Shoulder-In : For the shoulder in it is not just a matter….

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with firm belief in our mission statement of More People, More Places, More Medals and More Horses.

We have at our heart our Equality policy supported by a Coaches Code of Conduct and effective communication with opportunities supported by fair, open and transparent recruitment and selection policies and procedures that follow the same principles.

All our member organisations have approved and adopted the BEF Equality Policy and are working to the same principles thereby influencing opportunities for 250,000 individual members and an industry that represents 4.3 million participants.

Equality in equestrianism is about making sure everyone has a chance to be involved.

It is also about encouraging and increasing the involvement of groups at all levels of equestrian activity by recognising that inequalities exist and taking steps to address them by creating opportunities where currently there are few available. Appendix 8 Music Licence Dressage to Music – PPL Licence requirements.

The Licence that British Dressage have negotiated with PPL enables our members to use, according to the terms of the Licence, PPL repertoire music in affiliated Dressage to Music Competitions.

However members can also use non PPL music.

British Dressage Members wishing to take part in affiliated DTM classes must read the Licence Agreement and then read and sign the Sub-Licence Agreement which is attached to it.

The Sub-Licence Agreement must then be sent to British Dressage as soon as possible.

As well as the Sub-Licence Agreement members will also be required to forward a copy of the “Music Licence Record Form”.

This Form records the nature and length of tracks that are on the members CD/minidisc.

You can check if your music is PPL or not by looking on the PPL repertoire list.

To obtain a PPL repertoire please phone or e-mail the Music Membership Officer at British Dressage.

If the source of the music is not shown on the PPL list, it should be assumed that it is non PPL and a note should be put on the music licence record form stating this.

If the label name cannot be found, a note stating that it has not been possible to source the music should be shown on the music licence record.

The label name that appears on the PLL repertoire list needs to be cross referenced with the label name that appears on your disc.

PPL will not appear on the disc anywhere.

There are always numerous pieces of information contained on a CD inlay card such as label, music publishing company, distributor etc.

The label releasing the album can usually be found on either the spine of the CD or on the back cover near a P in a circle.

Once you have sent these forms in you will receive sticky labels back which you can use to display the information about the music you have used on Dressage to Music – PPL Licence requirements.

Novice and Elementary classes, including qualifiers, may be run in either a 20 x 40m or 20 x 60m arena.

All classes from Medium upwards and Championship classes for all levels will be run in a 20 x 60m arena.

Riders competing as Music Members must upgrade to Full Membership and register the horse to compete in a Regional Championships or any other Championship. Appendices 81 Appendices (continued) Appendix 9 The scales of training The way of going Dressage is about retaining and developing each horse’s natural athleticism.

We want him to do the movements but not dourly and subserviently.

We want him to be willing and gymnastic, and the way of going is just as important as achieving the technical requirements (such as halting four square).

More and more emphasis is being put on the way of going, the quality of the work, and it is no longer sufficient to simply do the movements.

For the shoulder-in it is not just a matter of checking the angle and positioning but also whether the horse has rhythm.

Suppleness, contact, impulsion, straightness and collection.

Similarly for lengthened strides and the judge should ask not just: “was there lengthening?” but also: “was there rhythm, suppleness, contact, straightness?” The most tried and tested ways of understanding the way of going are the German Scales of Training.

These are what the riders in the most successful dressage nation in the world learn in their early years of riding and what the leading international judges talk about at the seminars they give.

Those Scales of Training are: • • • • • • Rhythm Suppleness Contact Impulsion Straightness and eventually, Collection Appendices As a rule the training scales are approached in that order but there are times when one is skipped over to work on another.

However, until the horse works with Rhythm, it will be difficult to make him Supple, and until Supple, Contact will be spasmodic and until the Contact is true, Impulsion will be illusive.

Also the scales should improve and be of a higher standard the more advanced the training.

