Suspensory Ligament : pulled suspensory Suspensory ligament injury suspensory desmitis in which some….

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is running for president of the breeders association.

Joe De Francis, president of the Maryland Jockey Club.

See capitalization, President. sentence more direct.

Prepurchase – one word, no hyphen prerace presale president Capitalize as a formal title before one or more names.

President Clinton, Presidents Ford and Carter, Maryland Jockey Club President Joe De Francis.

Lowercase all other uses.

He had not yet consulted with the prince on the mare’s next race. principle of self-determination. principal (n.

And adj.) Someone or something in first rank, authority, importance, or degree.

She is the school principal.

He was the principal player.

Principle A fundamental truth, law, doctrine, or motivating force.

They fought for the printout Prix St.

Georges – Dressage Today prize money pro- Use a hyphen when coining words that denote support for something.

Pro-labor, pro-active produce profanity THOROUGHBRED TIMES policy bars profanity and obscenity in its pages, either in narrative or in quotations.

Mild, common expletives such as hell and damn may be used in quoted matter at the discretion of the editor.

Do not alter quotations, such as changing damn to darn.

Program line Probable odds on each horse in a race, as determined by a mathematical formula used by the track odds maker, who tries to gauge both the ability of the horse and the likely final odds as determined by the bettors.

These odds are published in the track’s official program and formerly were known as the morning line.

Prop When a horse suddenly stops moving by digging its front feet into the ground.

Pro rodeo ProRodeo Hall of Fame proselytize proximal Toward the body; the proximal cannon region is the upper portion of the cannon bone.

Public trainer One whose services are not exclusively engaged by a single stable and who accepts horses from a number of owners.

Pulled suspensory Suspensory ligament injury (suspensory desmitis) in which some portion of the fibers of the ligament have been disrupted and some loss of support of the distal limb may have occurred.

Pull up To stop or slow a horse during or after a race or workout.

Punctuation See ampersands, apostrophes, brackets, bullets, colons, commas, dashes, ellipsis, exclamation points, hyphens, parentheses, periods, questions marks, quotation marks, semicolons, slashes.

Purebred purse The total monetary amount distributed after a race to the owners of the entrants finishing in the top positions, usually five.

Some racing jurisdictions may pay purse money through other places.

Push-button (adj.) purebred pro-peace, pro-business. Q quarantine barn 1) A U.S.

Department of Agriculture structure used to isolate foreign horses for a short period of time to ensure they are not carrying any diseases.

The structure may be at a racetrack, airport, or specially designated facility.

Horses must be cleared by a federal veterinarian before being released from quarantine. 2) Any facility used to keep infected horses away from the general equine population.

Quarter boots quarter crack A crack of the hoof between the toe and heel, usually extending into the coronary band.

Quarter Horse Breed of horses.

See breeds.

A quarter-interest quarter-mile quarterline – Dressage Today quarter pole queen Capitalized only when used with a name.

Queen Elizabeth II.

On her most recent queen mother Mother of the reigning monarch.

Question marks Follows a direct question.

What happened to Jones? Queen’s Plate shoe quick-hitch harness quinella Wager in which the first two finishers must be picked in either order.

Quotation marks Punctuation marks are used to enclose: Direct quotations.

Phrases in ironical uses, around slang expressions, misnomers.

This should be used sparingly.

Titles of short poems, short stories, short essays, songs, short musical compositions, chapters of a book, television programs, articles in publications, and departments in THOROUGHBRED TIMES such as “Viewpoint” or “Veterinary Topics.” Italics are used for names of movies, books, long poems, etc.

Full a full list, see italics, titles.

Nicknames apart from the name. “Cowboy Jack” Kaenel, “Sunny Jim” Fitzsimmons.

See nicknames.

In quoted matter of more than one paragraph, use the opening quotation marks on each paragraph and only use the ending quotation marks on the final paragraph.

Avoid placing quotation marks around single words or short phrases in a sentence, as in Truman said he was “delighted” to be in the winner’s circle.

In this case, the quotation marks can be eliminated.

Use close-quote marks at the end of a paragraph if the quoted material does not constitute a full sentence.

For example: He said he was “shocked and horrified by the incident.” (new paragraph) “I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.” See AP Stylebook punctuation guide for further examples and explanation.

