North American Indian Catawba tribe, from the Catawba River area, N Carolina, USA catechu a Tamil vernacular name, caycao or kaku or katti-shu, for the betel (Acacia catechu) catenarius -a -um, catenatus -a -um linked, chain-like, cateno, catenare, catenavi, catenatum catenulatus -a -um somewhat resembling a small chain, somewhat fettered, diminutive from catenus cateriflorus -a -um four-flowered, French quatre-fleur; well-flowered, kathrhj caterviflorus -a -um having crowded flower-heads, (caterva, catervae)-florum Catesbaea, catesbyi for Mark Catesby (1674–1749), of Suffolk, author of Natural History of Carolina Catha from an Arabic vernacular name, khat, for Catha edulis (the leaves are eaten and used to brew a beverage) Catharanthus Perfect-flower, kaqaroj-anqoj catharticus -a -um cleansing, purging, cathartic, kaqarthj, kaqartikoj cathartius -a -um cleansing, purifying, kaqarthj; of the territory of the vulture, Cathartae cathayanus -a -um, cathayensis -is -e from China (Cathay) Cathcartia, cathcartii for John Ferguson Cathcart (1802–51), Judge in Bengal catholicus -a -um Linnaeus used this to imply of Catholic lands (Spain and Portugal), orthodox, worldwide, universal, kaqolikoj catingaensis -is -e from the dry, thorn forests (caatingas) of S and C America catingicolus -a -um living in the Brazilian caatinga (thorn-scrub woodland or white forest) Catonia name, sedi incertis, for Marcus Porcius Cato (234–149 bc), author of De agri cultura (160 bc) Catopsis Looking-down, katw-oyij (epiphytic Bromeliads) catopterus -a -um having wings on the lower part, kat(o)-pteron Cattleya, cattleyanus -a -um for William Cattley (d. 1832), English plant collector and patron of botany caucalifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Caucalis, Caucalis-folium Caucalis, caucalis old Greek name, kaukalij, for an umbelliferous plant caucasiacus -a -um, caucasicus -a -um from the Caucasus, Caucasian caucasigenus -a -um born in or originating in the Caucasus, Caucasia-(gigno, gignere, genui, genitum) cauda- tail-, cauda, caudae (used for any long appendage) cauda-felis cat’s-tailed, cauda-(feles, felis) caudatifolius -a -um with tailed leaves, caudatus-folius (apices) caudatilabellus -a -um with the lip drawn out into a tail, caudatus-labellum caudatus -a -um, caudi- produced into a tail, tailed, caudatus (see Fig. 7a) caudescens developing tails, cauda-essentia caudiculatus -a -um with a thread-like caudicle, diminutive of cauda (as the tail-like threads, caudiculae, of orchid pollinia) caul-, caule-, cauli, caulo- stalk-, kauloj, caula, caulae 95 The Names of Plants Caulerpa Cabbage-stalk, caulis (the stipe) caulescens becoming distinctly stalked, beginning to stem, caulis-essentia caulialatus -a -um having winged or alate stems, caula-alatus cauliatus -a -um, -caulis -is -e, -caulo, -caulos of the stem, -stemmed, -stalked, kauloj, botanical Latin -caulis caulibarbis -is -e with bearded stalks, caula-(barba, barbae) (the beard may consist of rigid hairs or barbs) caulicolus -a -um living on stems, caula-colo (certain fungi) cauliculatus -a -um with diminutive stalks, diminutive of caula (may be sprouts on an old stem or stipes of fungi) cauliferus -a -um stem-bearing, caula-fero cauliflorus -a -um bearing flowers on the main stem, flowering on the old woody stem, caula-florum (cocoa (Theobroma) flowers and fruits on old stems and is cauliflorous, but the English cauliflower derives from cole-flower or cabbage-flower) caulocarpus -a -um fruiting on the stem, kauloj-karpoj Caulophyllum Stem-leaf, kauloj-fullon (the stalk has a single compound leaf at its apex) caulorapus -a -um stem-turnip, caulo-rapa (kohlrabi) caulorrhizus -a -um having rooting stems, with adventitious roots, kauloj-riza caurinus -a -um of the NW wind (Caurus or Corus) (a seasonal feature) causticus -a -um with a caustic taste, burning, kaiein, kaustoj, kaustikoj, (causing inflammation or having a hot taste) cauticolus -a -um growing on cliffs, cliff-dwelling, cautes-colo cautleoides resembling Cautlea, Cautlea-oides Cautleya, Cautlea for Major General Sir P.

Cautley (1802–71), British naturalist cautleyoides resembling Cautlea, Cautlea-oides Cavendishia, cavendishii for George Spencer Cavendish (1790–1858), Sixth Duke of Devonshire, at Chatsworth cavenius -a -um hedging, for cages, cavea, cavae (its use as living fences) cavernicolus -a -um growing in caves, cave-dwelling, caverna-colo cavernosus -a -um full of depressions or holes, caverna cavernus -a -um of caves or cavities, caverna cavipes hollow-stalked, cavus-pes cavus -a -um of caves, excavated, hollow, cavitied, cavo, cavare, cavavi, cavatum cayapensis -is -e from the area of the Cayapa Indians of W Equador cayenensis -is -e, cayennensis -is -e from Cayenne, French Guyana (Cayenne pepper is named from its Tupi Guarani vernacular name, kyinha, from Cayenne Island) Cayratia the vernacular name, cay-rat, in Annam for a vine (ϵ Columella) cazorlanus -a -um, cazorlensis -is -e from the Cazorla mountains, Andalusia, Spain ceanothoides resembling Ceanothus, keanoqoj-oeidhj Ceanothus Linnaeus’ re-use of the ancient Greek name, keanoqoj, used by Theophrastus for another plant cearensis -is -e from Ceará state, NE Brazil cebennensis -is -e from the Cevennes (Cebenna), France cebolletus -a -um chive-like, from the French for chives, ciboullete cecidiophorus -a -um, cecidophorus -a -um bearing galls, khkij-foroj ceciliae for the daughter of Sir Frederick A.

Weld, once Governor of the Straits Settlements Cecropia for Cecrops, legendary king and builder of ancient Athens cecropioides resembling Cecropia, Cecropia-oides cedarbergensis -is -e from Cedarberg, Cape Province, S Africa, or Wisconsin cedarmontanus -a -um, cedrimontanus -a -um from the Cedarberg mountains, Cape Province, S Africa, or Cedar mountain, Oregon, or Cedarberg, Wisconsin cedratus -a -um, cedron, cedrum of cedars, resinous, fragrant, kedroj, cedrus, cedri (in the Latin sense, Juniperus, perfume and oils are also included) Cedrela Cedar-like, diminutive of kedroj (the wood has a similar fragrance) cedricolus -a -um living on cedar, Cedrus-colo 96 Glossary cedroensis -is -e from Cedros Island off Baja California peninsula, Mexico Cedronella Resembling-cedar, diminutive of kedroj (fragrance) cedrorus -a -um of cedars, Cedrus Cedrus the ancient Greek name, kedroj, for a resinous trees with fragrant wood, Arabic, kedri Ceiba from a vernacular S American name for silk-cotton tree ceilanicus -a -um from Sri Lanka (Ceylon, Ceilan) celans hiding, becoming hidden, present participle of celo, celare, celavi, celatum celastri-, celastrinus -a -um Celastrus-likeCelastrus Theophrastus’ name, khlastroj, for an evergreen tree, retaining fruit over winter (possibly an Ilex) (Celastraceae) celatocaulis -is -e with concealed stems, celans-caula (concealed by density of growth) celatus -a -um hidden, concealed, celo, celare, celavi, celatum celebicus -a -um from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes) celer, celeratus -a -um hastened, growing rapidly, celero, celerare cellulosus -a -um with little rooms, many-celled, cellula, cellulae (tube-stalked sori of Trichomanes cellelosum) -cellus -a -um -lesser, -somewhat Celmisia for Celmisius, the son of the nymph Alciope, in Greek mythology Celosia Burning (from keloj, for the burnt or dry flowers of some) celosioides resembling Celosia, Celosia-oides Celsia, celsianua -s -um, celsii for Olaf Celsius (1670–1756), professor at Uppsala University, author of Hierobotanicon celsimontanus -a -um of high mountains, celsus-montanus celsus -a -um haughty, eminent, loft, high, celsus celtibiricus -a -um from Aragon, Spain (Celtiberia) celticus -a -um from Gaul, of the area of the Celtic people, celtae, celtarum; celticus celtidifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Celtis, Celtis-folium Celtis ancient Greek name, khltij, for a tree with sweet fruit; Linnaeus applied this to the European hackberry cembra the old Italian name for the arolla or Swiss stone pine; some derive it from German, Zimmer, a room cembroides, cembrus -a -um resembling Pinus cembra, cembra-oides Cenarrhenes Empty-male, kenoj-arrhn (the stamen-like glands) cenchroides resembling Cenchrus, kegxroj-oeidhj Cenchrus Piercing-one, kegxroj, (the involucre of sharp, sterile spikelets create burrs that attach to animal fur) Cenia Empty, kenoj (the hollow receptacle of the inflorescence) cenisius -a -um from Mont Cenis (Monte Cenisío) on the French–Italian border ceno-, cenose- empty-, fruitless-, kenoj, keno-, kencenocladus -a -um having empty (leafless) branches, keno-kladoj Cenolophium Hollow-bristles, keno-lofia Centaurea Centaur, Centauros (mythical creature with the body of a horse replacing the hips and legs of a man, the name, kentaurion, kentaureion, used by Hippocrates, centaureum, centauria in Pliny; in Ovid the centaur Chiron was cured with this plant of Hercules’ arrow wound in the hoof) centaureoides resembling Centaurea, kentaurion-oeidhj Centaurium, centaurium for the centaur, Chiron, who was fabled to have a wide knowledge of herbs and used this plant medicinally, cognate with Centaurea centi- one hundred-, many-, centum centifolius -a -um many-leaved, centum-folium centilobus -a -um many-lobed, centum-lobus Centopedia, centipedus -a -um Many-stemmed-one, centum-pes Centotheca Prickly-sheath, kento-qhkh (reflexed bristles on the upper lemmas) centra-, centro-, -centrus -a -um, -centron spur-, -spurred, kentron, kentro-, kentrCentradenia Spur-gland, kentr-aden (the anthers have spur-like glands) 97 — Diplarche Two-commencements, diplow-arxh (two series of stamens) Diplarrhena Double-male, diplow-arrhn (two perfect stamens) Diplazium Duplicate, diplazw (the double indusium) diplocrater having a double bowl, diplo-krathr (perianth) Diplocyclos Two-circled, diplow-kukloj (the double border of the seed) Diplomeris Two-partite, diplo-merij (the appearance of the widely separated halves of the anther) diplomerus -a -um having two parts, divided into two, diplo-meroj Diplopappus Double-down, diplo-pappoj diplospermus -a -um two-seeded, diplo-sperma 142 Glossary diplostemonus -a -um having twice as many stamens as petals, diplo-stemwn diplostephioides like a double crown, diplo-stefan-oeidhj (the arrangement of the capitulum) Diplotaxis Two-positions, diplo-tacij (the two-ranked seeds) diplotrichus -a -um, diplothrix having two kinds of hairs, diplow-trixoj Dipogon Two-bearded, di-pwgwn dippelianus -a -um for Leopold Dippel (1827–1914) of Darmstadt, author of Handbuch der Laubholzkunde (broad-leaf timber trees) dipsaceus -a -um teasel-like, resembling Dipsacus dipsaci of teasel, living on Dipsacus (Anguillulina, nematode) dipsacifolius -a -um having Dipsacus-like leaves dipsacoides resembling a teasel, diyakoj-oeidhj Dipsacus Dropsy, diyakoj (Dioscorides’ name in analogy of the water-collecting leaf-bases) (the mature heads of Dipsacus fullonum were the teasels, used to tease a nap on woven woollen cloth, known as fulling) (Dipsacaceae) dipso- thirst-, dipsa, dipsodiptero-, dipterus -a -um two-winged, di-pteruc Dipterocarpus, dipterocarpus -a -um with two-winged seeds, di-ptero-karpoj (Dipterocarpaceae) Dipteronia Twice-winged, di-pteruc (the two-winged carpels of the fruits) dipteryx with two wings, di-pteruc dipyrenus -a -um two-fruited, two-stoned, di-purhn Dirca from Dirce, in Greek mythology, a fountain in Boeotia dis- two-, different-, twice, dissoj, dijDisa from a S African vernacular name Disanthus Two-flowers, di-anqoj (the paired flowers) discadenius -a -um having flat circular glands, diskoj-adhn Discaria Discoid, diskoj (the prominent disc) discerptus -a -um torn apart, dispersed, discerpo, discerpere, discerpsi, discerptum dischianum twice cleft, dij-xiazein Dischistocalyx Twice-split-calyx, di-sxistoj-kaluc disci-, disco- disk-, diskoj, disko-, discus, disci disciflorus -a -um flowers with a distinct disc, with rotate flowers, discus-florum disciformis -is -e having radiate flowers, discus-forma discigerus -a -um disc bearing, discus-gero discipes with a disc-like stalk, discus-pes Discoglypremna Engraved-disc-shrub, disko-glupto-premnon (the flowers have a deeply segmented disc) discoides discoid, disk-oeidhj discolor of different colours, two-coloured, dis-color discophorus -a -um disc carrying, disko-fora Discopodium Disc-footed, disko-podion (the flat receptacle) discotis -is -e disc-eared, disk-wtoj (lobed) disermas with two glumes, with two defences, dij-erma disjunctus -a -um distinct, not grown together, disjunct, disiungo, disiungere, disiunxi, disiunctum dispar unequal, different, dispar, disparis Disperis Two-pouched, dis-phra (the two anther loculi) dispermus -a -um two-seeded, di-sperma dispersus -a -um scattered, dispergo, dispergere, disprsi, dispersum Disporopsis Resembling-Disporum, di-sporoj-oyij Disporum Two-seeded, di-sporoj (fruits are usually two-seeded) disporus -a -um two-spored, di-sporoj dissectus -a -um, (disectus) cut into many deep segments, disseco, dissecare, dissecui, dissectum disseminatus -a -um broadcast, sown, dissemino, disseminare dissimilis -is -e unlike, different, dissimilis 143 The Names of Plants dissitiflorus -a -um with flowers not in compact heads, spaced at intervals, (dissero, disserere,disserui, dissertum)-(flos-floris) dissolutus -a -um loose, lax, dissolvo, dissolvere, dissolvi, dissolutum Dissomeria Two-fold-parts, dissoj-meroj (the petals are twice as many as the sepals) Dissotis Two-kinds, dissoi (the anthers are highly modified in two ways), twoeared, dij-wtoj (the lobes at the geniculate part of the filament) distachyon, distachyus -a -um two-branched, di-staxuj, two-spiked, with two spikes distans widely separated, distant, disto, distare Disteganthus Double-covered-flower, di-(stegoj, sregh)-anqoj (the position of the corolla) Distegocarpus Double-coated-fruit, di-stegw-karpoj distensifolius -a -um having thick, swollen-looking leaves, (distendo; distenno-, destendere, distendi, distentum)-folium distentus -a -um full or swollen, distended, distendo (distenno), destendere, distendi, distentum distichanthus -a -um having flowers in two alternating ranks, di-stixoj-anqoj distichius -a -um, distichus -a -um in two alternately opposed ranks, di-stixoj (leaves or flowers) distichophyllus -a -um distichous leaved, with two-ranked leaves, di-stixojfullon Distictis Double-spotted, di-stiktoj (the double rows of seeds) distillatorius -a -um shedding drops, of the distillers, de-(stillo, stillare, stillavi, stillatum) distinctus -a -um distinct, set apart, past participle of distinguo, distinguere, distinxi, distinctum distortus -a -um malformed, grotesque, twisted, distorted, distorqueo, distorquere, distorsi, distortum Distylium Two-styles, di-stuloj (the conspicuous, separate styles) distylus -a -um two-styled, di-stuloj ditopoda, ditopus enriched-stem, (dito, ditare)-(pous, podus) (the stipe develops a basal covering of cottony fibres) diureticus -a -um diuretic, causing urination, diourein Diuris Two-tailed-one, di-oura (the sepals) diurnus -a -um lasting for one day, day-flowering, of the day, daily, diurnus diutinus -a -um, diuturnus -a -um long-lasting, diutinus divaricatus -a -um wide-spreading, straggling, divaricate, divarica, divaricare divensis -is -e from Chester (Deva) divergens spreading out, wide-spreading, divergent, di-(vergo, vergere) diversi-, diversus -a -um differing-, variable-, diversely-, diverto, divertere, diverti, diversum diversicolor having various colours, diversi-color diversifolius -a -um with different leaves, variable foliage, diversi-folium diversilobus -a -um variably lobed, botanical Latin from diversus and loboj (leaves) dives, divus -a -um belonging to the gods, divine, divus dividus -a -um divided, divido, dividere, divisi, divisum divinorus -a -um of the divine, of the prophets, divinus divionensis -is -e from Dijon, France (Divio, Divionensis) divisiflorus -a -um having flowers with finely divided petals, divisus-florum divisus -a -um divided, divido, dividere, divisi, divisum divulgatus -a -um widespread, divulgo, divulgare, divulgavi, divulgatum divulsus -a -um torn violently apart, estranged, divello, divellere, divelli, divulsum dixanthus -a -um having two shades of yellow, di-canqoj Dizygotheca Two-yoked-case, di-zugo-qhkh (the four-lobed anthers) Docynia an anagram of Cydonia docynoides resembling itself, Docynia-oides, hence Docynia docynoides dodartii for D.