Therefore the Suppleness accepted in a young novice horse as being good enough to start working more on the Contact and Impulsion will be much less than that expected in a horse that is advanced enough to learn flying changes. Rhythm Rhythm should be both: 1.

Regular, that is correct for each pace.

In the walk there should be four hoof beats – in a marching time.

In the trot two hoof beats – the legs move in diagonal pairs plus a moment of suspension when all legs are off the ground.

In the canter three hoof beats – only one diagonal pair move together and there is a moment of suspension. 2.

The same tempo (speed of the rhythm) and this should have a pronounced beat to it.

The horse should not speed up or slow down whether he is going around a corner or on a straight line, whether he is lengthening his strides or shortening them. Suppleness The aim is that the horse’s muscles have tone and are free from resistance, his joints are loose and he does not tighten against the rider’s aids.

The muscles that are really important are those over the top line from the hind legs over the quarters, loins, in front of the wither and up to the poll.

The test of whether a horse is supple and working ‘through’ the back and neck is that when the rein contact is eased (as in a free walk) the horse wants to stretch forward and down and not try to hollow and lift his head. 82 Contact The ideal contact is a light, even, elastic feel in both reins and this is achieved by aids from the legs and seat, not the hands.

The legs are applied as a driving aid, the horse steps under more and works ‘through’ those muscles along his top line – over the back, neck, through the poll and the rider feels the energy thus created in the reins.

When the contact is established in this way his outline and steps will be ‘round’ not hollow, and in the trot and canter springy and not flat.

The horse’s hindquarters and forehand are connected by that band of muscles over the top line and the rider can feel this in his hands as there will be a lively forward tendency in the reins.

The horse is then said to be ‘connected’. — b) c) 90 Figure of eight This figure consists of two voltes or circles of equal size as prescribed in the test, joined at the centre of the eight.

The athlete should make his horse straight an instant before changing direction at the centre of the figure. Leg-yield The aim of leg yielding: To demonstrate the suppleness and lateral responsiveness of the horse.

Leg-yielding is performed in working trot in FEI competitions.

The horse is almost straight, except for a slight flexion at the poll away from the direction in which it moves, so that the athlete is just able to see the eyebrow and nostril on the inside.

The inside legs pass and cross in front of the outside legs.

Leg-yielding should be included in the training of the horse before it is ready for collected work.

Later on, together with the more advanced shoulder-in movement, it is the best means of making a horse supple, loose and unconstrained for the benefit of the freedom, elasticity and regularity of its paces and the harmony, lightness and ease of its movements.

Leg yielding can be performed “on the diagonal” in which case the horse should be as nearly as possible parallel to the long sides of the arena, although the forehand should be slightly in advance of the hindquarters.

It can also be performed “along the wall” in which case the horse should be at an angle of about 35 degrees to the direction in which he is moving. Appendices The Lateral movements The main aim of lateral movements – except leg-yielding – is to develop and increase the engagement of the hindquarters and thereby also the collection.

In all lateral movements – shoulder-in, travers, renvers, and half-pass, the horse is slightly bent and moves on different tracks.

The bend or flexion must never be exaggerated so that it does not impair the rhythm, the balance and fluency of the movement.

In the lateral movements, the pace should remain free and regular, maintaining a constant impulsion, yet it must be supple, cadenced and balanced.

The impulsion is often lost because of the athlete’s preoccupation with bending the horse and pushing it sideways.


The shoulder-in is performed in collected trot.

The horse is ridden with a slight but uniform bend around the inside leg of the athlete maintaining engagement and cadence and a constant angle of approx. 30 degrees. 91 Appendices (continued) The horse’s inside foreleg passes and crosses in front of the outside foreleg; the inside hind leg steps forward under the horse’s body weight following the same track of the outside foreleg, with the lowering of the inside hip.

The horse is bent away from the direction in which it is moving.


Travers can be performed in collected trot or collected canter.

The horse is slightly bent round the inside leg of the athlete but with a greater degree of bend than in shoulder-in.