If you have a quoted sentence or part of a sentence within text you are already quoting, the second quote should have single quotation marks surrounding it.

If the second quote is at the end of the primary quote, you should put ending punctuation, single quote, space, and double quotation marks.

John Smith said “I was Conventions governing the use of quotation marks with other forms of punctuation are as follows: a) The comma and the period are always enclosed within quotation marks.

B) The colon and semicolon are never enclosed within quotation marks.

C) The dash, question mark, and exclamation mark are enclosed within quotation marks if they apply to the quoted material.

They are placed after the quotation marks if they apply to the whole sentence. “Am I going too?” she asked.

Did visit to the United States, the queen visited Lane’s End. having a really good time watching the race until my brother said, ‘That was your horse that broke down.’ ” In headlines, quoted material is enclosed in single quotation mark.

Quotes THOROUGHBRED TIMES policy is to leave direct quotations as is.

If it is not a direct quote, or if there is a problem with a quote and it needs to be changed, do not enclose in quotation marks. she say, “I am going too”? R — sportpony, sport pony – style varies, sportpony used by ASPR; sport pony used by Canadian Sport Horse Association sport of kings If you insist on using this worn-out synonym, it is not capitalized.

See run for the roses.

Sprawly sprint Short race, less than one mile.

Spurmaker squaregaited, squaregaiter stable companion stableboy stable hand stablemate stakes Never stake.

A race for which the owner usually must pay a fee to run a horse.

The fees can be for nominating, maintaining eligibility, entering, and starting; the track adds additional money to make up the total purse.

Some stakes races are by invitation and require no payment or fee.

Stakes-placed Finished second or third in a stakes race.

Stakes horse A horse whose level of competition includes mostly stakes races.

Stakes race stakes winner stallion A male horse used for breeding.

See sire. Bluegrass State, Golden State, Lone Star State, Keystone State. stallion season The right to breed one mare to a specific stallion during one breeding season.

Stallion share A lifetime right to breed one mare to a specific stallion each breeding season.

Although generally limited to one mare per season per share, larger stallion books have in some cases allowed share owners to breed more than one mare each year.

Stallion share owners are usually assessed a proportionate share of expenses and will also share in any bonuses.

Stall-walker, stall-walking stall walker Horse that moves about its stall constantly and frets rather than resting. (Hyphen use varies by publication) standing bandages See bandage.

Standout (n.

And adj.) Statehouse – Capitalize only when referring to a specific statehouse.

Star 1) Any of a number of white markings on the forehead. (The forehead is defined as being above an imaginary line connecting the tops of the eyes.) 2) A type of credit a horse receives from the racing secretary if it is excluded from an over-filled race, giving it priority in entering future races.

Starter 1) An official responsible for ensuring a fair start to the race.

The starter supervises the loading of horses into the starting gate by assistant starters who collectively are known as a gate crew.

The starter also has control of the opening the gate. 2) A horse that is in the starting gate when the race begins, whether he runs or not.

Starter race An allowance or handicap race restricted to horses that have started for a specific claiming price or less.

Starter’s car starting gate Partitioned mechanical device having stalls in which the horses are confined until the starter releases the stalls’ confined front doors to begin the race.

States – AP Style below Ala. (AL.) Alaska (AK) Ariz. (AZ) Ark. (AR) Calif. (CA) Colo. (CO) Conn. (CT) Del. (DE) Fla. (FL) Ga. (GA) Hawaii (HI) Idaho (ID) Ill. (IL) Ind. (IN) Iowa (IA) Kan. (KS) Ky. (KY) La. (LA) Md. (MD) Maine (ME) Mass. (MA) Mich. (MI) Minn. (MN) Miss. (MS) Mo. (MO) Mont. (MT) Neb. (NE) Nev. (NV) N.H. (NH) N.J. (NJ) N.M. (NM) N.Y. (NY) N.C. (NC) N.D. (ND) Ohio (OH) Okla. (OK) Ore. (OR) Pa. (PA) R.I. (RI) S.C. (SC) S.D. (SD) Tenn. (TN) Texas (TX) Utah (UT) Vt. (VT) Va. (VA) Wash. (WA) W.