Dodart (1634–1707), Parisian botanist 144 Glossary dodec-, dodeca- twelve-, duodecem, dwdeka Dodecadenia Twelve-glands, dwdeka-(adhn, adenoj) dodecandrus -a -um having twelve stamens, dwdeka-anhr dodecapetalus -a -um with twelve-petalled flowers, dwdeka-petalon dodecaphyllus -a -um having (about) twelve leaflets or leaves, dwdeka-fullon Dodecatheon Twelve-gods, dwdeka-qeoj (an ancient name used in Pliny) (American cowslips) dodentralis -is -e of one span, about nine inches (23 cm) across, dodrans, dodrantis three-quarters of a foot Dodonaea, dodonaei for Rembert Dodoens, Dodonaeus, (1517–85), Dutch physician and botanical writer dodrantalis -is -e of (about) nine inches (23 cm) in height or length, dodrans (the span from thumb tip to extended little finger tip) dolabratus -a -um axed, axe-shaped, dolabra, dolabrae dolabriformis -is -e hatchet-shaped, dolabra-forma doliarius -a -um having the shape of a large wine jar or barrel, dolium, dolii (doliaris tubby) dolich-, dolicho- long-, dolixoj, dolixo-, doulixodolichanthus -a -um with long flowers, dolixoj-anqoj dolichocentrus -a -um having long spurs, long-spurred, dolixo-kentron dolichoceras long-horned, dolixo-keraj dolichomischon long-pedicelled, dolixo-misxoj dolichorrhizus -a -um having long roots or rhizomes, dolixo-riza Dolichos the ancient Greek name, dolixoj (for long-podded beans) dolichostachyus -a -um long-spiked, dolixo-staxuj dolichostemon with long stamens, dolixo-stemon Dolichthrix Long-haired, dolixo-qric doliiformis -is -e tubby, shaped like a wine jar, dolium dolobratus -a -um hatchet-shaped, see dolabratus dolomiticus -a -um from the Italian Dolomites, of soils of dolomitic origin (dolomite is named for the French geologist Dolomieu (1750–1801) -dolon -net, -snare, -trap, doloj dolosus -a -um deceitful, doloj Dombeya for Joseph Dombey, French botanist who accompanied Ruiz and Pavon in Chile and Peru domesticus -a -um of the household, domesticus dominans becoming dominant, prevailing, present participle of dominor, dominari, dominatus domingensis -is -e from San Domingo, E Hispaniola, W Indies; from the Dominican Republic dominicalis -is -e, dominicus -a -um of Dominica (named by Columbus when sighted on a Sunday (dies dominica, the Lord’s day) donarius -a -um of reeds, donac (habitat) donax an old Greek name, donac, for a reed Dondia an Adansonian name (ϵ Suaeda fruticosa, S.

Epipactis ϵ Hacquetia epipactis) donianus -a -um, donii for G.

Don (1764–1814), Keeper of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, or either of his sons, David (1799–1841), the Linnean Society librarian, or George (1798–1856), who collected for the RHS in Brazil Doodia for Samuel Doody (1656–1706), apothecary and Keeper of the Chelsea Physick Garden c. 1691 doratoxylon spear-wood, doration-culon (aboriginal use for weapons) Dorema Gift, the name used by Dioscorides for another plant (gum ammoniac, Dorema ammoniacum) Doritis Lance-like, doru (the long lip of the corolla) dorius -a -um from Doria, the Peloponnese area once conquered by the Dorians; pole-like, doru (tall single-stemmed) dormannianus -a -um for Charles Dorman, orchid grower of Sydenham c. 1880 145 The Names of Plants dormiens seasonal, having a dormant period, present participle of dormio, dormire, domivi, domitum doronicoides resembling Doronicum, Doronicum-oides Doronicum from an Arabic name, doronigi (leopard’s bane) Dorotheanthus Dorothea-flower (for Dr Schwantes’ mother, Dorothea) dorsalis -is -e of mountain ridges, of the back, dorsum dorsi-, -dorsus -a -um on the back-, -backed, outside, dorsum, dorsi (outer curve of a curved structure) Dorstenia for Theodore Dorsten (1492–1552), German botanist dortmanna, dortmanniana for Herr Dortmann (c. 1640), pharmacist of Gröningen -dorus -a -um -bag-shaped, -bag, doroj dory- pole-, spear-, doru, doratoj, doruDoryanthes Spear-flower, doru-anqoj (the long flowering-scape) Dorycnium Dioscorides’ name, doruknion, was for a Convolvulus, reapplied by Miller Doryopteris Spear-fern, doru-pteruc doryphorus -a -um lance-bearing, doru-foroj (long tapering leaves or stems) dosua from a vernacular name, dosi-swa, for Indigofera dosua Douglasia, douglasii for David Douglas (1798–1834), of Perthshire, Scotland, plant collector in NW America for the RHS dovrensis -is -e from the Dovre mountain plateau, Dovrefjell, of S Central Norway -doxa -glory, doca Draba, draba Acrid, a name, drabh, used by Dioscorides for Lepidium draba (whitlow grass) drabae-, drabi- Draba-likedrabifolius -a -um Draba-leaved, Draba-folium Dracaena Female-dragon, drakaina (dragon tree, a source of dragon’s blood) draco, draco- dragon-, drakwn (for dragon’s blood sap or resin) Dracocephalum, dracocephalus -a -um Dragon-head, drako-kefalh (the shape of the corolla) dracocephalus -a -um dragon-headed, drako-kefalh dracoglossus -a -um serpent-tongued, drako-glwssa (division of frond) dracomontanus -a -um from the Drakensberg mountains, S Africa draconsbergensis -is -e from Drakensberg, S Africa Dracontioides, dracontoides Dracontium like, drakontion-oeidhj Dracontium, dracontius -a -um Snake, drakwn, drakontoj, an ancient Greek name, used by Pliny for plant with serpentine roots, dracontia-radix Dracophyllum Dragon-leaf, drako-fullon dracophyllus -a -um dragon-leaved, drako-fullon (the markings) Dracula Sinister, from the name, dragwlya, given to fifteenth-century Vlad Tepes, Prince of Wallachia, renowned for his cruelty (this dark orchid has a jelly-like lip to entice pollinators) Dracunculus, dracunculus Little-dragon, diminutive of draco, draconis (a name used by Pliny for a serpentine rooted plant) Drapetes Breaking-up, drapethj Dregea, dregei, dregeanus -a -um for Johann Franz Drege (1794–1881), German plant collector in S Africa drepano- arched, sickle-shaped, drepanon, drepanto, drepanoDrepanocarpus Curved-fruit, drepano-karpoj (leopard’s claw) drepanocentron curved spur, drepano-kentron Drepanocladus Curved-branch, drepano-kladoj (the arched lateral branches) drepanolobius -a -um having small curved lobes, drepano-loboj (leaves or petals) drepanophyllus -a -um having sickle-shaped leaves, drepano-fullon Drepanostachyum, drepanostachyus -a -um Curved-spike, drepano-staxuj drepanus -a -um arched or curved like a sickle-blade, drepanon Drimia Acrid, drimuj (the pungent juice from the bulbs) 146 Glossary Drimioposis resembling Drimia, drimuj-oyij drimyphilus -a -um salt-loving, halophytic, drimuj-filoj Drimys Acrid, drimuj (the taste of the bark of winter-bark) dros- dew, drosoj Drosanthemum Dewey-flower, drosoj-anqemion (glistens with epidermal hairs) Drosella Little-dewy-one, feminine diminutive from drosoj Drosera Dewy, drosoj, droseroj (the glistening glandular hairs of the apothecaries’ ros solis, the sundew) (Droseraceae) droserifolius -a -um having leaves similar to those of Drosera, Drosera-folius drosocalyx having a calyx with, or appearing to have, spots of dew, drosoj-kaluc Drosophyllum Dewy-leaved, drosoj-fullon (the droplet-tipped leaf-glands) drucei for George Claridge Druce (1859–1932), British botanist Drummondia for Thomas Drummond (c. 1790–1835), of Havana, who collected in N America and died collecting drummondii for Dr James Larson Drummond (1783–1853) founder of the Belfast Botanic Garden, or James Drummond (1784–1863), Curator of Cork Botanic Garden, or James Ramsay Drummond (1851–1921), of the Indian Civil Service, or Thomas Drummond drumonius -a -um of woodlands, drumoj drupaceus -a -um stone-fruited with a fleshy or leathery pericarp, drupe-like, druppa drupiferus -a -um drupe-bearing, druppa-ferw, drupa-fero drusorum of oak woods, druj, druoj dryadeus -a -um of oaks, druoj (Inonotus dryadeus is a fungal parasite on oak) dryadifolius -a -um having Dryas like foliage, Dryas-folium dryadioides of shady habitats; resembling Dryas, druoj-oeidhj Dryandra for Jonas Dryander (1746–1819), Swedish botanist Dryas, dryas Oak-nymph, druaj (the leaf shape) one of the mythological tree nymphs or Dryads (oak-like leaves of mountain avens); of woodland shade drymeius -a -um of woods, woodland, druj, drumoj drymo- wood-, woodland-, druj, drumoDrymoglossum Wood-tongue, drumo-glwssa (the arboreal habitat) Drynaria Woodland, druj (forest margin habitat) drynarioides resembling Drynaria, Drynaria-oides dryophilus -a -um woodland-, shade- or oak-loving, druj-filew dryophyllus -a -um oak-leaved, druj-fullon Dryopteris, dryopteris Oak-fern, druj-pteruc, Dioscorides’ name, druopterij, for a woodland fern (buckler ferns) Drypetes Stone-fruits (the hard seeds), druptw to lacerate (spiny) Drypis Theophrastus’ name, druptw, for the scratching, spiny leaves dualis -is -e two fold, duaj, dualis dubayanus -a -um from Dubai, United Arab Emirates dubitans doubting, wavering, present participle of dubito, dubitare, dubitavi, dubitatum dubius -a -um uncertain, doubtful, dubito, dubitare, dubitavi, dubitatum Duchesnea for Antoine Nicolas Duchesne (1747–1827), French botanist duclouxianus -a -um, duclouxii for Mon.

Father Ducloux (b. 1864), collector in Yunnan, China duffii for Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff (1829–1906), botanist, Governor of Madras dulcamara bitter-sweet, dulcis-amara dulciferus -a -um bearing sweetness, dulcis-fero dulcificus -a -um sweetening, making sweet, dulcis-(fingo, fingere, finxi, fictum) dulcis -is -e sweet-tasted, mild, dulcesco, dulcescere dumalis -is -e, dumosus -a -um thorny, compact, bushy, dumosus Dumasia for Jean B.

Dumas (1800–84), French pharmacist and chemist 147 The Names of Plants dumetorum of bushy habitats, of thickets, dumetum, dumeti dumetosus -a -um having a bushy habit, dumetum, dumeti dumicolus -a -um inhabiting thickets, dumetum-colo dumnoniensis -is -e from Devon, Devonian (Dumnonia) Dumortiera, dumortieri for B.

C.

Dumortier (1797–1878), of Belgium dumosus -a -um bushy, dumosus dumulosus -a -um quite bushy, diminutive of dumosus Dunalia, dunalianus -a -um for Michel Felix Dunal (1789–1856), Montpellier botanist dunensis -is -e of sand-dunes, from Old English, dun, for a hill duoformis -is -e having a double form, duo-forma duplex growing in pairs, double, duplicate, duplex, duplicis, dupliciduplicatus -a -um double, folded, bent, duplico, duplicare, duplicavi, duplicatum duplicilobus -a -um twice-lobed or segmented, duplici-lobus duploserratus -a -um twice-serrate, with toothed teeth, duplici-serratus durabilis -is -e durable, tough, duro, durare, duravi, duratum duracinus -a -um harsh-tasting, hard-berried, hard-fruited, duresco, durescere, durui durandii for Elias Magloire Durand (1794–1873) durangensis -is -e from either Durango state, N Mexico, or Durango, SW Colorado, USA Duranta for Castor Durantes (d. 1590), physician and botanist from Rome duratus -a -um lasting, enduring, hardy, duro, durare, duravi, duratum durhamii for Frank Rogers Durham (1872–1947), Secretary of the RHS 1925–46 durifolius -a -um tough-leaved, durus-folium Durio from the Malayan name, durian, for the fruit durior, durius harder, comparative of durus durispinus -a -um having hard spines, persistently spiny, durus-spina durissimus -a -um most persistent or tough, superlative of durus duriusculus -a -um rather hard or rough, diminutive comparative of durus durmitoreus -a -um from the Durmitor mountains, former Yugoslavia durobrivensis -is -e from Rochester (Kent or USA), or Dubrovnik, Croatia durus -a -um hard, hardy, durus Durvillaea for Jules Sébastien César Dumont d’Urville (1790–1842), French navigator duthieanus -a -um, duthiei for John Firminger Duthie (1845–1922), Superintendent of the Botanic Garden, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India Duvalia for Henri Auguste Duval (1777–1814), author of Enumeratio plantarum succulentum in horto Alenconio dybowskii for Dybowski, French Inspector General of Colonial Agriculture c. 1908 Dyckia for Prince Salms Dyck (1773–1861), German writer on succulent plants (see Salmia) dyerae for Lady Thistleton-Dyer (née Hooker) (1854–1945) dyerianus -a -um for Sir William Thistleton-Dyer (1843–1928) of the Science Schools Building (forerunner of Imperial College), London dykesii for William Rickatson Dykes (1877–1925), author of Genus Iris and Secretary of the RHS, 1920–25 Dypsis Dipping, duptw (duya thirsty) (slender-stemmed palms) dys-, dyso- poor-, ill-, bad-, difficult-, unpleasant, dusDyschoriste Poorly-divided, dus-xwrij (the stigma) dyscritus -a -um difficult to assess, doubtful, duskritoj dysentericus -a -um of dysentery, dusenteria (medicinal treatment for) dysocarpus -a -um having foul-smelling fruit, dus(o)-karpoj Dysodea Evil-scented, dus-odmoj dysodes unpleasant-smelling, dus-wdhj dysophyllus -a -um having foul-smelling foliage, dus-fullon dysosmius -a -um evil-smelling, dus-osmh 148 Glossary e-, ef-, ex- without-, not-, from out of-, ec-, ek-, e-, ex- (privative) Earinus, earinus -a -um Belonging-to-spring, earinoj (flowering season) eatonii for Amos Eaton (1776–1842) ebenaceus -a -um ebony-like, ebenoj Ebenus, ebenus -a -um Ebony-black, hebenus, ebenoj (Arabic, hebni, cognate with ebony) (vide supra, Family names re Ebenaceae) Ebermaiera for Karl Heinrich Ebermaier (1802–70), writer on medicinal plants (ϵ Chamaeranthemum) eboracensis -is -e from York (Eboracum, Eburacum) eborinus -a -um ivory-white, like ivory, ebur, eburis ebracteatus -a -um without bracts, privative e-bractea ebracteolatus -a -um lacking bracteoles, e-bracteolae ebudensis -is -e, ebudicus -a -um from the Hebridean Isles (Ebudae Insulae) ebulbus -u -um without bulbs; not swollen, e-bulbus Ebulus, ebulus a name, ebulus, ebuli in Pliny for danewort eburneus -a -um, eburnus -a -um ivory-white with yellow tinge, ebur, eburis ecae for Mrs E.

C.

Aitchison ecalcaratus -a -um without a spur, spurless, privative e-(calcar, calcaris) ecarinatus -a -um without a keel, un-ridged, e-(carina, carinae) Ecballium (Ecbalium) Expeller, ekballein (at maturity, the squirting cucumber expels its seeds when touched, ekballw to expel, ekbolh, expulsion, causing childbirth contractions, it also has cathartic properties) ecbolius -a -um casting out, expelling, ekbolh, ekboloj (cathartic) eccremo- pendent, hanging, ek-kremastoj Eccremocarpus Hanging-fruit, ek-kremastoj-karpoj (Chilean glory flower) Echeveria for Athanasio Echeverria y Godoy, one of the illustrators of Flora Mexicana echidnis -is -e, echidnus -a -um serpentine, exidna, echidna Echinacea, echinaceus -a -um Spiny-one, exinoj (the spiny involucral bracts) (purple cone flower) (cf.

Erinacea) Echinaria Hedgehog-like, exinoj (prickly capitate inflorescence of hedgehog grass) echinatoides resembling (Rubus) echinatoides, exinoj-oeidhj echinatus -a -um, echino- covered with prickles, hedgehog-like, exinoj Echinella, echinellus -a -um Little hedgehog, slightly prickly achenes, echinus with diminutive suffix -ellus echiniformis -is -e having hedgehog- or sea-urchin-like form, echinus-forma echino- spiny like a hedgehog or sea urchin, exinoj, exino, echinus, echini Echinocactus Hedgehog-cactus, exino-kaktoj echinocarpus -a -um having spine-covered fruits, exino-karpoj echinocephalus -a -um having a prickly head, exinoj-kefalh (the warty surface of the pileus) Echinocereus Hedgehog-Cereus, exino-Cereus Echinochloa Hedgehog-grass, exino-xloh (the awns of the scabrid spikelets) Echinodorus Hedgehog-bag, exino-doroj (the fruiting heads of some species) Echinofossulocactus Prickly-ditch-cactus, botanical Latin echino-fossula-cactus (wavy spine-clad ridges of the brain or barrel cactus) echinoides sea-urchin- or hedgehog-like, exinoj-oeidhj Echinopanax Hedgehog-Panax, exino-Panax Echinophora Prickle-carrier, exino-fora (the spiny umbels) echinophytus -a -um prickly or hedgehog-plant, exinoj-futon Echinops Hedgehog-resembler, exinoj-wy (globe thistles) echinosepalus -a -um with prickle-covered sepals, exino-skeph echinosporus -a -um having spores covered in small prickles, exino-sporoj echinus -a -um prickly like a hedgehog, exinoj echioides resembling Echium, Echium-oides Echites the name in Pliny for a twining or coiling plant, perhaps a Clematis, viperlike, exij, exidna 149 The Names of Plants Echium Viper, exij (a name, exion, used by Dioscorides for a plant to cure snakebite) (viper’s bugloss) ecirrhosus -a -um lacking tendrils, e-cirrus ecklonianus -a -um, ecklonii for Christian Friedrich Ecklon (1785–1868), apothecary and student of the S African flora eclectus -a -um selected, picked out, ek-legw, eklegein Eclipta Deficient, ekliphj (has few receptacular scales) eco- habitat, dwelling place, oikoj, oikoecostatus -a -um without ribs, smooth, e-costatus (a comparative state) ecristatus -a -um not crested, lacking a crest, e-cristatus ect-, ecto- on the outside-, outwards-, ektoj, ekto-, ektEctadiopsis Appearing-far-distant, ektadioj-oyij ectophloeos living on the bark of another plant, ekto-floioj (symbionts, parasites and saprophytes) ectypus -a -um outside or not agreeing to the type, ekt-tupoj, e-typus edentatus -a -um, edentulus -a -um without teeth, toothless, e-(dens, dentis) Edgeworthia, edgeworthii for M.

