Stirrup : 3 state suitable thread types and sizes Range Leathers Bridle….

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City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Unit 201 Saddle making in the equestrian industry UAN: Level: Credit value: GLH: Relationship to NOS: Endorsement by a sector or regulatory body: Aim: L/504/2447 2 40 220 n/a This unit is endorsed by Skillset, the Sector Skills Council for Creative.

This unit provides a practical introduction to the craft skills and knowledge necessary for the production of saddles.

It aims to assess the ability to use a range of materials, fittings, tools and machinery, in order to select appropriate construction, materials and production skills, together with fostering the ability to transfer skills and techniques used in one discipline to that of another.

It aims to provide the learner with a broad foundation of craft skills using both traditional and modern manufacturing processes. Learning outcome The learner will: 1.

Know the types of materials used in Saddle production Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 list the different leathers used in saddle making 1.2 list fittings used in the production of saddles 1.3 state suitable thread types and sizes Range Leathers Bridle shoulder Flap butt Stirrup butt Panel hide City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 11 Fittings Saddle tree Staples Dees Saddle nails Thread types and sizes Linen thread 18-3 18-4 25-3 Synthetic thread 0.8 1.4 Learning outcome The learner will: 2.

Be able to select appropriate materials for a range of saddle components Assessment criteria The learner can: 2.1 identify the different parts of a hide 2.2 identify the best end and side of a flap butt 2.3 identify hide size and thickness in both imperial and metric measurements 2.4 assess the suitability of different parts of the hide in the selection process 2.5 name the component parts of a rigid and a sprung saddle tree 2.6 check saddle trees for faults 2.7 compare the differences between a rigid and a sprung saddle tree 2.8 select suitable threads for use in saddle making Range Parts of a hide Whole hide, Half a hide/Hide side Pair of Backs Whole middle/Whole butt Pair of butts Shoulder Leather cuts Thicknesses and average size of different cuts Suitability of different parts of the hide Use, Strength, Safety 12 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Saddle tree List components of saddle trees Faults Symmetry, Fatigue, Fittings, Poor finish Differences Substance and weight of saddle trees, One has springs the other not, One flexes the other is rigid Threads used in saddle making Linen thread 18-3 18-4 25-3 Synthetic thread 0.8 1.4 Learning outcome The learner will: 3.

Know the names, uses and maintenance of the different tools used for saddle making Assessment criteria The learner can: 3.1 list the different tools used in saddle making 3.2 state the use of each tool in the making process 3.3 describe how to maintain and store each tool Range Tools Knives Hammer Bull dog pliers Tack lifter Skirt shave Stitch grove Surform Stuffing irons Masher Curved awl Use Cutting out leather Tacking Draw on saddle seat Lift tacks City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) — 15 Unit 202 Bridle making in the equestrian Industry UAN: Level: Credit value: GLH: Relationship to NOS: Endorsement by a sector or regulatory body: Aim: R/504/2448 2 36 165 n/a This unit is endorsed by Skillset, the Sector Skills Council for Creative.

This unit provides a practical introduction to the craft skills and knowledge necessary for the production of bridles.

It aims to assess the ability to use a range of materials, fittings, tools and machinery, in order to select appropriate construction, materials and production skills, together with fostering the ability to transfer skills and techniques used in one discipline to that of another.

It aims to provide the learner with a broad foundation of craft skills using both traditional and modern manufacturing processes. Learning outcome The learner will: 1.

Know the types of materials used in bridle production Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 list the different leathers used in bridle making 1.2 list fittings used in the production of bridle making 1.3 state suitable thread types and sizes Range Leathers Bridle butt Bridle shoulder Rein back Stirrup butt Panel hide 16 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Fittings Head collar buckles Swage buckles Rings Bridle buckles Spiked rings Billet hooks Martingale rings Stirrup buckles Thread types and sizes Linen thread; 3/25, 3/18 and 4/18 Learning outcome The learner will: 2.

