Tapadera : X rays of pommel and cantle construction e pommel off….

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Mexican Saddle F I G U R E S 18, 60 DATE.—Tree, about 1800(?) ; housing, about 1825 to 1850.

ORIGIN.—Mexico. MAKER.—Unidentified. MATERIALS.—Wood, rawhide, tanned leather, copper and silver alloys, iron, animal hair, natural fibers.

DIMENSIONS.—L, 47 cm (I8I/2″) ; W, 36 cm (14″) ; D, 52 cm (201/2″) ; HH, 12 cm (4%”).

LENDER.—El Museo de la Charreria, Toluca, Estado de Mexico, Mexico.

REFERENCE NUMBERS.—Renwick Loan, TL. 20.1974.22; CAL Reports, 1789, 2562.

DETAILS.—The wooden saddletree is partially covered with stitched rawhide, the horned pommel with stitched fine-grained black leather, and the cantle with coarse-grained black leather.

The pommel is covered with a black leather piece adorned with embroidered silver florets and stamped grid design that functions as part of the forward rigging (las reatas).

The upper housing consists of three pieces stitched to- gether: a quilted seat-cover of black leather with forward extensions shaped to close around the base of the horn; and two rear pieces (each with a small jockey) joined behind the cantle.

Silver-thread embroidery runs behind the cantle, across the forward extensions of the seat cover, and around the jockeys.

The square skirts are carved and embroidered in floral patterns, lined with fine-grained black leather, and laced together behind the cantle.

Two rosettes with ties flank each jockey and two appear on each side behind the cantle (on-side ones missing).

Two rosettes and ties are indicated for each pommel shoulder (some are missing).

The single forward rigging consists of replacement latigos (pierced for cinch buckles) and leather-covered latigo rings that hang from wide rigging straps, which are adorned with silver- and brass-thread embroidery and are attached to the pommel cover and behind the cantle by a strap (la contrareata).

The cinch is missing.

Replacement stirrup straps are threaded through rectangular cuts in the tree under the jockeys and buckled (Figure 60/).

Stirrup leather buckles have a ferrous body plated with nickel.

Holding the top of each fender to a loop through which the replaced stirrup strap passes are two-pronged fasteners of the same metals (Figure 60/).

The carved black leather fenders, embroidered with silver thread, are attached at the bottom to the straps by replaced loops (Figure 60h).

The wooden stirrups, covered with fine-grained red leather, hang by round wooden bars.

Stamped and carved black leather stirrup covers are bordered with silverthread embroidery in the same floral design used on the fenders (Figure 60a,h,i).

Replacement rosettes on the stirrup covers anchor hide ties.

The animal fur (goat?) ornament is lined with suede and textile.

On the upper side it FIGURE 60.—Mexican saddle owned by B a r b a b o s a family: a, on-side; b, top view; c, d.

X-rays of pommel and cantle construction; e, pommel, off-side; / , off-side stirr u p leather p a s s i n g t h r o u g h sideboard of s a d d l e t r e e ; g, underside of h a i r o r n a m e n t (vaquerillo), see F i g ure 18 for u p p e r side, h, on-side s t i r r u p cover (tapadera); i, r e a r of off-side s t i r r u p ; j , underside. NUMBER 39 87 NUMBER 39 89 ^ ‘*fh^-^ H — LAS REATAS (front rigging straps) LA CONCHA (rosette) LAS CANTINAS (saddlebags) LA ARGOLLA (ring for rigging straps) EL BASTO (inner skirt or padding) LAS CONTRAREATAS (rear rigging straps) LOS FALDONES (skirts) EL CONTRALATIGO (off-side cinch strap) LA ARGOLLA (ring for the cinch) EL HEBILLON (cinch ring buckle) EL LATIGO (on-side cinch strap) LAS ACIONES (stirrup leathers) EL ESTRIBO (stirrup) LA TAPADERA (stirrup cover) EL PRETAL (breast strap) LA CINCHA (cinch) LOS TIENTOS (ties) FIGURE 83.—Parts of a Mexican stock saddle, about 1930, built on a Chihuahua tree. (Drawn by Paul A.

