Snaffle : Walk forward beside the horse as it backs up Easy….

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GIFT VOUCHER - Gift Vouchers - Gifts Horses-store.comSnaffle : Walk forward beside the horse as it backs up Easy….

(Easy) HH46 Q: Explain how to back your horse in showmanship A: Turn to face towards the rear of the horse with your right hand extended.

Walk forward beside the horse as it backs up (Easy) HH24 Q: What is a “junior horse or pony”? A: One that is 5 years of age or younger (Easy) HH24 Q: Generally, in horse shows, when is a snaffle bit or bosal allowed? A: When the horse is age 5 or younger (Easy) HH24 Q: When showing with closed (romal) reins in stock seat equitation, what extra piece of equipment must be attached to the saddle? A: Hobbles (Easy) HH40 Q: What do the following horse show classes have in common: pole bending, dressage & harness ponies? A: They are all performance classes (easy) common knowledge Q: Scurry, potato race, speed barrels & pole bending are all activities seen at what type of equestrian event? A: Gymkhana (games, o-mok-see) (easy) Ref HH24 — (Medium) LTJ12 Q: What is a jump standard? A: Something upon which to set jumps so that heights can be changed (Medium) LTJ23 Q: What is a spread jump? A: Jump with width to it (example – oxer) (Medium) LTJ8 Q: When would you use a Kimberwicke for jumping? A: When you need a bit more control than a snaffle gives (Medium) LTJ6 Q: Why should you wait until your horse is 4 – 5 years old before jumping him? A: Before then, his joints – esp.

The knees – are not mature enough to take the stress of jumping (knees aren’t “closed”) (Medium) LTJ15 Q: While mounted, what is a quick way to determine if your stirrups are the correct length for jumping? A: The stirrup iron should touch the anklebone when foot is out of stirrup (Medium) LTJ16 Q: What is another name for the jumping position? A: Two point (Medium) LTJ18 Q: What causes a horse to stop when a rider looks down at the jump? — (Bonus) LTJ24 Q: Name 3 examples of materials that could be used for variety in making jumps A: Tires, oil barrels straw bales, solid planks – not boards (accept other reasonable answers) (Bonus) LTJ15-21 Q: Other than basic riding skill, name the first 3 steps in learning to jump A: Jumping position, cavaletti, cavaletti & jump (Bonus) LTJ10 Q: Name the 4 basic pieces of equipment for horse & rider when jumping A: Snaffle bit (or pelham, kimberwicke), jump saddle, helmet, tall hunt boots or jodhpur boots (Bonus) LTJ29-35 Q: Name 4 common mistakes made by the rider when jumping A: Banging back when landing, not enough weight in stirrups, ineffective use of legs, gripping too tight with knees, reins too long or too short, uncertain about jumping, not enough warm-up, hands out of position, jumping ahead of horse, looking down, hitting mouth, swinging legs, knees out, elbows flopping, jumping too much (Bonus) LTJ5 Q: Name 3 benefits of jumping for the rider A: Develop a more secure seat, improve horsemanship, develop self-confidence, gain a sense of accomplishment (Bonus) LTJ5 Q: List 2 benefits of jumping for the horse A: Makes horse more balanced, collected & agile Great for conditioning when started slowly — (junior) HIH1100-6 Q: What do you call the leather bridle straps without the bit & reins? A: Headstall (junior) HH29 Q: What is an emergency bridle made of rope called? A: War bridle (junior) HIH1100-8 Q: What bit is most widely used? A: Snaffle (junior) HH34 Q: Where is leather tack most likely to fail? A: Around buckles, bends & attachments (junior) HH34 Q: What one thing should never be done to leather, no matter how wet it gets? A: Never place it near heat (junior) HIH1100-8 Q: In general, how do bits operate? A: By putting pressure on one or more points of the horse’s head (junior) HIH1100-9 Q: What do you call the strap that goes around the horse’s forehead? A: Browband — (junior) HIH1100-8 Q: In addition to ropers, what other type of rider would you see using roping reins? A: Gymkhana (games) riders (junior) HIH1100-1 Q: What is the general term for all of the leather equipment used to ride and/or drive a horse? A: Tack (junior) HIH1100-8 Q: What piece of equipment is used in conjunction with a curb bit, but not normally used with a snaffle bit? A: Curb strap/chain SENIOR Easy (Easy) HH27 Q: A saddle pad cut to fit the shape of the saddle sometimes has a large colorful roll around the edges.