P.

Edgeworth (1821–81), botanist of the East India Company edinensis -is -e, edinburgensis of Edinburgh, Scotland (Edinburgum) editorum of the editors, productive, radiant; of heights, from edo, ederi, edidi, editum edo, edoensis from Tokyo (formerly Edo) edomensis -is -e from the Edom area of SW Jordan Edraianthus Sedentary-flower, edraioj-anqoj (the flower-clusters on the peduncles) edulis -is -e of food, edible, edo, esse, edi, esum efarinosus -a -um lacking farina, without a mealy indumentum, e-farina effusus -a -um spread out, very loose-spreading, unrestrained, effundo, effundere, effudi, effusum egalikensis -is -e from Igaliko, Greenland Eglanteria, eglanterius -a -um from a French name, eglantois or eglantier, for Rosa canina egregius -a -um outstanding, exciting, egregius ehrenbergii for Karl August Ehrenberg (1801–49), collector in Port-au-Prince and Mexico Ehretia for George Dionysius Ehret (1708–70), botanical artist ehrhartii for J.

F.

Ehrhart (1742–95), of Switzerland Eichhornia (Eichornia) for J.

A.

F.

Eichhorn (1779–1856) of Prussia (water hyacinth) eichleri, eichlerianus -a -um for Wilhelm Eichler of Baku, who, c. 1873, sent Tulipa eichleri to Regel elachi-, elacho-, elachy- small-, elaxuj, smallest elaxistoj (followed by an organ or structure) elachisanthus -a -um having small flowers, elaxuj-anqoj elachophyllus -a -um small-leaved, elaxuj-fullon elachycarpus -a -um small-fruited, elaxuj-karpoj elae-, elaeo- olive-, ela, elaia elaeagnifolius -a -um, (elaeagrifolia) with Elaeagnus-like leaves, Elaeagnus-folium elaeagnoides resembling Elaeagnus, elaia-agnoj-oeidhj Elaeagnus, elaeagnos Olive-chaste-tree, elaia-agnoj (oleaster) (Elaeagnaceae) Elaeis (Elais) Olive, elaioj (the fruit of the oil-palm, Elaeis guineensis, has assumed huge commercial importance, like the olive) Elaeocarpus Olive-fruited, elaia-karpoj (the fruit form and structure) (Elaeocarpaceae) Elaeophorbia Olive-Euphorbia, elaia-Euphorbia (composite name indicating the olive-like fruits) elaeopyren olive-like kernel, having an oily-kernel, elaia- purhn elaeospermus -a -um having oil-rich seed, elaia-sperma elaidus -a -um oily, like the olive, elaia elaiophorus -a -um oil-bearing, elaia-fora (by analogy with the olive) 150 Glossary elaphinus -a -um tawny, fulvous, elafh, a fawn elapho- stag’s-, elafoj, elafh, elafoElaphoglossum Stag’s-tongue, elafo-glwssa (shape and texture of the fronds) Elaphomyces Stag-fungus, elafoj-mukej elaphro- light-, easy-, nimble-, elafroj, elafroelaphroxylon having light wood, elafro-culon elasticus -a -um yielding an elastic substance, elastic, elaunein, elastikoj elaterium Greek name, elathroj, for the squirting cucumber, elathroj driving away (squirting out seeds), (elathr a driver, for the threads that aid cryptogamic spore dispersal) Elatine, elatine Little-conifer, elatinoj, of pine wood (a name, elatinh, used by Dioscorides) (Elatinaceae) elatinoides resembling Elatine, elatinoj-oeidhj elatior, elatius taller, comparative of elatus Elatostema Tall-crown, elath-stemma; High-renown, elatus-stemma (the inflorescence) elatus -a -um exalted, tall, high, effero, effere, extuli, elatum elbistanicus -a -um from the Elbistan area of eastern Anatolia, S Turkey elbursius -a -um from the Elburz mountain range of N Iran eldorado that of gold, golden one, of great abundance, Spanish fictional country of great plenty electra-, electro- amber-, hlektron (mostly for the colour but also for minor electrostatic features, as shown by amber itself) electrocarpus -a -um amber-fruited, hlektron-karpoj electrus -a -um for Electra, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra in Greek mythology electus -a -um select, electo, electare elegans graceful, elegant, elegans, elegantis elegantissimus -a -u most elegant, most graceful, superlative of elegans elegantulus -a -um quite elegant or graceful, diminutive of elegans eleo- marsh, eloj, eleo-, cf.

HeleoEleocharis (Heleocharis) Marsh-favour, eleo-xarij Eleogiton (Heleogiton) Marsh-neighbour, eleo-geitwn (in analogy with Potamogeton) elephanticeps ivory or large headed, elephantus-ceps elephantidens elephant’s tooth, elephantus-(dens, dentis) elephantinus -a -um large; having the appearance of ivory, elefantinoj elephantipes like an elephant’s foot, elephantus-pes, elefaj-(pouj, podoj) (appearance of the stem or tuber) Elephantopus Elephant’s-foot, elefantoj-pouj (achenes carried on feet and make some species troublesome weeds) elephantotis -is -e elephant-eared, elefaj-wtoj (large pendulous leaves) elephantus -a -um of the elephant, ivory; large, elefaj, elefantoj, elefanto-, elephantus, elephanti (cognate with oliphant, a horn made of ivory) elephas elephantine, ivory-like, elefaj, elefantoj (also variously applied to pendulous structures) Elettaria from a Malabar vernacular name Eleusine from Eleusis, Greece eleuther-, eleuthero- free-, eleuqeroj eleutherandrus -a -um having free stamens, eleuqeroj-anhr Eleutheranthera Free-stamened-one, eleuqeroj-anqhroj eleutherantherus -a -um with stamens not united but free, eleuqeroj-anqhroj Eleutherococcus Free-fruited, eleuqeroj-kokkoj eleutheropetalus -a -um having distinctly separate petals, eleuqeroj-petalon Eleutheropetalum Free-petalled, eleuqeroj-petalon (polypetalous) elevatus -a -um lifting, alleviating, elevo, elevare eleyi for Charles Eley, who hybridized Malus niedzwetskyana with M spectabilis (M. ϫ eleyi) 151 The Names of Plants elgonicus -a -um from the volcanic Mount Elgon (Masai, elgonyi), Uganda elimensis -is -e hardy, of the outdoors, elimino, eliminare elinguis -is -e, elinguus -a -um lacking a tongue or labellum, e-(lingua, linguae) Elionurus Sun-tailed, hlioj-oura (the ciliate fringe of the lower glume) elisabethae for Elisabeth of Wied, wife of King Karl Eitel Friedrich I of Romania (the poetess Carmen Sylva) Elisena for Princess Elisa Buonaparte (b. 1777), sister to Napoleon Elisma a variant of Alisma, some suggest for the ovule orientation, elissw, turned ellacombianus -a -um for Henry Thomas Ellacombe (1790–1885) or his son H.

N.

Ellacombe (1822–1916), both Rectors of Bitton, Somerset Elliottia for Stephen Elliott (1771–1830), American botanist, author of Flora of South Carolina elliottii for either G.

M.

Scott-Elliott (1862–1934), boundary commissioner and botanist in Sierra Leone c. 1891, and Madagascar, or Captain Elliott, plant grower of Farnborough Park, Hants, or Clarence Elliott of the Six Hills Nursery, Stevenage ellipsoidalis -is -e ellipsoidal, botanical Latin from elleiyij, elleipein (a solid having an oval profile) ellipticus -a -um about twice as long as broad, oblong with rounded ends, elliptic, elleiyij, elleipein elliptifolius -a -um having elliptic or oval leaves, ellipticus-folium ellobo- into-lobes-, en-loboj -ellus -ella -ellum -lesser, -ish (diminutive suffix) Elodea Marsh, eloj-wdhj (Canadian pondweed grows in water) elodeoides resembling Elodea, eloj-wdhj-oeidhj elodes of bogs and marshes, eloj-wdhj (cf.

Helodes) elongatus -a -um lengthened out, elongated, e-longus, (elongo, elongare) Elsholtzia for Johann Sigismund Elsholtz (1623–88), Prussian botanical writer eludens warding off, teasing, deceiving, present participle of eludo, eludere, elusi, elusum elwesianus -a -um, elwesii for Henry John Elwes (1846–1922), author of The Genus Lilium and co-author with Dr A.

Henry of The Trees of Great Britain and Ireland Elymandra Millet-flowered, elumoj-anhr Elymus Hippocrates’ name, elumoj, for a millet-like grass (Englished as lime grass) Elytraria Covered, elutron (the bracts of the inflorescence) elytri-, elytro- covering-, elutron, elutroElytrigia Husk, elutron Elytroa Covering-bearing, elutro-fora (spikelets resemble insects with wingcase-like glumes) elytroglossus -a -um having a sheathing tongue or labellum, elutro-glwssa elytroides resembling Elytroa Elytropus Covered-stem, elutron-pouj (the covering of numerous bracts) em-, en- on-, for-, in-, into-, put into-, within-, made-, not-, ememarcescens not withering, retaining shape, e-(marcesco, marcescere) emarcidus -a -um not flaccid or withered, e-marcidus (marcesco, marcescere) emarginatus -a -um notched at the apex, e-(margo, marginis) (see Fig. 7h) emasculus -a -um without-male, without functional stamens, e-masculus Embelia from a Cingalese vernacular name emblica an old Bengali name, amlaki, for the medicinal fruited Emblic myrobalan (ϵ Phyllanthus emblica) -embola -peg-like, emboloj Embothrium In-little-pits, en-boqrion (the anthers are inserted in slight depressions) (Chilean fire bush) emeiensis -is -e from Mt Omei, Sitchuan emeriflorus -a -um one day flowering, botanical Latin from hmera and florum emeritensis -is -e from Merida (Emerita) emeritus -a -um out of desert, for service, e-(mereor, mereri, merui, meritus) 152 Glossary emeroides resembling emerus, vetch-like emersus -a -um rising out, emergo, emergere, emersi, emersum (of the water) emerus from an early Italian name for a vetch emeticus -a -um causing vomiting, emetic, emetica, emeticae, emetoj emetocatharticus -a -um of cleansing through vomiting, emetoj-kaqarthj Emilia Etymology uncertain, some suggest it is commemorative for Emily eminens noteworthy, outstanding, prominent, eminens, eminentis eminii for Emin Schnitzer, ‘Emin Pasha’ (1840–92), physician of Egypt and the Congo Eminium a name used by Dioscorides emissus -a -um released, sent out, past participle of e-(mitto, mittere, misi, missum) (cognate with emissary and emission) emmeno- lasting, enduring, emmenhj, emmenoEmmenopteris Enduring-wing, emmeno-pteruc (one lobe of the calyx is stalked and enlarged) emodensis -is -e, emodi from the W Himalayas, ‘Mount Emodus’, N India emodi from the Sanskrit, hima, for snow (Sanskrit, hima-alaya, identifies the Himalayas as the abode of snow) empetrifolius -a -um with Empetrum-like leaves empetrinus -a -um resembling Empetrum Empetrum On-rocks, em-petroj (Dioscorides’ name refers to the habitat of Frankenia pulverulenta) (Empetraceae) empusus -a -um purulent, empuoj; suppurating, malicious-looking, em-(pus, puris) Enantia Opposite, enantioj (the one-seeded carpels contrasted to the usual state) enantio- reverse, hostile, opposite-, enanta, enanti, enantioj, enantioEnantiophylla Opposite-leaved, enantio-fullon enantiophyllus -a -um having opposite leaves, opposed-leaved, enantio-fullon Enantiosparton Opposed-ropes, enantio-sparton Enarthrocarpus Jointed-fruit, enarqro-karpoj enatus -a -um escaping, enato, enatare (eg one organ from another, as the coronna of Narcissus) Encelia Little-eel, egxelion (the form of the fruits) Encephalartos In-a-head-bread, en-kefalh-artoj (the farinaceous centre of the stem apex yields sago, as in sago-palms) encephalo- in a head-, en-kefalh encephalodes head- or knob-like; resembling the brain, en-kefalh-wdhj encephalus -a -um forming a head, en-kefalh Encheiridion Within-sleeves, en-xeiridoj Enchytraeus Of-pots, en-(xutra, xutrij, xutridoj, xutroj) (Japanese pot-worm or white worm) encleistocarpus -a -um with a closed fruit, en-kleistoj-karpoj encliandrus -a -um with enclosed-stamens, en-xleiw-anhr enculatus -a -um hooded, en-culus (between the buttocks) end-, endo- internal-, inside-, within-, endoendecaphyllus -a -um having eleven leaves or leaflets, endeka-fullon endivia ancient Latin name, endivia, indivia, for chicory or endive (from Arabic, tybi, see Intybus) endlicheri, endlicherianus -a -um for Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher (1804–49), Botanic Garden Director, Vienna endo- within-, inner-, inside-, endoqi, endon, endoEndodesmia Inside-bundle, endo-desmoj (the cup-like arrangement of the united stamens) Endosiphon Inside-tube, endo-sifon Endostemon Inside-stamens, endo-sthmwn (included) endotrachys having a rough inner surface, endo-traxuj Endymion Endymion was Selen’s (Diana’s) lover, of Greek mythology enervis -is -e, enervius -a -um destitute of veins, apparently lacking nerves, e-nervus (veins) 153 The Names of Plants Engelmannia, engelmannii for Georg Engelmann (1809–84), physician and author on American plants Englera, Englerastrum, Englerella, engleri, englerianus -a -um for Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1844–1930), systematist and director of Berlin (Dahlem) Botanic Garden enki- swollen-, pregnant-, egkuoj Enkianthus Pregnant-flower, egkuoj-anqoj (the coloured involucre full of flowers) ennea- nine-, ennea, enneenneacanthus -a -um having thorns in groups of nine, enne-akanqoj enneagonus -a -um nine-angled, ennea-gwnia enneandrus -a -um having nine stamens, enne-anhr enneaphyllos, enneaphyllus -a -um nine-leaved, ennea-fullon Enneapogon Nine-bearded, ennea-pwgwn (the lemmas are divided into nine awns) enneaspermus -a -um nine-seeded, ennea-sperma enodis -is -e without knots or nodes, smooth, e-(nodus, nodi) enoplus -a -um armed, having spines, enoplioj, enoploj enormis -is -e irregular, immense, enormis enotatus -a -um worthy of note, enoto, enotare; unmarked, unbranded, e-(noto, notare, notavi, notatum) ensatus -a -um, ensi- sword-shaped, ensis (leaves) Ensete, ensete from the Abyssinian vernacular for Musa ensete ensifolius -a -um with sword-shaped leaves, shaped like a sword, (ensis, ensis)-folius ensiformis -is -e having sword-shaped leaves, ensis-forma -ensis -is -e -belonging to, -from, -of (adjectival suffix after the name of a place) Entada Adanson’s use of a Malabar vernacular name Entelea Complete, entelhj (all stamens are fertile) entero- intestine-, gut-, entrails, enteron, enteroEnterolobium Entrail-pod, entero-loboj (the spiral pods) Enteropogon Intestine-bearded, entero-pwgwn (the long curved spikes) ento on the inside-, inwards-, within-, entoj, entoEntolasia Woolly-within, ento-lasioj (the villous upper lemma) entomo-, entom- insecto-, entomon (because they are entomoj, cut into segments) entomanthus -a -um insect-flowered, entomon-anqoj (floral structure) entomophilus -a -um of insects, insect-loving, entomon-filoj Enydra Water-dweller, enudroj (enudrij an otter) enysii for J.

D.