Rossi.) NUMBER 39 139 SADDLETREE HORN CAP HORN _ CANTLE CANTLE ROLL REAR JOCKEY ROSETTES or CONCHAS LATIGO CARRIER SKIRT — 143 saddle types, Mexican or Spanish (la silla . . . ; also riding styles) saddle types, western U.S.

American (saddle types, EngHsh) : 41, 65, 67 California—a single-rigged saddle, often with long stirrup covers, curved skirts, wrapped horn and carved leather, all in contrast to a doublerigged Texas type: 62 dragoon—the 1833 Grimsley design for the U.S.

Cavalry based on the skeletal Mexican (“Spanish”) saddletree, equipped with skirts and padding; or refers to later military, types: 66, 68, 120 English [la silla inglesa]—light, low-profile hunting or racing type introduced to America in colonial times from England: 41, 48, 62, 67 Hope—a San Antonio, Texas, tree, very popular in Texas, furnished briefly (1857-1858) to the U.S.

Military: 60, 67 Indian—any non-western or non-English type thought to be used by native Americans: 45 McClellan—a design, largely derived from Mexican and western saddles, adopted by the U.S.

Cavalry in the late 1850s; it had no horn, but retained forward rigging and bent-wood stirrups with leather covers: 62 Mexican (la silla vaquera) : 34, 59 pad—an early.

Plains Indian, treeless type, appearing by 1830: 73, 74, 75 prairie chicken snare—the Blackfoot name for a packsaddle modification of the Plains Indian woman’s saddle: 81, 132 ranger—a New York-made type produced for use in Texas; also used by the Union Army in 1861 until McClellans were available: 62 Spanish—the skeletal tree imported into the U.S.

From Mexico, and probably made here by the 1830’s; served as the foundation of many early western stock saddles: 39, 43, 45, 46, 65 Texas (Hope): 67 wagon—a heavy, military type, built on a “Spanish” tree after 1845, used by teamsters; it had a tall, slender horn and a high, steep cantle: 47 wood—^the Blackfoot name for the Plains Indian woman’s light, open saddle framework covered with rawhide, the slender ends rising high and spreading into large, horizontal disks: 76 schab(b)rack (also: mochila)—a removable covering proposed for the dragoon saddle by Grimsley: 65 shield, oval [la adarga]—Spanish type with indented top and bottom: 16 lower shield, round [la rodela]—Spanish type also used in America: 16; S shoulders [los hombros]—outer edge of pommel, type of girthing system (eg forward rigged, double rigged) : 86 rigging dee (dee): 5^ rigging ring [la argolla] (latigo ring) : S5; 84 rigging straps—the leathers attached to the saddletree that support the latigo rings; forward ones [las reatas, los enreatados] are usually wrapped around the pommel in Mexican saddles; rear ones [las contrareatas] pass behind the cantle: 35, 90; 60f la rodela (shield, round) : 16; 8 rosette [la roseta]—a circular design; on western stock saddles, a small leather disk with two slits for thongs or ties (q.v.) to pass through, securing skirts to saddletree: 35, 76, 85; 84 rowel [la rodaja, la estrella]—the pointed disk or star set in the end of the spur’s shaft or post [la espiga], which turns as the rider’s heel rakes the horse’s flank: 5, 8; 14 left el ruedo (border) : 37 rump cover [la anquera, “anchero”]—fitted leather