Be able to select appropriate materials for a range of bridle components Assessment criteria The learner can: 2.1 identify the different parts of a hide 2.2 identify the best end and side of a bridle butt 2.3 identify hide size and thickness in both imperial and metric measurements 2.4 assess the suitability of different parts of the hide in the selection process 2.5 identify a range of bridle fittings 2.6 assess bridle fittings for faults 2.7 select suitable threads for use in bridle making Range Parts of a hide Whole hide, Half a hide/Hide side Pair of Backs Whole middle/Whole butt Pair of butts Shoulder Suitability of different parts of the hide Leather cuts Thicknesses and average size of different cuts Use, Strength, Safety Bridle fittings Head collar buckles Swage buckles Rings Bridle buckles City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 17 Spiked rings Billet hooks Martingale rings Stirrup buckles Faults Casting Metal fatigue Poor finish Buckle tongues Threads used in bridle making Linen thread; 3/25, 3/18 and 4/18 Learning outcome The learner will: 3.

Know the names, uses and maintenance of the different tools used for bridle making Assessment criteria The learner can: 3.1 list the different tools used in bridle making 3.2 state the use of each tool in the making process 3.3 describe how to maintain and store each tool Range Tools Cutting tools Edge tools Creasing tools Preparation/Marking tools Punching tools Stitch markers Awls Finishing tools Use Cutting out leather Chamfer edges of leather Making an indent Marking for stitching/patterns Making holes Dent marks in the desired area for stitching Makes holes for stitching Polishing and finishing of edges Maintain and store Storing of tools and sharpening of knifes, edge tools and awls 18 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Learning outcome The learner will: 4.

Be able to use the methods and practices of bridle making Assessment criteria The learner can: 4.1 use the skills and techniques required for each of the making processes Range Skills and techniques • Measuring • Cutting • Edge • Stain • Crease • Hole punching • Stitch marking • Skiving • Stitching • Finishing Learning outcome The learner will: 5.

Be able to produce a range of bridle components Assessment criteria The learner can: 5.1 produce samples of a range of bridle making techniques 5.2 produce the following: • Foal slip • Head collar • Bridle • Martingale • Stirrup leathers Range Bridle making techniques Measuring Cutting Edging Staining Creasing Hole punching Stitch marking Skiving Stitching Finishing City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 19 Unit 202 Bridle making in the equestrian Industry Supporting information Evidence requirements You must provide your assessor with evidence for all the learning outcomes and assessment criteria.

The evidence must be provided in the following ways taking into account any of the special considerations below.

Special considerations: The nature of this unit means that most of your evidence must come from real work activities.

Simulation can only be used in exceptional circumstances for example: Where performance is critical or high risk, happens infrequently or happens frequently but the presence of an assessor/observer would prevent the Independent Advocacy relationship developing.

The evidence must reflect, at all times, the policies and procedures of the workplace, as linked to current legislation and the values and principles for good practice in Independent Advocacy. 20 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) — UAN: Level: Credit value: GLH: Relationship to NOS: Endorsement by a sector or regulatory body: Aim: Y/504/2452 2 12 50 n/a This unit is endorsed by Skillset, the Sector Skills Council for Creative.

To proved a sound foundation of relevant and functional information on lorinery (bits and bridling) for the working saddler and equestrian professional. Learning outcome The learner will: 1.

Know the scope of lorinery in the equine industry Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 explain the origins and use of the term lorinery 1.2 identify early and modern lorinery 1.3 list the different categories of lorinery 1.4 explain the purpose of an item in each category Range Lorinery The term Lorinery applies to all the metal parts of a horses saddlery, it includes stirrups, spurs, saddle-trees, horse brasses, harness and all other saddlery furniture as well as bits, a Loriner makes and sell these items.

Early and modern lorinery Bits, spurs and stirrups from between 14-16th century to present date Categories Bits Spurs Stirrups Fittings Saddle trees City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 37 Purpose Bits: a bit is placed in the mouth of a horse and assists a rider in communicating with the animal.

It rests on the bars of the mouth in an interdental region where there are no teeth.

It is held on a horse’s head by means of a bridle and has reins attached for use by a rider.

Spurs: A spur is a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse to move forward or laterally while riding.

It is usually used to refine the riding aids (commands) and to back up the natural aids (the leg, seat, hands and voice) Stirrups: attaches to the saddle for the rider to brace their feet in to, the assist the balance and riding position Fittings: for use in the production of bridle, harness and saddle making Saddle trees: are used as the foundation upon which a saddle is build Learning outcome The learner will: 2.