Va. (WV) Wis. (WI) Wyo. (WY) state names Always spelled out in editorial copy; abbreviated in stakes shells denoting place where bred.

Use New York state when necessary to distinguish from New York City; use Washington state when necessary to distinguish the state from the District of Columbia.

State is capitalized when used in a nickname.

Pelican State, state-bred statewide stationary/stationery – Stationary means to be at a standstill; stationery is what we write on.

Stayer A horse that can race long distances successfully.

Steadied A horse being taken in hand by its rider, usually because of being in close quarters.

Steppingstone (n.) step up A horse moving up in class to meet better competition.

Steward Official of the race meeting responsible for enforcing the rules of racing.

Treated as a title before a name and capitalized.

Steward Walter Blum. steeplechase A race in which horses are required to jump a series of obstacles on the course.

Steeplechase races in the United States are run over National Fences (artificial brush fences), natural brush fences, and timber fences.

In England and Ireland, jump races are over hurdles and steeplechase fences.

Steer roper step-by-step Stewart Fraser Memorial USTA race stick A jockey’s whip.

Sticker See calk.

Stifle The large joint above the hock is made up by the femur, patella, and tibia.

Stirrups Metal D-shaped rings into which a jockey places his or her feet.

They can be raised or lowered by shortening or lengthening the leather straps that connect the stirrups to the saddle.

Also known as irons.

Stock horse stock in trade stock seat – hyphenate only when used as a compound modifier, stock-seat equitation.

Stockings Solid white markings extending from the top of the hoof to the knee or hock.

Also called socks.

Stone English system of weights is based on stones.

A stone is equal to 14 pounds; thus, 126 pounds is nine stone.

Stone dust stop To get a mare in foal.

Stress (fracture) A fracture produced by the stress created by the repetitive stress placed on a bone, usually in athletic training.

Usually seen in the front of the cannon bone as a severe form of bucked shins.

Also seen in the tibia and causes a hard-todiagnose hind-limb lameness. (home) stretch Final straight; portion of the racetrack from the end of the final turn to the finish line.

Stretch call Position of horses at the eighth pole, or one-eighth mile from the finish.

Stretch runner (n.) Horse that runs fastest nearing the finish of a race.

Stretch-running (adj.) stretch turn Bend of track into the final straightaway.

Stride Manner of going.

Also, distance covered between successive imprints of the same hoof.

Stripe A white marking running down a horse’s face, starting under an imaginary line connecting the tops of the eyes.

Stud 1) Male horse used for breeding. 2) A breeding farm.

Stud book Registry and genealogical record of Thoroughbreds, maintained by the Jockey Club of the country in question.

Use lowercase when describing a generic stud book.

See American Stud Book.

Style usage See contractions, cutlines, fractions, headings, italics, money, percent, photo credit, plurals and possessives, prefixes and suffixes, profanity, subheads, tense, which and that, who and whom.

Subcommittee – One word.

Lowercase unless part of an official title.

Subfertile subhead Appears under headlines with first word capitalized and no ending period.

Subscription Fee paid by owner to nominate a horse for a stakes race or to maintain eligibility for a stakes race.

Substitute race Alternate race used on overnight sheets to replace a regularly scheduled race that does not fill or is canceled.

Suckling A foal in its first year of life, while it is still nursing.

Suffixes See prefixes.

Sulk When a horse refuses to extend itself.

Sulkymaker summertime superhorse superficial flexor tendon Present in all four legs, but injuries most commonly affect the front legs.

Located on the back (posterior) of the front leg between the knee and the foot and between the hock and the foot in the rear leg.

Functions are to flex the digit (pastern) and knee (carpus), to extend the elbow on the front leg, and to extend the hock on the rear leg.

Functions in tandem with the deep flexor tendon.

Superior check ligament Fibrous band of tissue that originates above the knee and attaches to the superficial flexor tendon.

Primary function is support of this tendon.

Accessory ligament of the superficial flexor tendon.

Super-sire superstart super-trotter superior achievement certificate – ApHC, lower case except if abbreviated S.A.C.

Superior event award, ApHC, lower case Superior, APHA, AQHA capitalize suspensory ligament Originates at the back of the knee (front leg) and the back of the top part of the cannon bone (hind leg), attaching to the sesamoid bones.