Enys (1837–1912), who introduced Carmichaelia enysii to Britain eo-, eos- of the dawn-, morning-, eastern-, early, for some time, ewj, hwj, hoj (ewjforoj bringer of dawn, morning star) eocarpus -a -um fruiting early, fruiting for some time, ewj-karpoj Eocene new dawn, ewj-kainoj Eomecon Eastern-poppy, ewj-mhkwn ep-, epi- upon-, on-, over-, towards-, somewhat-, epiepacridea like Epacris epacrideus -a -um similar to Epacris epacridoideum resembling Epacris Epacris Upon-the-summit, epi-akra (some live on hilltops) (Epacridaceae) Epeteium Annual, epeteioj epetiolatus -a -um lacking petioles, e-petiolus Ephedra from an ancient Greek name, efedroj (epi-edra), used in Pliny for Hippuris (morphological similarity) (shrubby horsetails) ephedroides resembling Ephedra, Ephedra-oides ephemerus -a -um transient, ephemeral, efhmerioj ephesius -a -um from Ephesus, site of the temple to Diana, Turkey ephippius -a -um having a saddle-like depression, ephippium (concavity in a cylindrical structure) epi- on, upon, at, by, near, with, in presence of, epiepibulbon produced on a bulb or pseudobulb, epi-bulbus 154 Glossary epidendroides resembling Epidendron, epi-dendron-oeidhj Epidendron (um), epidendron Upon-trees (living), epi-denron (the epiphytic habit) Epifagus Upon-beech, epi-Fagus (root parasites, usually on oaks) Epigaea, epigaeus -a -um Above-ground, epi-gaia, growing close to or on the ground’s surface (American mayflower) epigeios, epigejos of the earth, earthly, epi-gaia (distinct from aquatic or underground) Epigeneium On-the-chin, epi-geneion (the chin-like composite mentum at the base of the column) epiglyptus -a -um appearing to have a carved upper surface, epi-glyptus Epigynum Upon-the-ovary, epi-gunh (the attachment of the stamens to the stigmatic head) epigynus -a -um having a superior ovary, epi-gunh epihydrus -a -um of the water surface, epi-udwr epilinum on flax, on Linum, epi-linon (parasitic Cuscuta) epilis -is -e, epilosus -a -um lacking hairs, e-(pilus, pili) epilithicus -a -um growing on marble or rocks, epi-liqoj epilobioides resembling Epilobium, epi-loboj-oeidhj Epilobium Gesner’s name, ion epi lobon, indicating the positioning of the corolla on top of the ovary, epi-loboj (willowherbs) Epimedium the name, epi-mhdion, used by Dioscorides and then by Pliny epipactidius -a -um somewhat like a helleborine, diminutive from Epipactis Epipactis, epipactis -is -e a name, epipaktij, used by Theophrastus for an elleborojlike plant (Helleborine orchid) Epiphyllum, epiphyllus -a -um Beside-the-leaf, epi-fullon, having flowers or other organs growing upon leaves or phyllodes epiphyticus -a -um growing upon another plant, epi-futon Epipogium (Epipogon) Bearded-above, epi-pwgwn (the lip of the ghost-orchid is uppermost) Epipremnum, epipremnus -a -um On-trees, epi-premnon (epiphytic on tree stumps and stems) epipsilus -a -um somewhat naked, epi-yiloj (the sparse foliage of Begonia epipsila) epipterus -a -um on a wing, epi-pteron (fruits) epipterygius -a -um upon feathers, with a feathered surface, epi-pterugoj (processes covering the cheilocystidia) epirensis -is -e, epirocticus -a -um, epirus -a um from the Epirus area of NW Greece and S Albania epirotes living on dry land, hpeirwthj Episcia Of-the-shadows, epi-skia (prefers shade) episcopalis -e of bishops, of the overseer, convenient, worthy of attention; some interpret as resembling a bishop’s mitre; worthy of attention, episkopew, episkopoj episcopi for Bishop Hannington of Uganda Epistephium Filled-to-the-crown, epi-stefion, (the enlarged top of the ovary) epistomius -a -um snouted, closed at the mouth, epistomizw (flowers) epiteius -a -um annual, covering, exciting, epiteinw Epithelantha Nipple-flowering, epi-qhlh-anqoj (the button cactus) epithymoides dodder-like, epi-qumoj-oeidhj epithymum upon thyme, epi-qumoj (parasitic) epuloticus -a -um festive, to be feasted upon, epulor, epulare, epulatus equestris -is -e of horses or horsemen, equestrian, equester, equestris equi-, equalis -is -e equal-, aequus equinoctialis -is -e of the equinox, opening at a particular hour of the day equinus of the horse, equinus equisetaceus -a -um resembling Equisetum equisetifolius -a -um with leaves like a horsetail, equus-saeta-folium equisetiformis -is -e having a horsetail like habit, equus-saeta-forma equisetinus -a -um somewhat horsetail-like, equus-saeta (stem morphology) 155 The Names of Plants Equisetum Horse-bristle, equus-saeta (a name in Pliny for a horsetail) equitans riding, as if astride, present participle of equito, equitare (leaf bases of some monocots) equitantifolius -a -um having equitant leaves, with leaf-bases that are astride the stem or axis, equitans-folium eradiatus -a -um lacking radiance, privative, e-radiatus eradicatus -a -um having no roots, e-(radix, radicis); destructive, eradico, eradicare, to root out or destroy Eragrostis, eragrostis Love-grass, eraw-agrwstij Eranthemum Love-flower, eraw-anqemion Eranthis Spring-flower, ear(hr)-anqoj (winter aconite’s early flowering season) erba-rotta red-herb (Achillea) Ercilla for Don Alonso de Ercilla (1533–95) erebius -a -um of the underworld, erebeus dark, gloomy(-coloured), erebennoj, ereboj erectiflorus -a -um having upright flowers, erectus-florum erectus -a -um upright, erect, erigo, erigere, erexi, erectum erem- solitary-, lonely-, helpless-, desert-, erhmia Eremanthe Solitary-flower, erhmoj-anqoj Eremia Solitary, erhmia (single-seeded loculi) eremicolus -a -um, eremocolus -a -um living in solitude or empty habitats (deserts etc), botanical Latin from erhmoj and colo eremo- lonely-, desert-, destitute-, solitary-, erhmoj, erhmoEremomastax Solitary-mouth, erhmo-mastac (the long-tubed corolla) eremophilus -a -um desert-loving, erhmo-filoj (living in desert conditions) Eremopogon Solitary-bearded, erhmo-pwgwn (the single racemes) eremorus -a -um of deserts or solitary places, erhmoj Eremospatha Solitary-spathe, erhmo-spaqh Eremurus Solitary-tail, erhmoj-oura (the long raceme) eri-, erio- woolly-, erion, erioeriantherus -a -um with woolly stamens, eri-anqhroj Erianthus, erianthus -a -um Woolly-flowers, eri-anqoj Erica Pliny’s version of an ancient Greek name, ereikh, used by Theophrastus (Ericaceae) ericetinus -a -um, ericetorum of heathland, of Erica dominated vegetation ericifolius -a -um Erica-leaved, Erica-folium ericinus -a -um, ericoides, erici- of heaths, heath-like, resembling Erica, Erica-oides ericssonii for Mr Ericsson, who collected for Sander in Malaya c. 1892 erigens rising-up, present participle of erigo, erigere, erexi, erectum (for horizontal branches which turn up at the end) erigenus -a -um Irish-born, of Irish origin, Erin, archaic name for Ireland, erin-genus Erigeron Early-old-man, erio-gerwn, Theophrastus’ name (early-flowering fleabanes) Erinacea, erinaceus -a -um Prickly-one, prickly, hedgehog-like, er, eris (hedgehog broom), resembling Erinacea (cf.