A constant angle of approximately 35 degrees should be shown (from the front and from behind one sees four tracks).

The forehand remains on the track and the quarters are moved inwards.

The horse’s outside legs pass and cross in front of the inside legs.

The horse is bent in the direction in which it is moving.

To start the travers, the quarters must leave the track or, after a corner or circle, are not brought back onto the track.

At the end of the travers, the quarters are brought back on the track (without any counter-flexion of the poll/neck) as one would finish a circle.

Aims of travers: To show a fluent collected trot movement on a straight line and a correct bend.

Front and hind legs are crossing, balance and cadence are maintained.


Renvers is the inverse movement in relation to travers.

The hindquarters remain on the track while the forehand is moved inward.

To finish the renvers the forehand is aligned with the quarters on the track.

Otherwise, the same principles and conditions that apply to the travers are applicable to the renvers.

The horse is slightly bent around the inside leg of the athlete.

The horse’s outside legs pass and cross in front of the inside legs.

The horse is bent in the direction in which it is moving.

Aims of renvers: To show a fluent collected trot movement on a straight line with a greater degree of bend than in shoulder-in.

Fore and hind legs cross, balance and cadence are maintained.

Half pass.

Half-pass is a variation of travers, executed on a diagonal line instead of along the wall.

It can be performed in collected trot (and in passage in a freestyle) or collected canter.

The horse should be slightly bent around the inside leg of the athlete and in the direction in which it is moving.

The horse should maintain the same cadence and balance throughout the whole movement.

In order to give more freedom and mobility to the shoulders, it is of great importance that the impulsion be maintained, especially the engagement of the inside hind leg.

The horse’s body is nearly parallel to the long side of the arena with the forehand slightly in advance of the hindquarters.

In the trot, the outside legs pass and cross in front of the inside legs.

In the canter, the movement is performed in a series of forward/sideways strides.

Aims of half-pass in trot: To show a fluent collected trot movement on a diagonal line with a greater degree of bend than in shoulder-in.

Fore and hind legs cross, balance and cadence are maintained.

Aims of the half-pass in canter: To both demonstrate and develop the collection and suppleness of the canter by moving fluently forwards and sideways without any loss of rhythm, balance or softness and submission to the bend. Appendices 92 Leg yielding along the wall Leg yielding on the diagonal Appendices Shoulder in Travers — The impulsion/submission Impulsion is the term used to describe the transmission of an eager and energetic, yet controlled, propulsive energy generated from the hind quarters into the athletic movement of the horse.

Its ultimate expression can be shown only through the horse’s soft and swinging back guided by a gentle contact with the athlete’s hand.

Speed, of itself, has little to do with impulsion; the result is more often a flattening of the paces.

A visible characteristic is a more pronounced articulation of the hind leg, in a continuous rather than staccato action.

The hock, as the hind foot leaves the ground, should first move forward rather than being pulled upwards, but certainly not backwards.

A prime ingredient of impulsion is the time the horse spends in the air rather than on the ground.

Impulsion is, therefore, seen only in those paces that have a period of suspension.

Impulsion is a precondition for a good collection in trot and canter. Appendices If there is no impulsion, then there is nothing to collect.

Submission does not mean subordination, but an obedience revealing its presence by a constant attention, willingness and confidence in the whole behaviour of the horse as well as by the harmony, lightness and ease it is displaying in the execution of the different movements.

The degree of the submission is also demonstrated by the way the horse accepts the bit, with a light and soft contact and a supple poll.

Resistance to or evasion of the athlete’s hand, being either “above the bit” or “behind the bit” demonstrate lack of submission.

The main contact with the horse’s mouth must be through the snaffle bit.

Putting out the tongue, keeping it above the bit or drawing it up altogether, as well as grinding the teeth or agitation of the tail, are mostly signs of nervousness, tension or resistance on the part of the horse and must be taken into account by the judges in their marks for every movement concerned, as well as in the collective mark for “submission”.