This roll is called what? A: Corona (Easy) HIH1100-3 Q: What does a safety stirrup do? A: In the event of a fall, a heavy rubber band releases which lets the rider’s foot come free of the stirrup (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: Describe a slip ear headstall — (Easy) HIH1100-2 Q: What is a sweat flap? A: Underneath flap of an English saddle (Easy) HIH1100 Q: What is the first step in selecting a saddle? A: Determining which style of riding is preferred (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: The severity of a snaffle bit comes from what? A: Thickness of the mouthpiece (thinner is more severe) (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: When using the terms D-ring, round or full cheek, you are referring to what type of bit? A: Snaffle (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: A rider’s pull on the reins of a snaffle causes what kind of pressure? A: Direct (Easy) HH31 Q: What is the basic foundation of all stock saddles? A: Tree (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: When shanks are added to a bit, what is created? A: Leverage (Easy) HIH1100-10 Q: What bit is capable of acting as 2 bits in one mouthpiece – with 2 sets of reins you have both snaffle & curb action? A: Pelham (not Kimberwicke! – it only uses one rein) (Easy) HIH1100-10 Q: What is another term given to the small ring snaffle which combines with a curb bit to make up a Weymouth set used by many gaited breed riders? A: Bridoon (Easy) HIH1100-10 Q: What is the name for a headstall with a bosal noseband which is sometimes used to train young horses? A: Hackamore or jaquima (easy) HIH1100-2 Q: What material are most English saddles made of? A: Leather (Easy) HIH1100-6 Q: What is the main function of a headstall? A: To hold the bit in place (Easy) HH33 — (Easy) HH34 Q: Why should you sponge your tack after use? A: To remove dirt & sweat (Easy) HH34 Q: What practice can add to the use & life of any leather article? A: Regular cleaning & inspection (Easy) HIH1100-8 Q: What is the mildest type of snaffle? A: Bar mouthpiece (straight/solid bar/one that’s not broken in middle) (Easy) HIH Q: When teaching a horse to neckrein, what is the rein called that pulls in the direction of the turn? A: Leading rein or direct rein (Easy) HH30 Q: What kind of bit is a Tom Thumb? A: Curb (jointed curb) (Easy) HH29 Q: What is a snaffle key bit? A: Snaffle bit with small metal pieces dangling from the center.

It’s used in training colts to the bit (Easy) HH30 Q: How should a horse respond to a curb bit? A: By flexing at the poll (Easy) HH31 Q: How can you remove rust spots from a bit? A: Wipe with steel wool (Easy) HIH1100-5 Q: What was the original purpose of the horn on a Western saddle? A: To tie & hold roped calves & cows (Easy) HH34 Q: Which type saddle does not necessarily require a saddle pad? — (Easy) HIH1125-2 Q: Which piece of tack is used to keep the load from slipping when going downhill? A: Breeching (easy) HIH1125-3 Q: Which piece of tack is used to keep the load from sliding when going uphill? A: Breastcollar (Easy) HIH1100-10 Q: All snaffle bits have a common feature – what is it A: A mouthpiece with rings at each end to which the reins attach (easy) TH783 Q: What is the proper name for a storage room where bridles, saddles & other equipment used in horseback riding are kept? A: Tack room (easy) BEG108 Q: Where on a horse should the girth of an English saddle be? A: Heart girth area (belly area directly behind the front legs) (easy) HIH1100-8 Q: What is the name for the flexible quirt that is attached to California-style reins? A: Romal (easy) HIH1100-10 — (Medium) HIH/HH Q: Where does a properly adjusted hackamore rest on a horse’s nose? A: Four inches from top of nostril or at back of cheek bone (medium) HIH1100-10 Q: Name 2 types of hackamores? A: Bosal, mechanical hackamore (medium) HIH1100-10 Q: What 2 bits does the double bridle use? A: Snaffle (bridoon) & curb (medium) HH31 Q: What is a Liverpool bit? A: Curb bit commonly used for driving (old info said for heavy harness horses) (medium) HH27 Q: What is a bitting rig used for? A: To teach a horse to flex at the poll HH 27 (Medium) HIH1100-3 Q: All stirrups should allow for how much space on each side of the rider’s foot? A: 1 / 4 inch — Q: What do you call the type of Western rein that is one continuous strap? This type helps prevent dropping or losing a rein A: Roping rein (Medium) HIH1100-8 Q: What bit does not apply pressure to the mouth? A: Hackamore bit (Medium) HIH1100-8 Q: Another name for a basic snaffle bit is what? A: Non-leverage bit (direct action bit) (Medium) HIH1100-10 Q: Which bit is similar to a snaffle, except it has slots atop the rings for headstall attachment & hooks for curb chain attachment? A: Kimberwicke (Medium) HIH1100-10 Q: Which curb bit is considered to be the most severe? A: Spade (Medium) HIH1100-10 Q: What is the most common material used in making bits? A: Stainless steel (Medium) HIH1100-10 Q: Which material, when used in a mouthpiece, increases salivation? A: Copper (Medium) HIH1100-2 — (medium) BEG108 Q: What is the name of the strap commonly seen on a Western bridle but not on a simple English bridle? A: Curb strap or curb chain (medium) HIH1100-14 Q: How does leather conditioner work? A; Puts back vital oils (medium) HIH1100-10 Q: Which snaffle bit is more severe – an egg-butt with a mouthpiece as thick as your pinkie or a dee-ring with a mouthpiece as thick as your thumb? A: The eggbutt with the thinner mouthpiece (medium) HIH1100-3 Q: You are looking to purchase an English saddle for your 6’ father who wants to trail ride.