Echinacea) Erinus, erinus Of-spring, earinoj (Dioscorides’ name for an early-flowering basillike plant) (Erinus was an avenging deity) erio- woolly-, wool-, eirion, eirioj, erion, erioerioblastus -a -um having woolly buds, erio-blastoj Eriobotrya Woolly-cluster, erio-botruj (the indumentum almost hides the heads of small flowers of the loquat, Cantonese, lu kywit) eriobotryoides resembling Eriobotrya, erio-botruj-oeidhj eriocalyx having a woolly-surfaced calyx, erio-kaluc eriocarpus -a -um with woolly fruits, erio-karpoj Eriocaulon Woolly-stem, erio-kauloj (Eriocaulaceae) Eriocephalus, eriocephalus -a -um Woolly-headed-one, erio-kefalh (with a woolly fruiting head) Eriochloa Woolly-grass, erio-xloh 156 — petalon obtusiusculus -a -um somewhat obtuse, diminutive of obtusus obtusulus -a -um rounded, somewhat obtuse, diminutive of obtusus obvallaris -is -e, obvallatus -a -um (obvalearis) walled around, enclosed, fortified, obvallatus (with a corona) obvolutus -a -um half-amplexicaule, with one leaf margin overlapping that of its neighbour, half-equitant, obvolutus occidentalis -is -e western, occidental, of the West, occidens, occidentis occitanicus -a -um from the Languedoc area of France (Occitania) occlusus -a -um closed up, shut, occludo, occludere, occlusi, occlusum occultus -a -um hidden, secretive, concealed, occulto, occultare, occultavi, occultatum oceanicus -a -um growing near the sea, oceanus, oceani ocellatus -a -um (ocelatus -a -um) gem; like a small eye, with a colour-spot bordered with another colour, ocellus, ocelli Ochagavia for the nineteenth-century Chilean statesman, Silvestri Ochagavia Ochna an ancient Greek name, oxnh, used by Homer for a wild pear (Ochnaceae) ochnaceus -a -um resembling Ochna ochr-, ochro- ochre-, pale-yellow-, wxroj, wxroochraceus -a -um ochre-coloured, yellowish, wxroj ochratus -a -um pale-yellowish, wxroj ochreatus -a -um greaved, with stipules clasping the stem, with an ochrea, ocrea, ocreae (the greave-like stipular structure in Polygonaceae) ochrocarpus -a -um with pale yellowish fruits, wxroj-karpoj ochrochlorus -a -um pale yellowish-green, wxroj-xlwroj ochroleucus -a -um (ochroleucon) buff-coloured, yellowish-white, wxro-leukoj Ochroma Pale-yellow(-flower), wxroj (the flower colour of balsa-wood) Ochromonas Pale-yellow-unit, wxro-monaj (Chrysophyceaen) Ochrosia Pale-yellow(-flower), wxroj ochrus -a -um pale yellowish, wxroj ochrus -a -um ochth-, ochtho- slope-, dyke-, bank-, oxqh, oxqoOchthocosmus Hill-decoration, oxqo-kosmoj (distinctive leaves, persistent flowers and montane habitat) ochthophilus -a -um living on banks, bank-loving, oxqo-filoj ocimoides, ocymoides resembling sweet basil, Ocimum-like Ocimum (Ocymum) Theophrastus’ name, okimon, for an aromatic plant, ozw smell oct-, octa-, octo- eight-, oktw, okta-, octoOctadesmia Eight-bundles, okta-desmh (there are eight pollinial masses) octandrus -a -um eight-stamened -octanus -a -um slaying, killing, murdering, -kteinw, ktonoj 277 The Names of Plants Octoknema Eight-legs, oktw-knhmh (the 3–5 style arms are bifid) (Octoknemataceae) Octolepis Eight-scales, oktw-lepij (the paired scale-like petals) Octolobus Eight-lobed, oktw-loboj (the calyx) -octonus -a -um -slaughtering, -killing, ktonoj octopetalus -a -um with eight petals, oktw-petalon octophyllus -a -um having (about) eight leaves or leaflets, oktw-fullon octopodes with eight stalks, oktw-podoj ocularia an apothecaries’ name for Euphrasia officinalis, eyebright oculatus -a -um eyed, with eyes, oculatus oculus-christi eye of Christ, oculus-(Christus, Christi) (Inula oculus-christi) oculus-draconis dragon’s eye, oculus-(draco, draconis) oculus-solis sun’s-eye-, oculus-(sol, solis) ocymastrus -a -um somewhat resembling Ocimum, Ocimum-astrum ocymifolius -a -um with leaves resembling Ocimum, Ocimum-folium ocymoides Ocimum-like, okimon-oeidhj odaesanensis -is -e from Mount Odae, NW South Korea -odes, -oides -allied, -resembling, -shaped, -similar to, wdhj, -oeidhj odessanus -a -um from Odessa, Black Sea area of Ukraine odont-, odonto- tooth-, odouj, odwn, odontoj, odontoodontadenus -a -um with glandular teeth, odonto-adhn Odontites, odontites Tooth-related, odonto-ithj (the name in Pliny refers to its use for treating toothache) odontocarpus -a -um with toothed fruits, odonto-karpoj odontochilus -a -um with a toothed lip, odonto-xeiloj Odontoglossum Toothed-tongue, odonto-glwssa (the toothed lip) odontoides tooth-like, dentate, odonto-oeidhj odontolepis -is -e having toothed scales, odonto-lepij odontolomus -a -um with a toothed fringe, odonto-lwma Odontonema Tooth-thread, odonto-nhma (remnant of fifth stamen) odontopetalus -a -um having toothed or indented petals, odonto-petalon odontophyllus -a -um having toothed leaves, odonto-fullon odoratissimus -a -um the most fragrant, superlative of odor (odos), odoris odoratus -a -um, odorifer -era -erum fragrant, sweet-scented, bearing perfume, odor(odos), odoris (Lathyrus odoratus, the sweet-smelling pea, sweet pea) odorus -a -um fragrant, odor(odos), odoris -odus -a -um -joined Oecoclades Living-on-branches, oikew-kladoj (epiphytic, ϵ Trichoglottis) oeconomicus -a -um of the household, economical, oikonomikoj Oedera, oederi for George Christian Oeder (1728–91), Professor of Botany at Copenhagen, author of Flora Danica oedo- swelling-, becoming swollen-, oidhma, oidma, oidaw, oidew oedocarpus -a -um swelling fruit, oidaw-karpoj oedogonatus -a -um with swollen nodes, oidaw-gonu (comparison with the reproductive state of the filamentous alga, Oedogonium) Oedogonium Swollen-ovary, oidaw-gunh (the enlarged gynoecial cells) oelandicus -a -um from Öland, Sweden Oenanthe Wine-fragrant-flower, oinoj-anqoj oenanthemus -a -um having wine-red flowers, oinoj-anqemion oenipontanus -a -um from Innsbruck (Oenipons) oeno- wine-, oinoj, oinoOenocarpus Wine-fruit, oinoj-karpoj (fruits used to make palm-wine) Oenothera, oenothera Ass-catcher, ono-qhraj, or Wine-seeking, oino-qhra (Greek name for another plant but the etymology is uncertain) (Oenotheraceae) oerstedii, oerstedtii for Anders Sandoe Oersted (1816–72), Danish collector in Costa Rica and Colombia oestriferus -a -um causing frenzy; (with appearance of) bearing gad-flies, oestrus-fero 278 Glossary officinalis -is -e, officinarum of the apothecaries, officinal medicines, sold in shops, officina Oftia a name by Adanson with no clear meaning ogeche an American vernacular name for Ogeechee lime (Nyssa ogeche) ohiensis -is -e from Ohio, USA oianthus -a -um with egg-shaped flowers, won-anqoj (the ovoid-bell-shaped tube) -oides, -oideus -a -um -allied, -like, -resembling, -shaped, eidoj, eidw, oeidhj, oidej; botanical Latin -oides oido- a swelling, oidhma, (oidaw, oidew, to swell) oidocarpus -a -um having swollen fruits, oidaw-karpoj oistophyllus -a -um sagittate-leaved, with arrow-shaped leaves, oistoj-fullon okanoganensis -is -e from the area of Okanogan Lakes, British Columbia, Canada, or the river in Washington, USA oklahomensis -is -e from Oklahoma, USA olacogonus -a -um having furrowed joints (internodes), olac-gonu Olax Furrow, olac (the appearance given by of the two-ranked leaves) (Olacaceae) olbanus -a -um from the area of Olbia, N Sardinia, Italy olbia, olbios rich, olbioj, or from Hyères (Olbia), France, or several former Greek places named Olbia Oldenlandia for Henrik Bernard Oldenland (1663–97), Danish collector in S Africa Oldfieldia for Dr Oldfield, who was on the 1832–34 Niger Expedition oldhamianus -a -um, oldhamii for Richard Oldham (1837–64), who collected in China and Formosa for Kew Olea Oily-one, elaa, elaia (the ancient name for the olive) (Oleaceae) oleaceus -a -um olive-like, resembling Olea oleaefolius -a -um with olive-like leaves, olea-folium oleagineus -a -um, oleaginosus -a -um fleshy, rich in oil, oleagineus oleander a medieval Latin name, oleander, oliandrum, lauriendrum (Italian, oleandra, for the olive-like foliage) Oleandra Oleander-like, oleandrh (the fronds somewhat resemble oleander leaves) Olearia for Adam Oelenschlager (Olearius) (b. 1600), German botanist; some derive it as Olive-like, for the similarity of the leaves of some species olearius -a -um of the olive, Olea (this phosphorescent fungus grows also on oak and chestnut in Britain) Oleaster, oleaster Wild-olive, Olea-astrum (ϵ Eleagnus, Theophrastus used the name for a willow) olei- olive-, Oleaoleifer -era -erum oil-bearing, (oleum, olei)-fero oleifolius -a -um with olive-like leaves, Olea-folium -olens, -olentis fragrant, musty, stinking, smelling, present participle of oleo, olere, olui -olentus -a -um -fullness of, -abundance, -ulent oleoides olive- or oil-like, elaia-oeidhj, Olea-oides oleospermus -a -um oil-seeded, elaia-sperma oleosus -a -um greasy, oily, oleum, olei oleraceus -a -um of cultivation, aromatic, esculent, vegetable, (h)olus, (h)oleris olgae for Olga Fedtschenko (1845–1921) olibanum from the Arabic, al luban, for the resinous secretion, libanoj or frankincense, of Boswellia olidus -a -um stinking, smelling, rank, olidus olig-, oligo- feeble-, small-, oligoj, few-, oligoi, oligo-, oligoligandrus -a -um having few stamens, olig-androj oliganthus -a -um with small or few flowers, olig-anqoj oligocarpus -a -um with few fruits, oligo-karpoj oligococcus -a -um with few berries, oligo-kokkoj Oligocodon Small-bell, oligo-kwdwn 279 The Names of Plants oligodon few-toothed, feebly toothed, olig-odwn oligomerus -a -um having few parts, oligo-meroj oligophlebius -a -um with few veins, indistinctly veined, oligo-fley oligophyllus -a -um with few leaves, oligo-fullon oligorrhizus -a -um having few or underdeveloped roots, oligo-riza oligospermus -a -um with few seeds, oligo-sperma oligostachyus -a -um with few stems, oligo-staxuj oligostromus -a -um with few swellings, oligo-strwma olisiponensis -is -e from Lisbon (Olisipo), Portugal olitorius -a -um of gardens or the gardener, (h)olitorius, salad vegetable, culinary olivaceomarginatus -a -um with dull olive or greenish-brown margins, olivaceus(margo, marginis) olivaceus -a -um olive-coloured, greenish-brown, oliva, olivaceus oliveus -a -um having the colour of a ripe olive, oliva olivieri, oliverianaus -a -um for Antoine Olivier (1756–1814), French collector on Mount Elwend oliviformis -is -e olive-shaped, oliva-forma ollarius -a -um resembling a pot or jar, olla, ollae olorinus -a -um swan’s, of swans, olorinus oltensis -is -e from the Oltenia region of SW Romania olusatrum Pliny’s name for a black-seeded pot-herb, (h)olus-ater olympicus -a -um from Mount Olympus, Greece, Olympian Olyra Spelt, olura (an old Greek name) omalo-, omal- smooth, omaloj, omalo- (see homalo) omalosanthus -a -um uniformly or evenly flowered, omaloj-anqoj ombriosus -a -um of wet or rainy locations, ombrioj ombro- rain-, storm-, moisture, ombroj; shade-, umbra, umbrae omeiensis -is -e either from Mount Omei, Omei Shan, China (Szechwan), or from Ome, Honshu, Japan omeiocalamus Calamus of Mount Omei, China (Sichuan) omiophyllus -a -um lacking reduced (submerged) leaves, o-meio-fullon omissus -a -um overlooked, omitto, omittere, omisi, omissum omni- totally-, entirely-, all-, omnis, omniomniglabrus -a -um entirely smooth, omni-glaber omnivorus -a -um devouring all, omni-(voro, vorare, voravi, voratum) -omoeus -a -um resembling, like, equal to, a match for, omoioj omorika from the Serbian name for Picea omorika -omorius -a -um -resembling, -similar to, -bordering upon, omoroj, omorioj Omphalina (Omphalia) Little-navel, omfaloj (the depressed centre of the mature cap) omphalo- navel-, omfaloj, omfaloOmphalobium Navel-pod, omfaloj-loboj (the pod of zebra-wood) Omphalocarpum Navel-fruited-one, omfaloj-karpoj Omphalodes, omphalodes Navel-like, omfaloj-wdhj (the fruit shape of navelwort) Omphalogramma Navel-lines, omfaloj-gramma (the seed testa) omphalosporus -a -um with navelled seeds, omfaloj-spora Omphalotus Navel-looking, omfalotikoj (depressed cap) -on -clan, -family Onagra a former generic name, onagroj a wild ass (onoj-agrioj), ϵ Oenothera (Onagraceae) onc-, onco- tumour-, hook-, ogkoj, ogkooncidioides resembling Oncidium, Oncidium-oides Oncidium Tumour, ogkoj (the warted crest of the lip) Oncinotis Hook-eared, ogkoj-wtoj (scales alternating with the corolla lobes) onciocarpus -a -um grapple-fruited, ogkoj-karpoj box-fruited, ogxion-karpoj Oncoba from the Arabic vernacular name, onkob, for Oncoba spinosa Oncocalamus Hooked-Calamus, ogko-kalamoj 280 Glossary oncogynis -is -e with a warted ovary, ogko-gunh oncophyllus -a -um having leaves with a hooked apex, ogko-fullon -one, -onis -daughter of, wnh or -son of, wnoj onegensis -is -e from Onega, Russia onites of asses, onoj-ithj (used by Dioscorides of an ass or donkey) Onobrychis Ass-bray, ono-bruxaoma (a name used by Dioscorides and Galen – in Pliny, palmes-asini – for a legume eaten greedily by asses, onoj-brukw) onobrychoides resembling Onobrychis, ono-bruxw-oeidhj Onoclea Enclosed-cup, onoj-kleiw, Dioscorides’ name, onokleion, for the sori being concealed by the rolled frond margins (cognate with agxousa, anchusa) onomatologia the rules to be followed in forming names, onomato-logoj Ononis the classical name, onwnij, anwnij, used by Dioscorides Onopordum (-on) Ass-fart, onoj-pordon (its flatulent effect on donkeys) onopteris ass-fern, ono-pteruc from a name used by Tabernaemontanus Onosma Ass-smell, onoj-osmh (said to attract asses) onoticus -a -um ass-eared, onoj-wtoj (fruiting stage of hare’s ear fungus) ontariensis-is -e from Ontario, Canada onustus -a -um burdened, full (of flower or fruit), onustus onychimus -a -um onyx-like, with layers of colour, onix, onichis Onychium Claw, onuc, onuxoj (the shape of the frond pinnules) -onychius -a -um -clawed, onuc, onuxoj oo- egg-shaped-, won, wooocarpus -a -um having egg-shaped fruit, won-karpoj oophorus -a -um bearing egg(-shaped structures), won-ferw oophyllus -a -um having egg-shaped leaves, won-fullon oothelis -is -e having an ovoid ovary; having nippled ovoid tubercles, won qhlij opacus -a -um darkened, dull, shady, not glossy or transparent, opacus opalinus -a -um translucent, opalus (Sanskrit, upala, for a milky gemstone) opalus from the old Latin name, opulus, for maple Opercularia Lidded-one, operculum (the calyx) operculatus -a -um lidded, with a lid, operculum opertus -a -um hidden, concealed, operio, operire, operui, opertum Ophelia Useful, ofeloj (medicinal uses, ϵ Swertia) ophianthus -a -um long-flowered, with serpentine flowers, ofij-anqoj ophio- snake-like, snake-, ofij, ofioOphiobotrys Serpentine-raceme, ofio-botruj (the slender branches of the inflorescence) ophiocarpus -a -um with an elongate fruit, snake-like-fruited, ofio-karpoj ophiocephalus -a -um snake-headed, having a head of elongate structures, ofiokefalh ophioglossifolius -a -um snake’s-tongue-leaved, Ophioglossum- folium ophioglossoides resembling Ophioglossum Ophioglossum Snake-tongue, ofio-glwssa (appearance of fertile part of frond of adder’s tongue fern) (Ophioglossaceae) ophioides, ophiodes serpentine, ofio-oeidhj ophiolithicus -a -um of serpentine rock habitats, ofio-liqoj Ophiopogon Snake-beard, ofio-pwgwn Ophioscordon Snake-garlic, ofij-skorodon (the irregular stem) ophites marbled; snake-like, serpentine, ofij (applies to serpentine rocks because of their structural patterning) ophiuroides snake’s-tails-like, resembling Ophiurus, Ophiurus-oides Ophiurus Snake’s-tails, ofij-oura (centipede grass) ophrydeus -a -um, ophrydis -is -e similar to Ophrys Ophrys Eyebrow, ofruj (a name in Pliny) ophthalmica vide ocularia -ophthalmus -a -um -eyed, -eye-like, ofqalmoj opiparus -a -um sumptuous, rich, opiparus 281 The Names of Plants -opis -looking, -opij opistho- back-, behind-, opisqe, opisqioj, opisqoOpithandra Backward-stamens, opisqe-anhr Oplismenus Armoured, oplismenoj (armoured with awns) oplitis -is -e heavily armed, oplithj oplocarpus -a -um with armoured fruit, oplo-karpoj Oplopanax Armed-Panax, oplo-pan-axoj (ϵ Echinopanax) opo- juice-, sap-, opoj (feeding, of parasites) (cognate with opion, diminutive of opoj opium) opobalsamum balsamic-juiced, resin-balsam, opoj-balsamon (Balm of Gilead) Opopanax Panacea, sap-that-is-all-healing-, opoj-panac; Chiron told Hercules of the virtues of Opopanax chironium (Dioscorides listed a wide range of conditions to be treated with it) Oporanthus Autumn-flower, opora-anqoj oporinus -a -um autumnal, of late summer, opwrinoj oppositi-, oppositus -a -um opposite-, opposed-, oppono, opponere, opposui, oppositum oppositiflorus -a -um having paired or opposite flowers, oppositi-florum oppositifolius -a -um opposite-leaved, oppositi-folium oppositipinnus -a -um having opposed pinnae, oppositi-(pinna, pinnae) -ops, opseo- -eyed, wy, wpoj -opsis -like, -looking like, -appearance of, oyij, countenance, wy, wpoj optatus -a -um desired, longed for, opto, optare, optavi, optatum opticus -a -um vide ocularia optimus -a -um the best, superlative of bonus optivus -a -um chosen, optivus opulentus -a -um sumptuous, splendid, enriched, opulentus opuli- guelder-rose-like, Opulus opulifolius -a -um Opulus-leaved, with leaves resembling the guelder rose, Opulusfolium opuloides resembling the guelder rose, Opulus-oides Opulus, opulus -a -um an old generic name for the guelder rose, Viburnum, initially thought to have been for some kind of Acer Opuntia Tournefort’s name for succulent plants from Opous, Boeotia opuntiiflorus -a -um (opuntiaeflorus -a -um) Opuntia-flowered opuntioides resembling Opuntia, Opuntia-oides -opus -foot, pouj, podoj, eyed, looking, wpoj orarius -a -um of the shoreline, ora orbi- circular-, disc-like, orbis, orbis, orbiorbicularis -is -e, orbiculatus -a -um disc-shaped, circular in outline, orbicular, orbis, orbis orbifolius -a -um with orbicular leaves, orbi-folium orbus -a -um orphaned, childless, destitute, orbus; circular orbis orcadensis -is -e from the Orkney Isles, Scotland, Orcadian (Orcades) orchioides resembling Orchis, Orchis-oides orchidastrus -a -um somewhat like an orchid, Orchis-astrum orchidiflorus -a -um orchid-flowered, Orchis-florum orchidiformis -is -e looking like an orchid, Orchis-forma orchidis -is -e Orchis-like orchioides resembling Orchis, orxij-oeidhj Orchis Testicle, orxij (the shape of the root-tubers) (Orchidaceae) orculae- small barrel-, small cask-, diminutive of orca, orcae orculiflorus -a -um having flowers shaped like small barrels, orcula-florum ordensis -is -e from Ordenes, France ordinatus -a -um neat, orderly, ordino, ordinare, ordinavi, ordinatum Oreacanthus Mountain-Acanthus, oreioj-akanqoj oreades, oreadis -is -e, oreadus -a -um montane, of the sun, heliophytic, oreiaj (the Oreads were mythical mountain nymphs, oreiaj-adoj) 282 Glossary oreadoides resembling (Marismus) oreades (Marismus oreadoides ϵ Collybia oreadoides) orectopus -a -um with an elongated or stretched-out stalk, orektoj-pouj oreganus -a -um, oregonensis -is -e, oregonus -a -um from Oregon, USA orellanus -a -um from a pre-Linnaean name for annatto, the red dye from Bixa oreo-, ores-, ori- mountain-, oroj, oreoj, oreoOreobatus Mountain-thorn-bush, oreo-batoj, or Mountain-ranging, oreibathj (ϵ Rubus deliciosus) oreocharis -is -e mountain-joy, beauty of the mountain, oreo-xarij oreocreticus -a -um from the mountains of Crete, oreo-kretikoj Oreodoxa, oreodoxus -a -um Mountain-glory, oreo-doca oreogenes, oreogenus -a -um born of the mountains, oreo-genoj oreogeton neighbour of mountains, oreo-geitwn oreonastes occupying, pressed-, or clinging-to the mountain, oreo-nassein Oreopanax Mountain-Panax, oreo-pan-akesij oreopedionis -is -e of mountain plateaux, oreo-(pediaj, pediadoj) oreophilus -a -um mountain loving, oreo-filoj (habitat) Oreopteris mountain-fern, oreoj-pterij Oreorchis Mountain-orchid, oreo-orxij oreothaumus -a -um marvel of the mountains, oreo-qauma oreotrephes (oreostrephes) nurtured, or living, on mountains, oreo-trefw oresbius -a -um living on mountains, oreinoj, oreo-bioj oresigenus -a -um born of the mountains, oresi-genoj oreus -a -um of mountains, montain, oreoj organensis -is -e from any of the Organ mountains in New Mexico, USA, or Brazil orgyalis -is -e a fathom in length, about 6 feet tall, orguia (the distance from fingertip to finger-tip with arms outstretched) orientaletibeticus -a -um from E Tibet, botanical Latin from oriens and Tibet orientalis -is -e eastern, oriental, of the East, oriens, orientis origanifolius -a -um with leaves resembling Origanum, Origanum-folium Origanum Joy-of-the-mountain, oroj-ganumai (Theophrastus’ name, origanon, for an aromatic herb) oritrephus -a -um nurtured on mountains, or nurtured in the east, ore-trefw (from N China) -orius -a -um -able, -capable of, -functioning Orixa from the Japanese name for Orixa japonica orizabensis -is -e from the volcanic Citlaltépeti (Pico de Orizaba), E central Mexico ormenis -is -e etymology uncertain; sprouting, ormenoj ormoj, a necklace ormo- necklace-like-, necklace-, ormoj Ormosia Necklace, ormoj ornans resembling manna-ash, ornus, embellishing, present participle of orno, ornare, ornavi, ornatum (with a manna-like exudate) ornatipes having a decorative stalk, ornatus-pes ornatissimus -a -um most ornate, showiest, superlative of ornatus ornatulus -a -um somewhat showy, diminutive of ornatus ornatus -a -um adorned, showy, ornatus ornithanthus -a -um bird-flowered; flower of birds, orniq-anqoj (appearance or food) ornitheurus -a -um resembling a bird’s tail, ornij-, oura ornitho-, ornith bird-like-, bird-, ornij, orniqoj, orniqo, orniqornithobromus -a -um bird-food, orniqo-brwma ornithocephalus -a -um bird-headed, orniqo-kefaln (appearance of flowers) Ornithogalum Bird-milk, orniqo-gala (Dioscorides’ name, orniqogalon, for a plant yielding bird-lime) ornithommus -a -um bird-like, bird’s eye, orniqo-omma ornithopodioides, ornithopodus -a -um bird-footed, like a bird’s foot, orniqopoujoeidhj (the arrangement of the fruits or inflorescence) 283 The Names of Plants Ornithopus Bird-foot, orniqo-pouj (the disposition of the fruits) ornithorhynchus -a -um like a bird’s beak, orniqo-rugxoj Ornus, ornus from the ancient Latin, ornus, for manna-ash, Fraxinus ornus Orobanche Legume-strangler, oroboj agxw (one species parasitizes legumes – see also rapum-genistae) (Orobanchaceae) oroboides similar to Orobus, Orobus-oides Orobus, orobus an old generic name, oroboj, for Vicia ervilia, ? ora-bouj Orontium from the Orontes river, Syria, an old generic name, orontion, in Galen for an aquatic plant, golden club Oropetium Mountain-retiring, oro-pthnoj, oro-petehnoj (in small soil-pockets on rocks and ironstone outcrops) orophilus -a -um mountain-loving, montain, oro-filoj orospendanus -a -um hanging from mountains, oro-(pendeo, pendere, pependi pensum) Orostachys Mountain-Stachys, oro-staxuj oroyensis -is -e from Oroya (La Oroya), central Peru Orphanidesia for Theodoros Geogios Orphanides (1817–86), Professor of Botany at Athens orphanidis -is -e from the Balkan area once the land of the Orpheans (Tulipa or Campanula orphanidea) orphanidius -a -um fatherless, unrelated, orfanoj orphanis -is -e destitute, bereft, orphan, orfanoj Orphium for Orpheus, the Greek poet–musician orphnophilus -a -um liking shade, orfnaioj-filoj ortgeisii for Eduard Ortgeis, (1829–1916), of Zurich Botanic Garden (Oxalis ortgeisii tree oxalis) orth-, ortho- correct-, straight-, erect-, upright-, orqoj, orqoOrthilia Straight, orqoj (the style, but the etymology is uncertain) Orthocarpus, orthocarpus -a -um Upright-fruit, orqoj-karpoj orthocladus -a -um with straight branches, orqoj-kladoj Orthodontium Straight-toothed, orqoj-odontoj orthoglossus -a -um with a straight lip, orqoj-glwssa ortholobus -a -um with straight lobes, orqoj-loboj (cotyledons) orthoplectron with straight plectrum (spur), orqoj-plextron (literally a punting pole) Orthosanthus Erect-flower, orqoj-anqoj orthosepalus -a -um with straight sepals, orqoj-skeph Orthosiphon Straight-tubed-one, orqoj-sifon orthostates correctly placed, fixed, standing erect, orqoj-statoj orthotrichus -a -um having standing or erect hairs, orqoj-trixoj Orthrosanthus Daybreak-flower, orqoj-anqoj (time of anthesis) ortubae from the region of Lake Maggiore, Italy orubicus -a -um from Oruba Island, Caribbean orvala origin obscure, possibly from Greek for a sage, ormin-like plant Oryza from the Arabic name, eruz oryzicolus -a -um living on or around rice, Oryza-colo oryzifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Oryza, Oryza-folium oryzoides resembling Oryza, rice like, Oryza-oides Oryzopsis Oryza-resembler, Oryza-opsis Osbeckia for Reverend Peter Osbeck (1723–1805), Swedish naturalist osbeckiifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Osbeckia Oscillatoria Oscillator, to swing, oscillo, oscillare (the slow motion exhibited by the alga) oscillatorius -a -um able to move about a central attachment, versatile, oscillo, oscillare oscitans drowsy, listless; yawning, gaping, present participle of oscito, oscitare; oscitor, oscitari Oscularia, oscularis -is -e Kissing, osculo, osculari, osculatus (the touching leafmargins) 284 Glossary oshimensis -is -e from Oshima island, Japan -osis denotes a condition, eg gummosis, producing much gum osmanicus -a -um for the Osman dynasty, who founded the Ottoman Empire (Osman Gazi (1258–1324), Genç Osman (1603–1622), to Osman Nuri Pasa (1832–1900)) Osmanthus, osmanthus -a -um Fragrant-flower, osmh-anqoj (for the perfumed Osmanthus fragrans) Osmarea the composite name for hybrids between Osmanthus and Phillyrea Osmaronia Fragrant-Aronia, (the derivation is doubtful) -osmius -a -um, -osmus -a -um -scented, fragrant-, odmh, osmh osmo- thrust-, pressure-, wsmoj, wsmoosmophloeus -a -um having fragrant bark, osmh-floioj osmophorus -a -um scent carrying, osmh-fora (the strong fragrance) Osmorhiza Fragrant-root, osmh-riza Osmunda an old English name, in Lyte, either for Osmund the waterman (because of its boggy habitat), or for the Anglo-Saxon god of thunder, Osmund, equivalent of the Norse Thor (Osmundaceae) osmundioides resembling Osmunda, Osmunda-oides osproleon an ancient name, osprolewn, for a legume-damaging plant, osprionlewn bean lion Ossaea, ossea for Don José Antonio de la Ossa (d. 1831), Director of Havana Botanic Garden osseticus -a -um from Ossetia (Osetiya), SW Russia and Georgia osseus -a -um of very hard texture, bony, os, ossis ossifragus -a -um of broken bones, ossis-(frango, frangere, fregi, fractum) (said to cause fractures in cattle when abundant in lime-free pastures) osteo- bone-like-, bone-, osteon Osteomeles Bone-apple, osteo-melea (the hard fruit) Osteospermum, osteospermus -a -um Bone-seed, osteo-sperma (the hard-coated fruits) ostiolatus -a -um having a small opening, ostiolus, diminutive of ostium, ostii ostraco- hard-shelled-, ostrakon (a potsherd) ostreatus -a -um resembling an oyster, ostrea (the shape and blue-grey colour of the oyster mushroom) Ostrowskia, ostrowskianus -a -um for Michael Nicolajewitsch von Ostrowsky, Minister of the Russian Imperial Domains and patron of botany c. 1880 ostruthiopsis ostrich-like, struqion-oyij, (the foliage of young plants) Ostruthium, ostruthius -a -um etymology uncertain; purplish, ostrum, ostrich-like, struqion Ostrya Hard-scale, ostruj (a name in Pliny for a tree with hard wood) Ostryopsis similar to Ostrya, ostruj-oyij osumiensis -is -e from the Osumi peninsula or archipelago, Kyushu, Japan -osus -a -um -abundant, -large, -very much, -being-conspicuous -osyne -notably Osyris Dioscorides’ name, Osurij (ozoj much branched) ot-, oto- ear-like-, ear-, ouj, wtoj, wtoOtacanthus Thorny-ears, (ouj, otoj)-akanqoj Otanthus Ear-flower, wt-anqoj (the two-spurred shape of the corolla) otaviensis -is -e from Otava, Czech Republic, or the Otavi mountains of Namibia -otes -appearing, -looking, wthj Othonna Linen, oqonh (its covering of downy hairs) Othonnopsis resembling Othonna, oqonh-oyij -otis -is -e -eared, ouj, wtion, wtoj, wtotites, -otites relating to ears, wt-ithj, Rupius’ generic name referring to the shape of the lower leaves of Silene otites oto- ear-, ouj, wtoj, wtootocarpus -a -um with ear-like or shell-like fruits, wto-karpoj 285 The Names of Plants otolepis -is -e with ear-like scales, with shell-like scales, wto-lepij otophorus -a -um bearing ears, wto-foroj (-shaped structures) otrubae for Josef Otruba (1889–1953) of Moravia, Czech Republic ottawaensis -is -e, ottawensis -is -e from Ottawa, Canada Ottelia reputedly from the Malabar vernacular, ottel ottophyllus -a -um having ear-shaped leaves, wto-fullon -otus -a -um -looking-like, -resembling, -having Oubanguia from the name of the river Oubangui, Nigeria ouletrichus -a -um, oulotrichus -a -um with curly hair, oulo-trixoj Ouratea from the S American vernacular name Ourisia for Governor Ouris of the Falkland Islands (some derive it as ourij, a breeze, for its montane habitat) ova-avis bird’s-egg-like, (ovum, ovi)-avis ovali-, ovalis -is -e egg-shaped (in outline), oval, ovalis ovalifoliolatus -a -um having oval leaflets, diminutive of ovalifolium ovalifolius -a -um with oval leaves, ovali-folium ovati-, ovatus -a -um egg-shaped, ovatus (in the solid or in outline) with the broad end lowermost ovatifolius -a -um with ovate leaf-blades, ovatus-folium ovifer -era -erum, oviger -era -erum bearing egg-like structures, ovi-fero oviformis -s -e egg-shaped, ovi-forma (in the solid), ovoid ovinus -a -um of sheep, ovis (Festuca ovina is sheep’s fescue) ovoideus -a -um egg-shaped, ovoid, ovoideus ovularis -is -e having little eggs (buds), ovulum, diminutive of ovum Oxalis Acid-salt, ocuj-alj (the name, ocalij, in Nicander refers to the taste of sorrel) (Oxalidaceae) oxicus -a -um sharp, ocuj (leaf apex or marginal teeth) oxodus -a -um of sour or acid humic soils, ocwdhj oxonianus -a -um, oxoniensis -is -e from Oxford, England (Oxonia) oxy-, -oxys acid-, -pungent, sharp-, -pointed, -fiery, bold-, ocuj, ocuOxyacantha Sharp-thorn, ocu-akanqoj (Theophrastus’ name) oxyacanthoides resembling oxyacanthus -a -um of the same genus, ocu-akanqa-oeidhj oxyacanthus -a -um having sharp thorns or prickles, ocu-akanqa Oxyanthus Sharp-flower, ocu-anqoj (the acute calyx lobes) Oxybaphus Acid-dye, ocu-bafh (ϵ Mirabilis viscosa) oxycarpus -a -um having a sharp-pointed fruit, ocu-karpoj oxycedri of pungent juniper, ocu-kedroj (semi-parasitic on Juniperus) Oxycedrus, oxycedrus Pungent-juniper, ocu-kedroj oxyceras sharp-horned, ocu-keraj Oxycoccus, oxycoccus -a -um Acid-berry, ocu-kokkoj, having sharp, acid or bitter berries, ocu-kokkoj oxydabilis -is -e oxidizable, modern Latin from oxygene (for the ochraceous colour) Oxydendrum (on) Sour-tree, ocu-dendron (the acid taste of sourwood leaves) oxygonus -a -um with sharp angles, sharp-angled, ocu-gwnia Oxygyne Pointed-style, ocu-gunh Oxylobium, oxylobus -a -um with sharp-pointed pods or lobes, ocu-loboj oxylophilus -a -um of acid or humus-rich soils, humus-loving, ocu-filoj oxyodon, oxyodontus -a -um sharp-toothed, with sharp teeth, ocu-odouj, ocu-odontoj Oxypetalum, oxypetalus -a -um Sharp-petalled, ocu-petalon oxyphilus -a -um of acidic soils, acid soil-loving, ocu-filoj oxyphyllus -a -um with sharp pointed leaves, ocu-fullon oxypterus -a -um with sharp wings, ocuj-pteron Oxyrachis Sharp-rachis, ocu-raxij (the pointed internodes of the disarticulated rachis) Oxyramphis Sharp-beak, ocu-ramfoj (the fruit) Oxyria Acidic, ocuj (the taste) oxysepalus -a -um with sharp sepals, ocu-skeph 286 Glossary Oxyspora Sharp-seed, ocu-spora (the seeds being awned at both ends) Oxystelma Sharp-crown, ocu-stelma (the acute corolla lobes) Oxytenanthera Sharp-narrow-flower, ocu-ten-anqera (the spikelet shape) Oxytropis Sharp-keel, ocu-tropij (the pointed keel petal) ozarkensis -is -e from the Ozarka Mountains of S central USA Ozothamnus Fragrant-shrub, ozw-qamnoj pabularis -is -e, pabularius -a -um of forage or pastures, pabulum, pabuli Pachira (Pachyra) from the Guyanese vernacular name pachy- stout-, thick-, paxuj, paxuPachycarpus, pachycarpus -a -um Thick-fruited, paxu-karpoj (follicle shape, some being inflated) pachycaulon thick-stemmed, paxu-kauloj pachycladus -a -um, pachyclados thick-branched, paxu-kladoj pachygaster large-bellied, paxu-(gasthr, gastroj) Pachylaena Thick-cloak, paxu-(x)laina (the indumentum) pachypes having a thick stalk, botanical Latin from paxuj and pes pachyphloeus -a -um thick-barked, paxu-floioj Pachyphragma Stout-partition, paxu-fragma (the ribbed septum of the fruit) pachyphyllus -a -um having thick leaves, paxu-fullon Pachyphytum Sturdy-plant, paxuj-futon (thick stems and leaves) Pachypodanthium Thick-footed-flowers, paxuj-pod-anqemion (the crowded stalkless carpels) Pachypodium, pachypodius -a -um Stout-foot, paxuj-podewn (the fleshy roots) pachypus thick-stem, paxu-pouj pachyrhizus -a -um, pachyrrhizus -a -um having thick roots, paxu-riza Pachysandra Thick-stamens, paxuj-anhr (the filaments) pachysanthus -a -um having thick flowers, paxuj-anqoj (somewhat fleshy corolla) pachyscapus -a -um with a thick scape or peduncle, botanical Latin from paxu and scapus pachyspermus -a -um with thick (almost spherical) spores, paxuj-sperma Pachystachys, pachystachis -is -e with thick spikes, paxu-staxuj (inflorescences) Pachystela Thick-style, paxuj-sthlh Pachystema, Pachistima Thick-crown, paxuj-stemma Pachystigma Thick-stigma, paxuj-stigma see Paxistima pachytrichus -a -um thickly haired (moss like indumentum of Rhododendron pachytrichum) pachyurus -a -um having a thick tail, paxu-oura pacificus -a -um of the W American coast, pacificus (literally peacemaking) padi- Prunus-padus-like padifolius -a -um, padophyllus -a -um with leaves resembling those of Prunus padus padus Theophrastus’ name, padoj, for St Lucie Cherry or from the River Po (Padus), Italy Paederia Malodorous, paedor (the crushed flowers) Paeonia named paionia by Theophrastus for Paeon, the physician to the gods who, in mythology, was changed into a flower by Pluto (Pliny gave Peony the same attribution) (Paeoniaceae) Paepalanthus Rock-flowered, paipal-anqoj (the hard calyx at fruiting time) Paesia for Fernando Dias Paes Leme, Portuguese administrator of Minas Gerais c. 1660 paganus -a -um from the wild, of country areas, pagus pageanus -a -um for Miss Mary Page (1867–1925), botanical illustrator, Bolus Herbarium, Cape Town 1914–24 pago- foothill-, pagoj pagoda with the habit of a pagoda, from Persian, butkada pagodaefolius -a -um with leaves having a pagoda-shaped outline, pagoda-folium 287 — Glossary scillifolius -a -um Scilla-leaved, Scilla-folium scilloides squill-like, Scilla-oides scilloniensis -is -e from the Scilly Isles (late Latin Scillonian) Scindapsus an ancient Greek name, skindayoj, for an ivy-like plant scintillans gleaming, twinkling, sparkling, scintillo, scintillare scintillula like a small spark, feminine diminutive of scintilla, scintillae sciophilus -a -um shade-loving, skia-filoj scipioniformis -is -e of staff-like habit, scipionis-forma scipionus -a -um wand-like, skipwn, scipio, scipionis (Calamus scipionum is used for Malaca canes) scirpinus -a -um resembling a reed or rush, Scirpus Scirpoides, scerpoides, scirpoideus -a -um rush-like, Scirpus-like Scirpus (Sirpus) the old name, Scirpus, for a rush-like plant scissilis -is -e, scissus -a -um splitting easily, split, scindo, scindere, scidi, scissum scitulus -a -um neat, pretty, smart, scitulus scitus -a -um fine, smart, scitus sciuroides curved and bushy, squirrel-tail-like, skiouroj-oeidhj sciurus -a -um (looking like) a squirrel’s tail, skiouroj Sclarea, sclarea Clear, medieval Latin, sclarea (an old generic name for a Salvia, clary, used for eye lotions) scleracanthus -a -um with hard thorns or spines, sklhroj-akanqoj Scleranthus Hard-flower, sklhroj-anqoj (texture of the perianth) scleratus -a -um hardened, sklhroj Scleria Hard, sklhroj (the hard-coated achenes) sclero- hard-, sklhroj, sxlhroSclerocarpus, sclerocarpus -a -um Hard-fruit, sklhro-karpoj Sclerochitom Hard-coat, sklhroj-xitwn Sclerochloa Hard-grass, sklhroj-xloh (ϵ Puccinellia) Scleroderma, sclerodermus -a -um Hard-skin, sklhroj-derma scleroneurus -a -um with (prominent) hard veins, sklhroj-(neura, neuron) sclerophyllus -a -um with hard leaves, leathery-leaved, sklhroj-fullon Scleropoa Hard-pasturage, sklhroj-poa (ϵ Catapodium) Sclerosperma, sclerospermus -a -um Hard-seed, sklhroj-sperma (hard albumen of ripe seed) scleroxylon having hard timber, sklhroj-culon scobi-, scobiformis -is -e sawdust-like, scobis scobinatus -a -um, scobinus -a -um rough as though rasped, rasp-like, scobina scobinicaulis -is -e with stems appearing to be covered in sawdust or shavings, scobina-caulis scole-, scolo- vermiform-, worm-, skwlhc scolecinus -a -um worm-like, skwlhc scolio- curved-, bent-, skolioj Scoliopus Curved-stem, skolio-pouj (the rhizomes) scolopax of the woodcock (shared habitat with Scolopax rusticola) Scolopendrium, scolopendrium Dioscorides’ name, skolopendrion, for the hart’s tongue fern compares the numerous sori to the legs of a millipede, skolopendra scolymoides resembling Scolymus, Scolymus-oides Scolymus the ancient Greek name, skolumoj, for the artichoke, Scolymus hispanicus, and its edible root scolytus -a -um tortuous, skolioj (wandering channels of the elm-bark beetle, Scolytus destructor) scopa- broom, scopae, scoparum Scoparia, scoparius -a -um, scopellatus -a -um broom-like, scopae, scoparum (use for making besoms) -scopius -a -um -looking, -watching, skoph, skopia, skopiazw Scopolia for Giovani Antonio Scopoli (1723–88), professor at Pavia and writer on plants 345 The Names of Plants scopulinus -a -um twiggy, broom-like, scopae, scoparum scopulorum of cliffs and rock faces, scopulus, scopuli (in zoology, scopula a tuft of hairs) scopulosus -a -um like a bristly brush, scopae, scoparum scorbiculatus -a -um with a scurfy texture (scorbutus scurvy) scordiifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Scordium scordioides resembling Scordium, skordion-oeidhj Scordium, scordium Dioscorides’ name, skordion, for a plant with the smell of garlic, skordon Scorodonia an old generic name, skorodon, skordon, for garlic scorodonifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Scorodonia scorodoprasum (scordoprasum) a name, skordoprason, used by Dioscorides for a plant with intermediate features between garlic, skordon, and leek, prason scorpioidalis -is -e, scorpioideus -a -um coiled like the tail of a scorpion, skorpiojoeidhj (eg the axis of an inflorescence) scorpioides (scorpoides) curved like a scorpion’s tail (see Fig. 3), skorpioj-oeidhj Scorpiurus Scorpion-tail, skorpioj-oura (Dioscorides’ name, for the coiled fruit of Scorpiurus sulcata) scorteus -a -um leathery, scorteus Scorzonera derivation uncertain but generally thought to refer to use as an antifebrile in snakebite (Italian, scorzone, for the snake Elaphe longissima) scorzonerifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Scorzonera scot-, scoto- of the dark-, darkness-, skotoj, skotoscoticus -a -um from Scotland, Scottish, modern Latin scottia scotinus -a -um dusky, dark, skotaioj, skoteinoj scotophilus -a -um dark-loving, skoto-filoj (eg subterraneous chemotrophic organisms) scotostictus -a -um with dark spots, dark-punctate, skoto-stiktoj Scottellia for George Francis Scott-Elliot (1862–1934), boundary commissioner and plant collector in Sierra Leone, 1891–2 Scottia, scottianus -a -um for Munro Briggs Scott (1889–1917) of Kew, or Robert Scott (1757–1808), Professor of Botany at Dublin scotticus -a -um from Scotland, Scottish, scottia scouleri for Dr John Scouler (1804–71), Professor of Zoology at Dublin, and collector with David Douglas in NW America scriblitifolius -a -um scroll-like leaved, with leaves appearing to have letters written upon them, scribo-littera-folium scrinaceus -a -um with lidded-box-like fruits, scrinium (as in Lecythis) (literally a book-box or letter-case) scriptus -a -um, -scriptus -a -um marked with lines which suggest writing, scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum scrobiculatus -a -um with small depressions or grooves, pitted, scrobis, scropis Scrophularia Scrophula, scrofa, scrophae; breeding sows were said to be prone to this glandular disease (signature of the glands on the corolla); many plants were used to treat scrophulae, the ‘King’s disease’ (Scrophulariaceae) scrophularifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Scrophularia scrotiformis -is -e shaped like a small double bag, pouch-shaped, scrotum-forma scruposus -a -um unstable, of jagged stone habitats, scrupus, scrupi scrupulicolus -a -um living on sharp rocks, (scrupus, scrupi)-colo sculptus -a -um carved, sculpto, sculpere, sculpsi, sculptum Scurrula Little-dandy, diminutive feminine of scurra, scurrae scutatus -a -um with a small round shield or buckler, scutum (leaves) Scutellaria Dish, scutella (the depression of the fruiting calyx) scutellarioides resembling Scutellaria, Scutellaria-oides scutellaris -is -e, scutellatus -a -um platter-like, bowl-shaped, scutella, scutellae scutellifolius -a -um with small dish-shaped (knob-like) leaves scutelliformis -is -e with the shape of small dishes, scutella-forma 346 Glossary Scutellinia Small-bowl, scutella, scutellae scutiformis -is -e buckler-shaped, (scutum, scuti)-forma Scyphanthus Goblet-flower, skufoj-anqoj scyphiferus -a -um bearing goblet or wine-cup (-shaped structures), scyphus-fero scypho-, -scyphus -a -um wine-cup-, beaker-, goblet-, scyphus, skufoj scyphocalyx with a goblet-shaped calyx, skufoj-kaluc Scyphocephalium Goblet-headed, skufoj-kefalh (the inflorescences contain up to three heads each of numerous flowers) scyt-, scyto- leathery-, skuthnoj, skutinoj, skutoj, skutoScytanthus Leathery-flowered, skutoj-anqoj (part of the adaptation to attract coprozoic pollinators) Scytonema Thong-like, skutoj-nhma (leathery filaments) scytophyllus -a -um leathery-leaved, skutoj-fullon se- apart-, without-, outSeaforthia for Francis Humberston Mackenzie, Lord Seaforth (1754–1815), patron of botany (ϵ Ptychosperma) sebaceus -a -um, sebifer -era -erum tallow-bearing, producing wax, sebaceus Sebaea for Albert Seba (1665–1736), apothecary and author of Amsterdam sebiferus -a -um providing tallow, wax-bearing, sebum-fero sebosus -a -um full of wax, sebum, sebi Secale the Latin name, secale, for a grain like rye (not cognate with sea-kale, Crambe maritima) secalinus -a -um rye-like, resembling Secale Secamone from the Arabic, squa mona sechellarus -a -um from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean Sechium from the W Indian vernacular, chacha seclusus -a -um hidden, isolated, secluded, seclusus sectilis -is -e as though cut into portions, for cutting, sectilis -sectus -a -um, -sect cut to the base, -divided, -partite, seco, secare, secui, sectum secundatus -a -um following behind, one-sided, secund, secundum (all the florets are disposed to one side) secundi-, secundus -a -um turned-, secund, one-sided, secundum (as when flowers are all to one side of an inflorescence) secundiflorus -a -um with the flowers all facing one direction, secund-flowered, secundum-florum secundirameus -a -um with secund branching, secundum-ramus Securidaca Axe-like, securis (from the shape of the winged fruits) securifolius -a -um having leaves shaped like axe-heads, securis- folium securiger -era -erum axe-bearing, securis-gero (the shape of some organ) Securinega Axe-refuser, securis-(nego, negare, negavi, negatum) (the hardness of the timber of some species) sedi- stonecrop-like, Sedum sedifolius -a -um with leaves resembling Sedum, Sedum-folium sediformis -is -e with the habit of a stonecrop, Sedum-forma sedoides (sedioides) resembling Sedum, Sedum-oides Sedum a name, sedo, in Pliny (refers to the plant’s ‘sitting’ on rocks etc in the case of cushion species) seemannii for Berthold Carl Seemann (1825–71), German collector in tropical America and Pacific Islands segetalis -is -e, segetus -a -um of the cornfields, growing amongst crops, seges, segetis segregatus -a -um dissociated, a component separated from a super-species, segrego, segregare, segregavi, segregatum seguieri, seguierianus -a -um for Jean François Seguier (1703–84), botanist of Nîmes seguinis -is -e harming themselves, se-guiow (Dieffenbachia, dumb-canes) seiro- rope-like, rope, seira sejugus -a -um with six leaflets, sex-iugum sejuntus -a -um separated, solitary, se-(iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctum) 347 The Names of Plants sekukuniensis -is -e from the Transvaal area once ruled by the Pedi chief Sekhukhune, SE Africa (Sekukuniland) Selaginella a diminutive of Selago (see below) (Selaginellaceae) selaginoides clubmoss-like, Selaginella-oides Selago the name in Pliny for Lycopodium, from the Celtic name for the Druidic collection of Juniperus sabina, verbal noun with feminine suffix from seligo, seligere, selegi, selectum to choose or select (Selaginaceae) seleni-, seleno- moon-, selhnh Selenicereus Moon-Cereus, botanical Latin from selhnh and Cereus (night flowering) selenites with a lunar or moon-like appearance, selhnh selensis -is -e moonshine, selhnh; from Sela, Yunnan, China Selinum the name, selinon, in Homer for a celery-like plant with lustrous petals (relates etymologically with Silaum and Silaus, and several derivations have been suggested) sellaeformis -is -e, selliformis -is -e with both sides hanging down, saddle-shaped, sella-forma (eg of leaves) Selliera for Natale Sellier, French engraver for Cavannilles selligerus -a -um saddled, saddle-bearing, chaired, sella-gero selloanus -a -um, selloi, sellovianus -a -um, sellowii, for Friedrich Sellow (Sello) (1789–1831), German botanist from Potsdam, collector in Brazil selskianus -a -um for Ilarion Segiewitsch Selskey (1808–61), of the Russian Geographical Society, Irkutsk semecarpifolius -a -um half-Carpinus-leaved (the second leaf form of Quercus semecarpifolia is undulate or entire) Semele for the daughter of Kadmos, mother of Bacchus semenovii, semenowii for Peter Petrowitsch Semenow-Tian-Shansky (1827–1914), Russian traveller semestris -is -e half-yearly, of a half year, semestris semi- half-, semisemialatus -a -um half-winged, semi-alatus Semiaquilegia Half-Aquilegia (corolla differs in being saccate, not spurred) Semiarundinaria Half-Arundinaria (some treat as Arundinaria) semiatratus -a -um half in mourning, semi-atratus (flower colouration) semibarbatus -a -um half-bearded, semi-barbatus semibulbosus -a -um somewhat (half) bulbous, semi-bulbosus semicastratus -a -um cut halfway around, semi-(castro, castrare) semiclausus -a -um half-closed, semi-clausus (not fully open) semicordatus -a -um cordate or heart-shaped on one side only, semi-cordatus semicylindricus -a -um half-terete, botanical Latin from semi and kulindroj semidecandrus -a -um with (about) five stamens, botanical Latin from semi and deka-anhr (Tibouchina semidecandra has ten stamens but five have yellow anthers and the other five form a self-coloured platform for visiting pollinators) semideciduus -a -um half-deciduous, retaining some leaves all year, semi-deciduus semidentatus -a -um half-dentate, semi-dentatus semiexsertus -a -um half-exserted, semi-exsertus (stamens or style) semiglobatus -a -tm half-globe-shaped, semi-globosus (pileus of dung roundhead fungus) semilanceatus -a -um somewhat (half) lance-shaped, semi-lanceatus (the sharply umboed pileus of liberty cap fungus) semiliberus -a -um half-separated, semi-liberatus (the cap is not wholly united to the stipe) semilunatus -a -um half-moon-shaped, semi-lunatus semiorbicularis -is -e hemispherical, half-round, semi-orbiculatus semiovatus -a -um shaped like the narrow end of an egg, semi-ovatus (the pileus) semipersistens half-persistent, semi-persistens semipileatus -a -um somewhat felt-cap-like, semi-pileatus (fruiting body texture) semipinnatus -a -um half-pinnate, semi-pinnatus (leaves) 348 Glossary semiplenus -a -um half-doubled, semi-plenus semisanguineus -a -um somewhat bloody in colour, semi-sanguineus (less so than sanguineus) semisectus -a -um cut halfway (to the base), semi-sectus semiteres half-cylindrical, semi-teres (in cross-section) semitomentosus -a -um half-tomentose, semi-tomentosus (Viburnum) semiverticillatus -a -um half-verticillate, half-whorled, semi-verticillatus (grass panicles) semivivus -a -um having a long dormant period, semi-vivus semnoides resembling (Rhododendron) semnum (ϵ praestans) semocordatus -a -um half-heart-shaped, semi-cordatus semotus -a -um remote; distinct, past participle of semoveo, semovere, semovi, semotum semper- always-, ever-, semper semperaureus -a -um continuously golden, semper-aureus semperflorens ever-flowering, with a long flowering season, present participle from semper-(floreo, florere, florui) sempervirens always green, semper-(vireo, virere, virui) sempervirens-sibirica (Saxifraga) sempervirens from Siberia sempervivoides, sempervivus -a -um houseleek-like, Sempervivum-oides Sempervivum, sempervivus -a -um Always-alive, never-die, always living, sempervivus senarius -a -um composed of six (parts), six-partite, senarius (literally a trimeter) sendaicus -a -um from Sendai, Japan Senebiera for Jean Senebier (1742–1809), Swiss physiologist Senecio Old-man, senex, senis (the name in Pliny refers to the grey hairiness as soon as fruiting commences) senecioides (senecoides) groundsel-like, Senecio-oides senecionis -is -e of ragworts, living on Senecio (symbionts, parasites and saprophytes) senega of the American Seneca Indians (Polygonum senega used as treatment for rattlesnake-bite, Seneca snake-root) senegalensis -is -e from Senegal, W Africa senescens ageing, turning hoary with whitish hairs, senesco, senescere, senui senetti a Plant Variety Rights registered name used to market Pericallis seni- six-, six-each-, seni, senorum senifolius -a -um six-leafleted, seni-folium senilis -is -e aged, like an old person, grey-haired, senilis (senex an old man) Senna, senna from the Arabic name, sana, for the laxative leaves and pods sensibilis -is -e, sensitivus -a -um sensitive to a stimulus, irritable, sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum sensu a term used, between the species name and its authority, to indicate that the name is used in the sense used by that named author senticosus -a -um thorny, full of thorns, sentis, sentis sentis -is -e briar-like, thorny, sentis seorsus -a -um with its own beginning; apart, distinct, different, se-orsum sepal-, -sepalus -a -um sepal-, -sepalled, skeph sepiaceus -a -um dark-clear-brown, sepia coloured (shpia, sepia, cuttle-fish) sepiarius -a -um, sepius -a -um growing in hedges, of hedges, sepes, saepes sepikanus -a -um from the environs of the Sepik river, Papua New Guinea sepincolus -a -um hedge-dweller, inhabitant of hedges, sepes-colo, saepes-colo sepius -a -um sepia-coloured, shpia, sepia, a cuttle-fish sept-, septem- seven-, septem septalis -is -e of September, of the seventh month of the Roman year, septem (flowering or fruiting) septangulus -a -um seven-edged, seven-angled, septem-angulus septi-, septatus -a -um having partitions, septate, septum, septa; septi349 The Names of Plants septemfidus -a -um with seven divisions, seven-cut, septem-fidus septemlobus -a -um with seven lobes, septem-lobus septifragus -a -um having a capsule whose valves break away from the partitions, septem-(frango, frangere, fregi, fractum) septentrionalis -is -e of the north, of northern areas, septentrionalis septupli- sevenfold-, septuplus septuplinervius -a -um seven-nerved from the base, septuplus-(nervus, nervi) sepulcralis -is -e (sepulchralis) of funerals, of graveyards, of tombs, sepulcrum, sepulcri Sepultaria Buried, sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi, sepultum sepultus -a -um buried, sepultus sequax pursuing, following; trailing, sequax, sequacis Sequoia for the N American Indian half-breed, George Gist (Sequoyah) (1770–1843) who invented the Cherokee alphabet Sequoiadendron Sequoia-tree (resemblance in size) Serapias, serapias for the Egyptian deity, Serapis (name, serapiaj, used in Dioscorides for an orchid, ϵ Cephalanthera and Epipactis) serbicus -a -um from Serbia serenanus -a -um from La Serena, Coquimbo, N Chile Serenoa for Sereno Watson (1826–92), American botanist sergipensis -is -e from Sergipe, Brazil seri-, serici-, sericans, sericeus -a -um silky, silky-hairy, seres (sometimes implying Chinese) serialis -is -e, seriatus -a -um with transverse or longitudinal rows, series, seriem sericanthus -a -um with silky flowers, shrikoj-anqoj sericatus -a -um silken, shrikoj, serica, sericorum sericellus -a -um minutely silky, diminutive of serica, sericorum sericeovillosus -a -um with long silky hair, serica-villosus sericeus -a -um with silky hair, like silk, shrikoj sericifer -era -erum silk-bearing, serica-fero sericifolius -a -um silky-leaved, serica-folium Sericocarpus Silky-fruit, shrikoj-karpoj sericofer -era -erum silk-bearing, serica-fero sericophyllus -a -um with silky leaf-surfaces, shrikoj-fullon Sericotheca Silken-case, shrikoj-qhkh (the pericarp) (ϵ Holodiscus) sericus -a -um silken, silky; from China (Seres) Seringia, seringeana for Nicholas Charles Seringe (1776–1858), Director of the Botanic Garden at Lyon Seriola Little-jar, seriola, seriolae (the amphora-like shaped tips of the scape branches) (ϵ Hypochaeris) Seriphidium from the Aegean island of Seriphos -seris -potherb, shrij, seridoj Serissa from the Indian vernacular name for Serissa foetida serissimus -a -um silkiest, superlative of sericeus Serjania for Paul Serjeant, French priest and botanist serjaniaefolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Serjania serotinus -a -um autumnal, of late season, late, sero, serius (flowering or fruiting) serpens, serpentarius -a -um, serpentinus -a -um creeping, serpentine, serpo, serpere, serpsi, serptum serpentilinguus -a -um snake-tongue-like, (serpens, serpentis)-linguus serpentini, serpentinicus -a -um of (growing on) serpentine rocks, late Latin serpentinus Serpula Slow-spreader, serpo, serpere, serpsi, serptum (dry rot fungus) serpyllaceus -a -um resembling thyme, serpyllum serpyllifolius -a -um thyme-leaved, serpyllum-folium serpyllum from an ancient name for thyme, (s)erpulloj, serpyllum (erpw, erpuzw creeping) 350 Glossary serra, serra-, -serras saw, saw-like-, serrate-, deeply cut, serratus Serrafalcus for Domenico Lo Faso Pietrasanta, Duke of Serrafalco, archaeologist (ϵ Bromus) serrarius -a -um saw-like, serra, serrae (leaf margins) serratifolius -a -um with markedly serrate leaves, serratus-folium serratipetalus -a -um with toothed petals, botanical Latin from serratus and petalon serratodigitatus -a -um having digitate leaves with serrate leaflets, serratus-digitatus Serratula, serratula Saw-tooth.