covering, protecting and decorating the horse’s rear quarters; used also in an abbreviated form [la anquerita] : 10 saddle [la silla]—seat type device set on an animal to facilitate riding it: passim saddle bags [las bolsas, las cantinas]—large leather piece with attached pockets, placed over the rear extensions [las pajuelas] of the saddletree: 37, 103, 110; 64a saddle cloth (also: saddle pad)—heavy, blanket-like piece placed under the saddle: 60 saddle pad [el cojin, el baste, el basto, el sudadero] —flat cushion, usually separate, under the saddle, to protect it from dirt and to fit it to the animal’s back: 12, 107 saddle strings [los tientos]—narrow strips of tanned leather, usually in pairs, that lace through the saddletree or coverings, and are held on surface by rosettes; the long ends are decorative and also serve to tie on ropes, and other pieces of equipment: 84 saddle ties (saddle strings) : 34; 84 saddletree [el fuste de silla, el asiento de barras, el arzon]—framework, often of wood covered with rawhide, consisting of two side-boards connected by two forks for the pommel and cantle; the conformation of these parts gives the saddle its characteristic shape and name: 5, 12, 19, 34, 39; 84 saddletree covers [la coraza, la mochila, la barda, las armas, el telliz]—loose leather pieces of various sizes and locations: 10 144 r a n g i n g from flat (“slick”) to rounded (“swelled”) form: 34, 104 sideboards [las tablas]—two horizontal pieces, also called “side bars,” under and joining the two forks to form the saddletree [el fuste]: 34, 40, 50, 76; 83 sideboard extensions [las pajuelas]—ends of saddletree projecting behind the cantle: 34 sidesaddle [la silla de senora, el sillon]—a device for women to ride with both legs on one side, based on English saddle type (q.v.) : 9, 12, 120; 70 la silla [ l i t , seat] (saddle; la silla . . .) : passim la silla de andar [riding saddle]—any non-specialuse riding saddle: 12 la silla de armas [saddle with a r m o r ] — a combat saddle with high pommel and protective leather housing: 11 la silla barda—successor to la silla jineta in Spain, longer stirrup leathers than la jineta: 28 la silla bridona (la silla de armas) : 11 la silla de campo [country saddle]—non-specific term for any saddle used for working on the open r a n g e : 20 la silla charra [charro saddle]—a type of Mexican cowboy saddle [la silla vaquera] with a full forward cinch, often double rigged, developed by gentlemen riders [charros] into a display saddle with a large horn and decorations of chased silver and carved leather: 33 la silla de esqueleto [skeleton saddle]—a light Mexican saddle with open seat, short skirts, and stirrup fenders: 37 la silla estradiota (also: riding styles, estradiota) — the heavily armored, medieval European saddle: 1 1 : 26 la silla jineta (also: riding styles, jineta)—a light cavalry saddle introduced by Moors to Spain and carried to America: 1 1 ; 2c la silla de montar [mounting saddle]—any riding saddle: 12, 35 la silla vaquera [Mexican cowboy saddle]—a class of early Mexican range or stock-working saddles, relatively rough, with simple stirrup leathers and no covers; later developed into the charro and western U.S.