There is a 14” all-purpose saddle advertised in the local paper.

Will this saddle be adequate for your father – explain your answer A: No – the all-purpose type will work BUT the saddle is too small – an adult that size would need a 16-18” saddle (medium) HIH1100-3 Q: How do you measure the size of an English saddle? A: From the saddle nail to the mid-point of the cantle (medium) BEG108 Q: What type of martingale keeps a horse from getting above the bit? A: Standing (medium) HIH1100-6 — (Hard) HIH1100-3 Q: What kind of saddle would you select for a thick-withered English horse? A: English saddle with a wide tree (Hard) HIH1100-8 Q: Bits that use direct pressure on a horse’s mouth also affect which area of the horse’s head? A: Poll (Hard) HIH1100-8 Q: The width of a snaffle bit is very important.

Too narrow may cause ____ and too wide may cause _____? A: narrow – pinching wide – loss of control (Hard) HIH1100-8 Q: When shanks are added to a bit, leverage is created which allows the bit to apply pressure with no direct contact to what two areas? A: Poll & under chin (Hard) HIH1100-10 Q: What equipment should always be treated as a means to an end, used only when needed and then only as long as needed? A: Martingales & drawreins (Hard) HH30 Q: Which type curb produces the most discomfort for a horse & why? A: A jointed mouth because it affects all the pressure points & creates a nutcracker action on bars & tongue — (hard) HIH1100-4 Q: Where on a Western saddle would you find the hobble strap? A: At bottom of fender above the stirrup (hard) BEG108-2 Q: What type of saddle is most noted for the high thigh rolls located near the front of the saddle? A: Australian (hard) HIH1100-10 Q: On a Pelham bridle, which rein functions as the snaffle & which functions as the curb? A: Upper rein is the snaffle & the lower one is the curb (hard) HIH1100-5 Q: What is the purpose of a back cinch on a roping saddle? A: To prevent the saddle from flipping forward (hard) HIH1100-5 Q: What type of saddle am I describing? This light-weight saddle gives the rider a straight leg position & a deep seat for security & balance.

The tall horn gives the rider something to grab on the turns.

The skirts are often rounded. A: Barrel racing saddle (hard) HIH1100-10 Q: What is the name for the strap that holds the snaffle bit in a double bridle? A: Bradoon carrier (hard) HIH/HH Q: Explain the difference between a noseband and a cavesson A: Noseband – piece of bridle that circles the muzzle – is attached to cheekpieces Cavesson – noseband with a poll strap (not attached to cheekpieces) (hard) HIH1100-4 Q: What type of saddle am I describing? This saddle has high “thigh rolls” located near the front of the saddle which keeps the rider firmly in place.