Serra, serrae (the name in Pliny for betony, re-used by Gerard because saw-wort, Serratula tinctoria, has saw-toothed leaves) serratus -a -um edged with forward pointing teeth, serrate, serra, serrae (see Fig. 4d) serriolus -a -um in ranks, of salad, diminutive of seris (from an old name for chicory) serrulatus -a -um edged with small teeth, finely serrate, serrulate, diminutive of serratus sertatus -a -um, sertulatus -a -um of garlands, garlanded, sero, serere, sertum sertuliferus -a -um bearing garlands, (sertum, serti)-fero (of flowers) sesameus -a -um sesame-like, Sesamum sesamoides resembling Sesamum, shsamon-oeidhj, Sesamum-oides Sesamum Hippocrates’ name, shsamon, from the Semitic name, simsim, cognate with sesame Sesbania from the Arabic name for Sesbania sesban Seseli the ancient Greek name, seseli, seselij Sesleria for Leonardo Sesler (d. 1785), naturalist and physician of Venice sesleriiformis -is -e with the habit of Sesleria sesqui- one-and-one-half-, sesqui sesquiorgyalis -is -e being about nine feet, or one and a half fathoms (high or long), botanical Latin from sesqui and orguia sesquipedalis -is -e about 18 inches long, the length of a foot and a half, sesqui-pedalis sesquitertius -a -um of four to three, sesquitertius (the sexes in androgynous catkin structures) sessili-, sessilis -is -e attached without a distinct stalk, sessile, sitting on, sessilis sessiliflorus -a -um without distinct stalks to the flowers, sessilis-florum sessilifolius -a -um leaves without petioles, sessile-leaved, sessilis-folium sessilioides appearing sessile, sessilis-oides Sesuvium etymology uncertain seta-, setaceus -a -um, (saetaceus), seti- bristly, with bristles or stiff hairs, seta, setae, saeta, saetae Setaria Bristly, seta, setae (most have hairs subtending the spikelets) setchuenensis -is -e, setschwanensis -is -e from Sichuan (Szechwan, Setchuan) province, China Setcreasea derivation obscure seti- bristle-, bristly-, saeta, saetae, seta, setae seticaulis -is -e having a bristly stalk, seta-caulis setifer -era -erum, setiger -era -erum, seti- bearing bristles, bristly, seta-fero setifolius -a -um with bristly-surfaced leaves, seta-folium setipodus -a -um with bristly stems, botanical Latin from seta and podion setispinus -a -um bristle-spined, seta-spina setosus -a -um covered with bristles or stiff hairs, seta, setae setuliformis is -e thread-like, with minute bristles, setula-forma setulosus -a -um with fine bristles, diminutive of setosus -setus -a -um -bristled, seta, setae Severinia for M.