Know the material components of Lorinery Assessment criteria The learner can: 2.1 list the most common alloys used in bit manufacture 2.2 list the advantages and disadvantages of each alloy 2.3 list the most common alloys used in stirrup and spur manufacture 2.4 list the advantages and disadvantages of each alloy 2.5 list the most common alloys used in buckle manufacture 2.6 list the advantages and disadvantages of each alloy 2.7 list the types of forging 2.8 describe the basic steps of casting Range Common alloys – bit manufacture Stainless steel, nickel, iron, sweet iron, copper, aluminium, aurigan, brass Advantages and disadvantages Stainless Steel – hard wearing, no rusting, smooth – cold, does not encourage salivation, high nickel content Nickel – cheap, no rusting – can flake – not hard wearing, not smooth Iron – Strong, cheap, hard wearing – rusts Sweet iron – taste sugary, encourage salivation – unsightly Copper – conducts heat, corrosion resistant, antibacterial – not strong, expensive, oxidises 38 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Aluminium – light, non toxic, conducts heat corrosion resistant – weak, can break Aurigan – high quality finish, no rusting, warm , encourages salivation – expensive, can look dull Brass – Nice in appearance but soft common alloys – stirrup and spur manufacture stainless steel, nickel, iron, copper, aluminium, aurigan, brass Advantages and disadvantages Stainless Steel – hard wearing, no rusting, smooth – high nickel content Nickel – cheap, no rusting – can flake – not hard wearing, not smooth Iron – Strong, cheap, hard wearing – rusts Copper – Corrosion resistant, – Not strong, expensive, oxidises Aluminium – light, corrosion resistant – weak, can break Aurigan – high quality finish, no rusting,– expensive, can look dull Brass – Nice in appearance but soft Common alloys – buckle manufacture Stainless steel, nickel, iron, copper, aluminium, aurigan, brass Advantages and disadvantages Stainless Steel – hard wearing, no rusting, smooth- high nickel content Nickel – cheap, no rusting – can flake- not hard wearing, not smooth Iron – Strong, cheap, hard wearing – rusts Copper –Corrosion resistant, – Not strong, expensive, oxidises Aluminium – Light, corrosion resistant – weak, can break Aurigan – high quality finish, no rusting,– expensive, can look dull Brass – Nice in appearance but soft Types of forging Upsetting Swaging Bending Welding City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 39 Punching Cutting out Basic steps of casting Obtaining the casting geometry Pattern making Moulding box and materials Core making Moulding Melting and pouring Cleaning and Finishing Learning outcome The learner will: 3.

Understand the principals of bitting Assessment criteria The learner can: 3.1 state the reason for bitting and bridling a horse 3.2 name the points of the horse head 3.3 identify the skeletal structure of the horse’s head 3.4 identify the dental arcade of a horse 3.5 describe the how to inspect a horse’s mouth 3.6 explain the role of the Equine Dental Technician or Vet 3.7 identify the seven points of bitting control 3.8 explain the importance of a correct outline 3.9 explain the action of the different groups of bits 3.10 explain the action of a range of mouthpieces Range Reason for bitting and bridling a horse Horses are bitted and bridled to help control speed, direction and performance without the horse experiencing fear or pain.

Points of the horse head Ears, poll, eyes, forehead, face, bridge, nostril, muzzle, mouth, chin grove, cheek, jaw Skeletal structure of the horse’s head Nuchal crest Fossa temporalis Paracondylar process Zygomatic arch Frontal bone Zygomatic bone Mandibular angle Lacrimal bone Maxilla Infraorbital hole Molar teeth 40 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Nasal Bone Nasal cavity Incisival bone Incisor teeth Equine dental arcade Molars, premolars, wolf teeth, canine teeth, incisors Inspect a horse’s mouth A horse/pony should have its mouth and teeth inspected professionally at least every 12 month Equine Dental Technician or Vet To examine teeth and gums to identify symmetry/signs of disease/abnormal wear Rasp rough edges found on teeth Round off the ‘bit seat’ to improve the comfort of the horse when the bit is in his mouth and assist food flow Seven points Roof of mouth, bars, lips/corners, tongue, poll, nose, chin groove Correct outline riding from leg to hand with the bit at the end of the line of command rather than the beginning action of different groups of bits Snaffles – pressure on bars, lips and tongue Curb – pressure on tongue lips, chin, bars, roof, poll Gag – pressure on bars, poll, lips, tongue Pelham – pressure on tongue, lips, chin, bars, roof Bitless – nose, poll, chin action of a range of mouthpieces Snaffles – upward action Curb – encourages the horse to lower the head and flex Gag – upward lift to head Pelham – lower and flex head Bitless – bringing the head inwards successful bitting families of bitting correct sizing effects of nosebands and martingales Bit must suet the conformation of the individual horses mouth the properties of the different materials used in bit manufacturer Routine checks of the horses mouth City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 41 Learning outcome The learner will: 4.