The first thought when considering submission is willingness, that the horse understands what is being asked of it and is confident enough in the athlete to react to the aids without fear or tension.

The horse’s straightness, uphill tendency and balance enable it to stay in front of the athlete’s legs and go forward into an accepting and self-carrying contact with the bit.

This is what really produces the picture of harmony and lightness.

The fulfilling of the main requirements/movements of a Dressage test is a main criterion of submission. 96 The collection The aim of the collection of the horse is: To further develop and improve the balance and equilibrium of the horse, which has been more or less displaced by the additional weight of the athlete.

To develop and increase the horse’s ability to lower and engage its hindquarters for the benefit of the lightness and mobility of its forehand.

To add to the “ease and carriage” of the horse and to make it more pleasurable to ride.

Collection is developed through the use of half-halts and the use of lateral movements shoulder-in, travers, renvers and half pass.

Collection is improved and achieved by the use of the seat and legs and containing hands to engage the hind legs.

The joints bend and are supple so that the hind legs can step forward under the horse’s body.

However, the hind legs should not be engaged so far forward under the horse, that they shorten the base of support excessively, thereby impeding the movement.

In such a case, the line of the back would be lengthened and raised too much in relation to the supporting base of the legs, the stability would be impaired and the horse would have difficulty in finding a harmonious and correct balance.

On the other hand, a horse with an over-long base of support, which is unable or unwilling to engage its hind legs forward under its body, will never achieve acceptable collection, characterised by “ease and carriage” as well as a lively impulsion originating from the activity of the hindquarters.

The position of the head and neck of a horse at the collected paces is naturally dependent on the stage of training and, to some degree, on its conformation.

It is distinguished by the neck being raised without restraint, forming a harmonious curve from the withers to the poll, which is the highest point, with the nose slightly in front of the vertical.

At the moment the athlete applies his aids to obtain a momentary and passing collecting effect, the head may become more or less vertical.

The arch of the neck is directly related to the degree of collection. Appendices The position and aids of the athlete 1.

All the movements should be obtained with imperceptible aids and without apparent effort of the athlete.

The athlete should be well-balanced, elastic, sitting deep in the centre of the saddle, smoothly absorbing the movement of the horse with his loins and hips, supple thighs with the legs steady and stretched well down.

The heels should be the lowest point.

The upper part of the body should be tall and supple.

The contact should be independent from the athlete’s seat.

The hands should be carried steadily close together, with the thumb as the highest point and a straight line from the supple elbow through the hand to the horse’s mouth.

The elbows should be close to the body.

All of these criteria enable the athlete to follow the movements of the horse smoothly and freely. 2.

The effectiveness of the athlete’s aids determines the precise fulfilment of the required movements of the tests.

There shall always be the impression of a harmonious co-operation between horse and athlete. 3.

Riding with both hands is obligatory at FEI Dressage Events.

When leaving the arena at a walk on long rein, after having finished the test the athlete may, at his own discretion, ride with only one hand.

For Freestyle tests, see also Directives for Judges – Freestyle tests and Directives for assessing the degree of difficulty in a Freestyle test. 4.

The use of the voice or clicking the tongue repeatedly is a serious fault.

Refer to sanctions/penalties. 97 Appendices (continued) Appendix 12 BRITISH DRESSAGE MEMBERS INSURANCE As part of your membership, you automatically receive equestrian related Personal Liability Insurance, provided you reside in the UK or Eire.

The following pages give full details of the automatic insurances you receive as a member.

As a member of British Dressage you also receive special discounts on certain classes of business purchased via our brokers South Essex Insurance Brokers such as: • • • • • • • • Horse & Pony including Tack Trainers/Grooms High Value Competition Horse Equestrian Yards – Competition, Training, Private Yards, Riding School & Livery yards Horsebox and Trailer Shows and Events (including Cancellation and Abandonment) High Value Household Motor and many more…… Any queries about these covers should be directed to Appendices

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