A.

Severino (1580–1656), anatomist from Naples severus -a -um terrible, strict, severe, severus sex- six-, sex sexangularis -is -e, sexangulus -a -um six-angled, sex-angulus (stems) sexflorus -a -um six-flowered, with six-flowered racemes, sex-florum sexstylosus -a -um with six styles, sex-stilus 351 The Names of Plants sextupli- six fold-, six-partite, medieval Latin sextuplus seyal an Arabic vernacular name for Acacia seyal timber (shittim wood) shallon from the Chinook Indian name, kl-kwa-sha-la, for Gaultheria shallon sharonensis -is -e from Sharon, Connecticut, USA shastensis -is -e from the Shasta area of the Cascade range, N California shawianus -a -um, shawii for Walter Robert Shaw, botanist of Illinois and Manilla c. 1871–3 shensianus -a -um from Shaanxi or Shanxi provinces of N China Shepherdia for John Shepherd (1764–1836), curator of Liverpool University Botanic Garden Sherardia for William Sherard (1659–1728) and his brother James Sherard Sherbournia for Margaret Dorothea Sherbourn (1791–1846), who was the first to flower Sherbournia foliosa in England sheriffii for Major George Sherriff (1898–1967), collector in Tibet and Bhutan Shibataea for Keita Shibata (1878–1949), Japanese botanist shirasawanus -a -um from a Japanese name shirensis -is -e from the environs of the Shire river which overflows from Lake Nyassa, Malawi shittim the biblical name for the wood of Acacia nilotica, from which the ark was to be built Shortia, shortii for Dr Charles W.