The lower portion of the ligament attaches the lower part of the sesamoid bones to the pastern bones.

Its function is to support the fetlock.

The lower ligaments that attach the sesamoid bone to the pastern bones are the distal sesamoidean ligaments.

Swayback Horse with a prominent concave shape of the backbone, usually just behind the withers (saddle area).


Sweepstakes swipe Archaic term for a groom.

Synchronous diaphragmatic flutter A contraction of the diaphragm in synchrony with the heartbeat after strenuous exercise.

Affected horses have a noticeable twitch or spasm in the flank area that may cause an audible sound, hence the term thumps.

Most commonly seen in electrolyte-depleted or exhausted horses.

The condition resolves spontaneously with rest.

Synovial fluid Lubricating fluid contained within a joint, tendon sheath, or bursa.

Synovial joint A movable joint that consists of articulating bone ends covered by articular cartilage held together with a joint capsule and ligaments and containing synovial fluid in the joint cavity.

Synovial sheath The inner lining of a tendon sheath that produces synovial fluid.

Allows ease of motion for the tendons as they cross joints.

Synovitis Inflammation of a synovial structure, typically a synovial sheath. T TCSA, Transported Cooled Semen Available TRA, Thoroughbred Racing Associations TVG, Television Games Network T-shirt tack (n.) 1) Rider’s racing equipment.

Also applied to stable gear. (v.) 2) A jockey and equipment.

He tacks 112 pounds.

Tack room, tackroom – varies tackmaker tail-male (-female) A horse’s ancestry from sire to grandsire to great-grandsire, etc., tracing back to one of the three foundation sires (or along the female line from dam to grandam to great-grandam, etc., back to the original foundation mares.

Tagamet Trade name for the drug cimetidine, a medication used to treat ulcers.

Tail off 1) Describes a fit horse losing its competitive edge. 2) When a horse slows down and loses contact with the field in a race.

Tail wind take out (v.) takeout (n.

And adj.) Commission deducted from mutuel pools that is shared by the track, horsemen (in the form of purses), and local and state governing bodies in the form of tax.

Also called take.

Taken up A horse pulled up sharply by its rider due to being in close quarters.

Takeoff- one word when used as a noun tailgate tape See barrier.

Tape-delay Tattersalls Pace USTA race tax-deductible tattoo A permanent, indelible mark on the inside of the upper lip used to identify the horse.

Teaser A male horse used at breeding farms to determine whether a mare is ready to receive a stallion.

Telephone numbers – parentheses around the area code.

Teletheater Special facility for showing simulcast races.

Teletimer Electronic means to time races, including fractional times at various points of call.

The lead horse trips an electronic beam of light and the clockings are transmitted instantly to the tote board.

Television networks National networks are well known and identified in all references by their abbreviations with the exception of the Fox network.

The major national networks are ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox.

The national networks are not stations and therefore do not carry the designation –TV.

Cable networks follow the same rules.

He was a broadcaster for the ESPN cable network before making the jump to NBC.

Local television and radio stations carry the appropriate identifying suffix, such as WHAS-TV, WQXR-FM, and WFIL-AM.

Television Use on first reference.

Tempi changes tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon.

Frequently misspelled as tendonitis.

Tendon Cords of strong, white (collagen) elastic fibers that connect a muscle to a bone or other structure and transmit the forces generated by muscular contraction to the bones.

Tenses (sequence of) A verb in a subordinate clause is adjusted to agree with the tense of the main clause.

Incorrect: He said he will complete his rehabilitation by Derby day.

Correct: He said he would complete his rehabilitation by Derby day.

Test-bred, test-breeding Tepee Texas Panhandle thanks to Thanks to should be used very, very infrequently and only in situations where there is something to be thankful about.

That and which Use that and which for inanimate objects and animals without a name.

When an essential or nonessential clause refers to a human being or animal with a name, the clause should be introduced by who or whom.

Do not use commas if the clause is essential to the meaning; use them if it is not.

See essential clauses, nonessential clauses.

The For style rules when the word the is used preceding the name of an organization and when it can be omitted, see articles, organizations.

The Curragh Racecourse in Ireland.

The first seven-eighths of a mile the last eighth of a mile the last half-mile the last half the eight-hole The Thoroughbred Center Training center located on Paris Pike near Lexington.