Know how to correctly size lorinery Assessment criteria The learner can: 4.1 describe how to size a bit 4.2 explain how to size a saddle tree 4.3 explain how to size stirrups 4.4 explain how to size rings 4.5 explain how to size buckles Range Size a bit Width of horse’s mouth plus I cm or half an inch allowance at either side of the mouth inside the rings Size a saddle tree Width, length, contour Size stirrups Size of boot with half an inch allowance either side of the boot Size rings Rings are sized by measuring the inside diameter Size buckles Buckles are sized in both imperial measurements; the buckle is measured across for the width that needs to fit the strap.

Learning outcome The learner will: 5.

Be able to fit a range of lorinery Assessment criteria The learner can: 5.1 list the aspects to consider when selecting and fitting a bit 5.2 describe the signs of bitting discomfort 5.3 explain the mouth conformation considerations to take in to account when fitting bits. 5.4 fit a saddle tree to a horse 5.5 explain how the saddle tree fits the horse Range Aspects to consider Work being done Stable Management Ability of the rider Age of the horse 42 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) Horse’s history Mouth conformation Signs of bitting discomfort Head shaking Bit resistance Being behind the bit Being over bent Being on the forehand Quidding (dropping food from the mouth) Lugging (Pulling to one side) Head too high or to low Mouth conformation considerations Allowance for the tongue, height of roof of the mouth etc.

Transferred pressures in bitting when related to varied mouth conformations Saddle tree fits Too wide, long, narrow, too small, not following horse contour curved, flat, well fitting, correct length, correct width, following horse contour.

Learning outcome The learner will: 6.

Be able to select lorinery for use in the manufacture of saddlery Assessment criteria The learner can: 6.1 explain the purpose of the British standard specification for saddle trees 6.2 explain how to recognise a British standard saddle tree 6.3 identify the different types of stirrup bars 6.4 list the different buckles used in saddlery manufacture 6.5 explain the uses of type of different buckles 6.6 explain how to recognise faults in buckles, fittings, spurs, stirrups and bits 6.7 describe how to maintain and store a range of Lorinery Range Purpose Symmetry, metal quality, load, material quality, strength British standard saddle tree Stamped BS 6635:2003 for wooden saddle trees and BS7875:2009 for synthetic saddle trees Types of stirrup bars Open ended stirrup bars Thumb catch stirrup bars City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 43 Inset/Recessed stirrup bars Adjustable stirrup bars Felt pad stirrup bars Side saddle stirrup bar Double stirrup bars Buckles Bridle buckles for bridle work, harness buckles for harness work Faults buckles – casting faults, finishing faults, metal fatigue, cracks, rough edges fittings – buckles – casting faults, finishing faults, metal fatigue, cracks, rough edges spurs – buckles – casting faults, finishing faults, metal fatigue, cracks, rough edges stirrups – buckles – casting faults, finishing faults, metal fatigue, cracks, rough edges bits – buckles – casting faults, finishing faults, metal fatigue, cracks, rough edges Maintain and store Many cleaning products contain ammonia, weak acids, solvents, waxes, and fats which may have an adverse effect on metal objects.

Use caution when using spray air fresheners and other cleaning products.

Try to keep items in dry conditions and out of direct light and in cases which prevent dust and dirt from entering them. 44 City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) The principles of lorinery in the equine industry Supporting information Unit 206 Evidence requirements You must provide your assessor with evidence for all the learning outcomes and assessment criteria.

The evidence must be provided in the following ways taking into account any of the special considerations below.

Special considerations: The nature of this unit means that most of your evidence must come from real work activities.

Simulation can only be used in exceptional circumstances for example: Where performance is critical or high risk, happens infrequently or happens frequently but the presence of an assessor/observer would prevent the Independent Advocacy relationship developing.

The evidence must reflect, at all times, the policies and procedures of the workplace, as linked to current legislation and the values and principles for good practice in Independent Advocacy. City & Guilds Level 2 Diploma in Saddle, Harness and Bridle Making (0101-02) 45

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    Horses-Store.com and Stirrup : 3 state suitable thread types and sizes Range Leathers Bridle….
    Horses-Store.com - Stirrup : 3 state suitable thread types and sizes Range Leathers Bridle….