Short (1794–1863), botanist of Kentucky, USA Shoshonea of the Shoshone or Shoshoni indigenous American people, or from their territory shuttleworthii for Edward Shuttleworth (1829–1909), who collected for Bull’s nursery at Chiswick siamensis -is -e, siameus -a -um, siamicus -a -um from Thailand (formerly Siam) Sibbaldia for Robert Sibbald (1643–1720), Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh and author of Scotia illustrata Sibbaldiopsis similar to Sibbaldia, botanical Latin from Sibbaldia and wyij Sibaraea, sibiraeus -a -um Siberian (the provenance of Sibaraea altaiensis) sibericus -a -um from Siberia, Siberian Sibthorpia, sibthorpianus -a -um, sibthorpii for Professor Humphrey Sibthorp (1713–97), of Oxford, and his son John (1758–96), English botanist siccatus -a -um, siccus -a -um of dry places, dried out, sicco, siccare, siccavi, siccatum sicerarius -a -um (for holding) strong drink, sikera (Lagenaria siceraria, bottle gourd) siculi- dagger-shaped-, sica, sicae siculiformis -is -e shaped like a small dagger, sicula-forma siculus -a -um from Sicily, Sicilian (Sicilia) sicyoides from Sicyon, Peloponnese Sicyos a name, sikuoj, used by Theophrastus for a cucumber Sida from a Greek name, side, used by Theophrastus for a water-lily and a pomegranate tree Sidalcea Like-Sida-and-Alcea sidereus -a -um iron-hard, of iron-like nature, sidhreioj; sidhroj, sidhroSideritis the Greek name, sideritoj, for plants used on wounds caused by iron weapons siderophloius -a -um iron-hard-barked, sidhroj-floioj siderophyllus -a -um with iron-hard or rusty haired leaves, sidhroj-fullon siderostichus -a -um with rigid rows, sidhroj-stixoj (of spikelets) Sideroxylon, sideroxylon Iron-wood, sidhroj-culon (the hard timber of the miraculous berry) sidoides resembling Sida, Sida-oides sieberi for Franz Wilhelm Sieber (1785–1844), of Prague, who travelled widely in the tropics sieboldiana, sieboldii for Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796–1866), German physician and plant collector in Japan Sieglingia for Professor Siegling, botanist of Erfurt 352 Glossary siehei for Walther Siehe (1859–1928) of Berlin sierrae of sierras, of jagged mountain chains, via Spanish from serra Sigesbeckia (Siegesbeckia, Sigesbekia) for Johann Georg Siegesbeck (1686–1755), physicist and botanist, Director of the Botanic Garden at St Petersburg sigillatus -a -um with the surface marked with seal-like impressions, sigillatus sigma-, sigmato- S-shaped, sigma, sigmatoj sigmoideus -a -um S-shaped, sigma-oeidhj signatus -a -um well-marked, designated, signed, signo, signare, signavi, signatum sikangensis-is -e from Si Kiang (Xijiang), China sikkimensis -is -e from Sikkim, Indian Himalayas sikokianus -a -um from Shokoku island, Japan silaifolia with narrow leaves as in pepper saxifrage, Silaum silaus Silaum meaning uncertain; from Sila forest area of S Italy? (see Selinum) silaus an old generic name, silaus, in Pliny used for pepper saxifrage Silene Theophrastus’ name for another catchfly, Viscaria (others derive it from Bacchus’ companion, Silenos, or from sailon, saliva) sileni- Silene-like silesiacus -a -um from Silesia, SW Poland siliceus -a -um of sand, growing on sand, silex, silicis (silicate) silicicolus -a -um growing on siliceous soils, silicis-colo siliculosus -a -um having broad pods or capsules from which the two valves fall and leave a false membrane (replum) with the seeds, silicula siliquastrum (siliquastris) from the old Latin name for a pod-bearing tree, cylindricpodded, siliqua-astrum siliquosus -a -um having elongate pods or capsules as the last, siliqua siliquus -a -um, -siliquus -a -um, siliqui- podded, with pods, siliqua sillamontanus -a -um from Cerro de La Silla, S America Silphium an ancient Greek name, silfion, for a resinous plant, reapplied to the N American compass-plant, Silphium laciniatum silvaticus -a -um of woodlands, of the woods, silva, silvae silvester -tris -tre woodland, wild, silva, silvae silvicolus -a -um woodland dwelling, silva-colo silvigaudens rejoicing the woodland, present participle from silva-(gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus) Silybum Dioscorides’ name, silubon (for a thistle-like plant) Simaba from the Guyanese vernacular name Simarouba (Simaruba) from the Carib name for bitter damson (Simaroubaceae) simensis -is -e from Arabia, Simenia, Middle-Eastern Simethis after the Oread nymph, Simaethis simiarus -a -um monkey-like, liked by monkeys, simia, simiae (flowers) simili-, similis -is -e resembling other species, like, the same, similar, similis similiflorus -a -um having the flowers all alike, similis-florum (eg in an umbel) simius -a flat-nosed, simoj; of the ape, simius, simii, or monkey, simia, simiae (flowershape or implying inferiority) Simmondsia, simmondsii for Arthur Simmonds (1892–1968), Secretary to the RHS 1956–62 simonii for Gabriel Eugène Simon (b. 1829), French Consul and collector in the East simonsii for Reverend Jelinger Simons (1778–1851), of Leyton, Essex simonsianus -a -um for Dr J.

C.

Simons, who collected in Assam c. 1895 simorrhinus -a -um monkey-snouted, simia-rinoj (spathe) simplex undivided, entire, single, simplex, simplicis simplicaulis -is -e, simplicicaulis -is -e with an unbranched stem, simplicis-caulis simplice-, simplici- undivided, simple, simplicis simplicifolius -a -um with undivided leaves, simplici-folium simplicior undivided, simplex, simplicis simplicissimus -a -um the least divided, superlative of simplex 353 The Names of Plants simpliciusculus -a -um somewhat undivided, diminutive of simplex simsii for John Sims (1749–1831), editor of Botanical Magazine simulans, simulatus -a -um similar, resembling, imitating, present participle of simulo, simulare, simulavi, simulatum simulatrix imitator (feminine form of simulator, Salix being feminine) sinaicus -a -um from Sinai, Egypt sinaloensis -is -e from Sinaloa state, NW Mexico Sinapis the old name, sinapi, used by Theophrastus for mustard, sinapi, sinapis (Celtic, nap, for cabbage-like plants) Sinapistrum Wild-mustard, Sinapis-istrum sinapizans becoming mustard like, Sinapis (smelling of radish) Sinarundinaria Chinese-Arundinaria, sino-Arundinaria sindicus -a -um from Sind province, Indus valley, Pakistan sinensis -is -e (chinensis -is -e) from China, Chinese singularis -is -e unusual, singular, unique, extraordinary, singularis sinicus -a -um, sino- of China, Chinese (Sinica) sinistrorsus -a -um turned to the left, sinister, sinistri, twining clockwise upwards as seen from above, sinistral, Sinningia for Wilhelm Sinning (1794–1874), head gardener at Bonn University sino- Chinese-, Chinese form of-, sinica, sinoSinobambusa Chinese-Bambusa Sinocalycanthus Chinese-Calycanthus sinofalconeri Chinese form of (Rhododendron) falconeri Sinofranchetia for Adrien Franchet (1834–1900), French botanist who described many Chinese plants sinograndis -is -e Chinese form of (Rhododendron) grande Sinomenium Chinese-moonseed, mhnh, (the curved stone of the fruit) sino-ornatus -a -um the Chinese form of ornatus -a -um sinoplantaginea Chinese (Primula) plantaginea (ϵ P.

Nivalis) sinopurpurea Chinese (Primula) purpurea (ϵ P.

Macrophylla) Sinowilsonia, sinowilsonii for E.

H.

Wilson (1876–1930), introducer of Chinese plants sinuatus -a -um, sinuosus -a -um, sinuus -a -um with a wavy margin, sinuate, winding, waved, sinuo, sinuare, sinuavi, sinuatm (see Fig. 4c) siphiliticus -a -um see syphiliticus -a -um sipho-, -siphon tubular-, -pipe, -tube, sifon Siphocampylus (Siphocampylos) Curved-tube, sifon-kampuloj (the corolla tube) siphonanthus -a -um with pipe-like flowers, sifon-anqoj sisalanus -a -um from Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico (the fibre of Agave sisalana was exported from the port of Sisal) sisarus -a -um Dioscorides’ name for a plant with an edible root siskiyouensis -is -e from the Siskiyou mountains, Oregon and California, USA Sison a name, siswn, used by Dioscorides sissoo a Bengali vernacular name for sisso tree (Dalbergia sissoo) sisymbrifolius -a -um with leaves resembling those of Sisymbrium, Sisymbriumfolium sisymbrii of hedge mustard, living on Sisymbrium (Dasyneura, dipteran gall midge) Sisymbrium ancient Greek name, sisumbrion, susumbron (for various plants) Sisyrinchium, sisyrinchium Pig-snout, Theophrastus’ name, sisurigxion, for an iris (suj-rugxoj, pig’s snout, they dig for the sweet tubers) Sitanion Food-grain, sitoj sitchensis -is -e from Sitka, Baranof island, Alaska (Picea sitchensis, Sitka spruce) sitiacus -a -um from the environs of Sitias Bay, NE Crete Sitolobium Wheat-lobes, sitoj-loboj (the shape of the pinnae, ϵ Dicksonia) Sium an old Greek name, sion, for water plants (Celtic, sin, water) sivasicus -a -um from Megalopolis-Sebasteia (Sivas), central Turkey skapho- see scapho354 Glossary Skimmia from a Japanese name, miyami shikimi skio- see scia-, scio-, skia skiophilus -a -um shade-loving, skia-filoj skole-, scolo- vermiform-, worm-, skwlhc skolecosporus -a -um with elongate, worm-like spores, sxwlhc-spora skolio- see scolio, skolioj, skolioskoto- see scot, scoto-, skotoj, skotoskotophilus -a -um dark-loving, living in darkness, skoto-filoj Sloanea for Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753), Irish physician and botanist, founder of the British Museum and Chelsea Physic Garden, President of the Royal Society smaragdiflorus -a -um emerald-green flowered, smaragdoj, emerald smaragdinus of emerald, emerald-green, smaragdinoj Smeathmannia, smeathmannii for Henry Smeathman (1742–86), who collected plants in Sierra Leone in 1771–2, and proposed the settlement of freed slaves in Freetown smilaci- Smilax-like smilacifolius -a -um having leaves resembling those of Smilax, Smilax-folium Smilacina diminutive of Smilax Smilax from an ancient Greek name, smilac (smilh a scraper, for the prickly stems) (Smilacaceae) Smithia for James Edward Smith (1759–1828), writer on the Greek flora and founder of the Linnean Society smithiae, smithianus -a -um, smithii for James Edward Smith (vide supra), or Professor Christen Smith (1785–1816), Norwegian botanist (Aeonium smithii), or John Smith (1798–1888), gardener at Kew, or Joannes Jacobus Smith (1867–1947), Dutch specialist on Indonesian plants Smithiantha for Matilda Smith (1854–1926), botanical artist at Kew Smithicodonia the composite name for hybrids between Smithiantha and Eucodonia Smyrnium Myrrh-fragrant, smurnion, smurna-ion (the fragrance) soboliferus -era -erum bearing soboles, producing vigorous shoots from the stem at ground level, bearing offspring, (suboles, subolis)-fero socialis -is -e, sociatus -a -um, sociarus -a -um in pure stands, dominant, growing in colonies, socies socotranus -a -um from Socotra island, Indian Ocean, Yemen Socratea for the Greek philosopher Socrates (469–399 bc) soda alkaline, medieval Latin from Arabic, suwwad (the calcined ash of Salsola kali) sodiferus -a -um bringing pleasure, sodes-fero sodomeus -a -um from the Dead Sea area (Sodom) soja a vernacular name for the seeds of Glycine soja, soya beans sol-, solis -is -e sun-, of the sun, sol, solis solan-, solani- potato-, Solanum-likesolanaceus -a -um potato-like, resembling Solanum solanantherus -a -um with potato-flower-like stamens, Solanum-anthera (positioning) Solandra, solanderi for Daniel Carlsson Solander FRS (1736–82), Swede who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks and Captain James Cook Solanum Comforter, solor, solavi, solatus (an ancient Latin name, solanum, in Pliny) (Solanaceae) solaris -is -e of sunny habitats, of the sun, solaris Soldanella, soldanella Little-coins, from the Italian, soldo, for a small coin, diminutive of soldo (the leaves) soldanelloides resembling Soldanella soleae- sandal-, solea Soleirolia for Captain Joseph François Soleirol (1791–1863), collector of Corsican plants solen-, soleno- box-, tube-, swlhn, swlhnoj, swlhno355 The Names of Plants Solena Tubular, swlhn (a wrong interpretation of the anther structure) Solenangis Tube-vessel, swlhn-aggeion Solenomelus Theophrastus’ name, swlhnomeloj (for the tubular limb of the perianth) Solenopsis Tube-like, swlhn-oyij (the very long white tubular flowers of the poisonous S.

Longiflora, ϵ Isotoma longiflora) Solenostemon Tube-stamens, swlhnoj-stemon (their united filaments) -solens -tubed, -tubular, swlhn Solidago Uniter, from solido, solidare, verbal noun with feminine suffix (Brunfels’ name for its use as a healing medicine) Solidaster the composite name for hybrids between Solidago and Aster solidifolius -a -um entire-leaved, solidi-folium solidus -a -um a coin; complete, entire, solid, dense, not hollow, solidus solitarius -a -um the only species (of a monotypic genus); with individuals growing in extreme isolation, solitary, lonely Sollya for Richard Horsman Solly (1778–1858), plant anatomist solonis for Solon (630–560 bc), the famed Athenian statesman and law-giver solstitialis -is -e (solsistialis) of midsummer, solstitium (flowering about 11 July, St Barnabas’ Day) solutus -a -um loosened, independent, free, undone, solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum soma-, -somus -a -um- -bodied, swma somaliensis -is -e from Somalia, E Africa somnians asleep, sleeping, present participle of somnio, somniare (dormant buds) somnifer -era -erum sleep-inducing, sleep-bearing, somnus-fero sonchi- Sonchus-likesonchifolius -a -um with Sonchus-like leaves, Sonchus-folium Sonchus the Greek name, sogxoj, sogkoj (for a thistle) songaricus -a -um from Dzungaria, Dzhungarsky Ala-Tau (Songaria), Kazakhstan/ China Sonneratia for Pierre Sonnerat (1749–1841), who collected in several areas of the tropics (Sonneratiaceae) sonorus -a -um from the Sonoran desert, Baja California, N America sophera an Arabian name for a pea-flowered tree, like Sophora sophia knowledge, craft, wisdom, sofia, (the use of flixweed, in treating dysentery or flux, Sophia chirurgorum, Sophia of the craft of surgeons) Sophora from an Arabic name, sophera, for a pea-flowered tree sophro- discreet-, modest-, swfrwn Sophronitis Modesty, swfrwn (the small flowers) soporificus -a -um sleep-bringing, soporific, soporo, soporare Sopubia from an Indian vernacular name Sorbaria Mountain-ash-like, Sorbus (from the form of the leaves) Sorbaronia the composite name for hybrids between Sorbus and Aronia sorbifolius -a -um with Sorbus-like leaves, Sorbus-folium Sorbopyrus hybrids between Sorbus and Pyrus Sorbus the ancient Latin name, sorbum, for the fruit of the service tree (cognate with sorb and service) sordidus -a -um neglected, dirty-looking, sordidus sorediatus -a -um heaped, mounded, swroj (with patches of loose cells) sorediiferus -a -um bearing soredia, swroj-ferw (on lichens) Sorghastrum Wild-Sorghum, Sorghum-astrum Sorghum from the Italian name, sorgho (medieval Latin sorgum) soriferus -a -um bearing sori, swroj-ferw (on ferns) soro- a heap-, a head-, swroj (compound structures like pineapples, breadfruits and mulberries, of fruits and receptacles, are called soroses) sorophorus -a -um bearing sori, swroj-ferw sororis -is -e, sororius -a -um very closely related, sisterly, soror, sororis Soulangia for Etienne Soulange-Bodin (vide infra) (ϵ Phylica) 356 Glossary soulangiana, soulangii for Etienne Soulange-Bodin (1774–1846), French horticulturalist Sowerbaea for James Edward Sowerby (1787–1871), author of English Botany and artist spadiceus -a -um chestnut-brown, having a spadix, date-coloured, spadic, spadikoj spadicigerus -a -um bearing spadices, botanical Latin from spadic and gero (spadixgero, bearing chestnut brown) span- few-, sparse-, spanioj, spanospananthus -a -um having few flowers, sparsely flowered, spanoj-anqoj spanioclemus -a -um with few shoots, spanioj-klhma Sparaxis Torn-one, sparasso (the lacerated spathaceous bracts) sparganifolius -a -um having leaves resembling Sparganium, Sparganium-folium Sparganium Dioscorides’ name, sparganion (sparganon was a swaddling band) (Sparganiaceae) Sparrmannia for Dr Anders Sparrmann (1748–1820), Swede who was on Cook’s second voyage sparsi- scattered, spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum sparsiflorus -a -um botanical Latin to imply having scattered or few flowers, sparsus-florum sparsisorus -a -um having few sori, sparsus-sorus sparsus -a -um sparse, scattered, dispersed, few, spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsum Spartina old name, sparton, for various plants used for making ropes Spartium Binding or Broom, spartion, diminutive of sparton (former uses for binding and sweeping) spartum esparto-providing, rope, sparton (fibre-producing grasses) spath-, spathi-, spatho-, spathus -a -um spathulate-, spathe-, sheath, spatha, spaqh spathaceus -a -um with a spathe-like structure, spatha (bracts or calyx) Spathicarpa Spathed-fruit, spaqh-karpoj (adnation to the spathe) spathiflorus -a -um with flowers having spathe-like bracts, spatha-florum Spathiphyllum Leafy-spathe, spaqh-fullon Spathodea Spathe-like, spaqh-oida (the calyx) spathularis -is -e spoon-shaped, diminutive of spatha (leaf or other organ) spathulatus -a -um, spathuli- shaped like a spoon, diminutive of spatha (see Fig. 6b) spathulifolius -a -um, spathulaefolius -a -um with broadsword-shaped leaves, spathafolium spatulae-, -spatulatus spoon-, -spatulate, from spathula, diminutive of spatha spatiosus -a -um spacious, wide, large, ample, scattered, spartoj, spatiosus speciosissimus -a -um most handsome or showy, superlative of speciosus speciosus -a -um showy, handsome, semblance, good-looking, speciosus spectabilis -is -e admirable, spectacular, good-looking, specto, spectare, spectavi spectatum spectatissimus -a -um the most spectacular, superlative of spectabilis specuicolus -a -um cave-dwelling, inhabiting caves, specus, specus Specularia Mirror, speculum (Specularia speculum, Venus’ looking glass, ϵ Legousia hybrida) specularius -a -um, speculum shining, mirror-like, speculum, speculi speculatrix watcher, feminine form of speculator, from speculor, speculare, speculatus (Iris speculatrix) (however, spekoulatwr executioner) speculatus -a -um shining, as if with mirrors, speculum speculum-veneris Venus’ looking-glass, speculum-(Venus, Veneris) speir- wreathed, twisted-, coiled, spira, speira Speirantha Twisted-flower, or Wreathed-flowers, speira-anqoj speiranthus -a -um with twisted flowers, speira-anqoj speirea scattered, spreading, speirw speirostachyus -a -um twisted or spiralled spikes, speira-staxuj spelta medieval Latin from an old Saxon name, spelta, for a bearded wheat with two-grained spikelets 357

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    Horses-Store.com and Serpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….
    Horses-Store.com - Serpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….
    Horses-Store.com and Serpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….
    Horses-Store.com - Serpentine : Possibly a corruption of Naaman a Semitic name for Adonis….