There A sentence containing the phrase there is or there are wastes two words.

Rewrite to eliminate a wasteful locution.

Thermography Diagnostic technique using instrumentation that measures temperature differences.

Records the surface temperature of a horse.

Unusually hot or cold areas may be indicative of some underlying pathology (deviation from the normal).

Third Level – Dressage Today third phalanx See coffin bone.

Thoroughbred – style varies by publication, either JC for Jockey Club, or TB Thoroughbred All modern Thoroughbreds track in male line to one of the three founding sires—the Darley Arabian, Byerly Turk, and Godolphin Barb.

The horse also must have satisfied the rules and requirements of the Jockey Club for inclusion in the American Stud Book, or it is registered in a foreign stud book recognized by the Jockey Club and the International Stud Book Committee.

The word Thoroughbred THOROUGHBRED TIMES Buyer’s Guide THOROUGHBRED TIMES TODAY is capitalized in all uses as a breed of horses.

Thoroughbred Racing Associations An industry group founded in 1942 and comprising many racetracks in North America.

Should always be Associations, not Association.

Abbreviated TRA on second reference.

Thoroughbred Record, The Established 1875.

Last issue published May 1990.

Name is italicized in editorial reference.

THOROUGHBRED TIMES Small caps in editorial.

Founded in 1985.

Never use “the” preceding its name.

Never italicized. thoroughpin Swelling of the synovial sheath of the deep flexor tendon above the hock.

Three-in-one three-quarter pole three-quarter brother, three-quarter sister If one horse is by a particular stallion out of a particular mare, his three-quarter sibling would be either: A) by a son of his sire out of the same dam; or B) by the same stallion out of a daughter of his dam.

For example, a three-quarter brother to A.P.

Indy (Seattle Slew—Weekend Surprise) would be by a son of Seattle Slew and out of Weekend Surprise OR by Seattle Slew and out of a daughter of Weekend Surprise.

Throatlatch through, not thru thumbs-up thumps See synchronous diaphragmatic flutter.

Tie-back surgery A procedure (laryngoplasty) used to suture the arytenoid cartilage out of the airway.

See roaring.

Tie-down tie up (v.) tie-up (n.

And adj.) tied-up tight Vernacular for fit and ready to race.

Tightener 1) A race used to give a horse a level of fitness that cannot be obtained through morning exercise alone. 2) A leg brace.

Timber topper Jumper or steeplechase horse.

More properly, horses jumping over timber fences.

The phrase is vaguely derogatory, so it should be avoided.

Time of day Use Arabic numerals for all hours of the day. 3 p.m., 5:30 a.m.

Do not use a colon and minutes with exact hours.

In the above example, 3 p.m.

Is the correct usage rather than 3:00 p.m.

Avoid redundancies such as 12 noon, 12 midnight, 3 p.m.

In the afternoon and 5:30 a.m.

In the morning.

However, 3 o’clock in the afternoon and 5:30 in the morning are acceptable but waste space.

When necessary, as in calendar or television listings, time zones are abbreviated without periods.

The Pacific Classic Stakes (G1) television coverage will begin at 5 p.m.



Times Fractional and final race times are reported in hundredths of a second.

For races before 1991, when Equibase began compiling times in hundreds, fifths of a second are used.


Prospector set a six-furlong track record of 1:074⁄5 at Gulfstream Park in time frame time slot time trial titles Italicize titles of books, magazines, newspapers (but not the city or place), plays, movies, long musical compositions, long poems, and names of trains, planes, and ships.

See abbreviations.

See quotation marks for rules for short stories, short essays, songs, television programs, etc.

Titles (corporate) Churchill Downs Senior Vice President and General Counsel Alexander Waldrop …” Long initial cap titles such as the above should be avoided.

The preferred form is Alexander Waldrop, Churchill Downs’s senior vice president and general counsel, …

Titles that modify the name (preceding it, as in the first example), are capitalized.

Churchill Downs Inc.

President Thomas Meeker …

Titles used in apposition (enclosed in commas and following the name) are not capitalized.



Van 1973.

Artax equaled that mark in the 1999 Breeders’ Cup Sprint (G1), completing six furlongs in 1:07.89.

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