It usually has no horn, & is popular with trail riders A; Australian, Outback or Poley (hard) HIH1100-6 Q: Give 2 uses of a mesh sheet A: Aid in cooling out, keeps flies away — (Bonus) HIH1100-16 Q: What are 3 different types of outerwear for your horse? A: Sheets, blankets, coolers (also accept “sleazies”) (Bonus) `HIH1100-16 Q: The lighter-weight blanket is specifically used for what 2 purposes? A: Shipping or turnout (Bonus) LTJ 7 – 10 Q: Name the 4 basic pieces of equipment for horse & rider used in jumping A: Snaffle bit (also pelham, kimberwicke), jump saddle, helmet, tall hunt boots or jodhpur boots (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: Name 3 areas to which a hackamore applies pressure A: Nose, chin, face, poll, jaw, cheeks (Bonus) HH33 Q: Name 3 things that could happen when a poor-fitting saddle is used on a horse A: Sores, roll on mounting/dismounting, slip & slide during use, horse bucking, horse head tossing, cinchiness (Bonus) HIH1100-2,4 Q: Name the 4 parts of the English & Western saddles that are the same A: Pommel, cantle, seat, skirt (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: Name 3 pressure points on a horse’s head A: Corners of mouth, bars, tongue, roof of mouth, curb groove, nose, poll (Bonus) HIH/LTJ/HH Q: Name 4 types of bits A: Weymouth, pelham, Walking Horse, snaffle, D race bit, hackamore, Liverpool, bar bit, spade bit, kimberwicke, roper curved cheek, half cheek snaffle, full cheek snaffle, tom thumb, etc. (Bonus) HH 34 Q: What 2 products are commonly used to keep leather soft & pliable? A: Leather oil (neat’s foot oil), saddle soap, leather conditioner (Bonus) HH34 Q: When buying any piece of leather goods, what 3 things should you look for? A: Strength, pliability, service (Bonus) HH34 Q: Name 2 reasons a stable is a poor place for leather A: Dampness, ammonia liberated from urine & manure (Bonus) HIH1100-6 — A: England, Australia, Germany, Argentina (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: Describe the following Western headstalls: split ear, slip ear, conventional A: Split ear – crownpiece is split – allowing one ear to slip through Slip ear – small loop designed to go around one ear is added to crownpiece Conventional – has browband similar to English saddle (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: Bits are classified into 3 basic types.

What are they? A: Snaffle, curb, hackamore (Bonus) HIH1100-1,5 Q: All-purpose & dressage are two saddle styles.

Name 3 others A: Western, jumping, gaited (saddle seat), racing, Australian (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: Leverage bits cause pressure to be applied to the poll & under the chin.

Tell what bridle pieces cause this pressure A: Poll – crownpiece under chin – curb strap or chin strap (Bonus) HIH 1100-8 Q: Name 2 purposes of the port on a curb bit A: Relives pressure on the tongue, applies pressure to roof of mouth (Bonus) HH33 Q: Name 3 factors that might contribute to a saddle resting on the horse’s withers instead of clearing them — (Bonus) HIH1100-3 Q: What are 3 criteria for selecting a saddle? A: Must fit the horse, should not interfere with performance or ability of horse to perform, should fit rider physically, be appropriate for desired riding style (Bonus) HH29 Q: Name 3 factors affecting the severity of a bit A: diameter of the mouthpiece (large or small), type of mouthpiece (jointed, port or bar), amount of leverage, position of horse’s head (nose up or flexed at poll) (Bonus) HIH1100-8 Q: What are the 3 pressure points affected by a snaffle bit? A: Corners of mouth, bars, tongue (Bonus) HH31 Q: What are 2 factors a rider should consider when choosing a bit? A: Horse’s stage of training, rider’s personal preference (Bonus) HIH1100-5,6 Q: Name 3 materials used to make Western saddle pads? A: Wool, cotton, sheepskin, synthetic fibers (Bonus) HIH1100-1/LTJ8 Q: Give 3 names for the type of saddle used for saddle seat riding A: Park, cut-back, saddle seat, Lane Fox show (Bonus) HIH1100-6 — (Medium) HIH 1100-10 Q: What is the main advantage of a hackamore in starting young horses in training? A: Hackamore doesn’t injure sensitive tissue in the colt’s mouth, yet provides firm, safe control (medium) common knowledge Q: Name 3 things that you should teach a foal A: Halter break, leading, work with feet, load in trailer, etc. (accept other reasonable answers) (medium) Q: If you are longeing a horse with a snaffle bit, how do you attach the longe line? A: Pass longe line through ring on handler’s side, over the poll & snap it to the offside snaffle ring.

Change sides when you reverse directions LTJ 11 (medium) LTJ11 Q: What can help a horse that is nervous from gymkhana? A: Much loose rein or dressage-type work in arena (or: by work over cavaletti poles) (medium) HIH250-2 Q: What is a major factor in training a horse to perform tasks or maneuvers? A: Consistency (medium) HIH851-9 Q: Once a horse becomes conditioned (fit), what is one of the biggest challenges for the trainer? A: To maintain that degree of fitness (medium) HIH851-9 Q: Approximately how long will a horse remain fit after beginning a layoff?

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