Saddles: 13, 33 el sillon (sidesaddle) : 9 single center rigged (girthing types) : 18 skirts [las faldas, los faldones]—large leather panels attached to the saddletree, under the jockeys on western U.S.

Saddles, to protect the rigging and give form to the saddle: 9, 34, 35, 6 5 , 1 0 3 ; 54 slipper stirrup—type with enclosed toe and flat sole, used on sidesaddles: 120; 70 right SMITHSONIAN STUDIES IN HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY la sotacola (crupper) : 11 Spanish tree (saddle types, western U.S.) : 18, 46, 66 spike or prick spur—a medieval type with a rowelless post [la espiga]: 5, S; 11 upper, 14 left, 16 spur [la espuela] (also: la espuela bridona; la espuela jineta; rowel; spike spur)—U-shaped device attached to rider’s heel to goad t h e animal to greater speed, or to make a horse buck: 11 staples—U-shaped metal pins t h a t attach rings for the s t i r r u p leathers to the saddletree, or provide attachment points on the back of the cantle for extra equipment: 66, 113 stirrup [el estribo] (also: cross-form s t i r r u p ; slipper s t i r r u p ; wooden s t i r r u p ) — a device hung from each side of a saddle to receive the rider’s foot: 5, 8, 34, 35, 41, 42, 50, 60, 79, 99, 120, 133, 134; 22, 84 stirrup cover [la tapadera]—leather piece fitted over the front of the s t i r r u p ; in western U.S., the long, loose, pointed type is called “tapadero,” the blunt, up-turned type, “pig-snout,” but all are ” t a p s ” : 60h,i, 61g,h, 66 stirrup leathers [el acion, los aciones (Sp.) ; el arcion, los arciones (Mex.) ] — adjustable straps that suspend the stirrups from the saddletree: 34; 83 stirrup straps (stirrup leathers) : 86 stirrup tread [la pisa]—inner face where the foot rests, often protected by a leather piece: 84 el sudadero [sweat p a d ] — a heavy piece of leather or fabric, often lined, placed under the saddle: 37 surcingle [el sobrecincho]—a kind of girth or cinch fastened over the saddle: 49, 70 sweat-leather—the fender (q.v.) on the s t i r r u p leather; or a padded piece (sweat pad, el sudadero) placed under the saddle: 60; 84 swells—bulging of the shoulders of the pommel: 84 las tablas ( s i d e b o a r d s ) : 34; 83 el talabartero [saddler, harness maker]—Mexican craftsman trained in making saddles: 26 el talle [sic], el telliz—any covering or appurtenance for a saddle: 9 la tapadera ( s t i r r u p cover) : 18, 35, 42, 107, 110, 120; 83 tapadero ( s t i r r u p cover) : 62, 9 5 ; 37, 39 taps ( s t i r r u p cover) : 95 la teja (cantle) : 34; 83 Texas saddle (saddle types, western U.S.) : 33 Texas tree (saddle types, western U.S.) : 59 thongs (saddle strings) : 35 NUMBER 39 145 tenance usually made of goat skin, with the hair remaining on the outside and with pockets added on the under side; placed behind the cantle on some Mexican-type saddles: 37, 90; 18 vaquero saddle [la silla vaquera]: 14, 18, 33 wooden stirrup—either the eastern U.S.

Bent-wood type, or the Mexican and southwest U.S.

Type carved from a block: 92; 14 Zaldivar tree—popular type of charro tree named for the noted Mexican gentleman-rider, Don Juan Zaldivar: 34 three-quarter rigged (girthing types) : 8, 95 los tientos (saddle strings) : 34, 35; 83 ties (saddle strings) : 34 trappings [los arreos, los aderezos, los jaeces]—all the equipment that is normally associated with a saddle, including housings [las faldas, los faldones, la gualdrapa] and armor or coverings [las armas, la barda, la coraza, la mochila]: 11 tree [el fuste] (saddletree; bow) : 14, 18, 42, 65 valise [la maleta]—a container secured behind the cantle: 12, 60, 120; 69a,g,i el vaquerillo—a protective and decorative appur- ILLUSTRATION CREDITS (If a n illustration is a reproduction of a photograph m a d e by t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u tion, the negative number a p p e a r s in p a r e n t h e s e s ) Frontispiece.

See information given below for F i g u r e s 60, 66, 72, and 68; no color negatives available. 1.

N C F A . 2.


F r o m T a m a r a Talbot Rice, The Scythians (London, 1957), plate 30, reproduced t h r o u g h t h e courtesy of the H e r m i t a g e , L e n i n g r a d ; b, from Albert F .

Calvert, Spanish Art and Armour (London, 1907), p a g e 172; c, courtesy of Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden, catalogue n u m b e r H M D L605; d, courtesy of the Los Angeles County Nat u r a l History Museum, accession number L.2100A.457.65-0. 3.

F r o m Alfredo Chavero, editor, “Lienzo de Tlaxcalla,” Antigiiedades Mexicanas (Mexico C i t y : Oficina Tipografica de la S e c r e t a r i a de Fomento, 1892), plate 80. 4.

F r o m C.

Weiditz, Das Trachtenbuch . . .

Von seinen Reisen nach Spayiien, 1529, r e p r i n t edition edited by Theodor H a m p e (Berlin, 1927). 5.

F r o m Chavero, ” B a r a n d a , ” Antiqiiedades, plate 3a [see credit for F i g u r e 3 ] . 6.

N M H T : upper, catalogue n u m b e r 258,879 ( 7 8 10029) ; lower, catalogue n u m b e r 35,395 ( 7 8 10026). 7.

F r o m Ignacio Tirsch, The Drawings of Ignacio Tirsch, a Jesuit Missionary in Baja California, t r a n s l a t e d and edited by Elsbeth Schulz-Bischof (Los Angeles, 1972) ; reproduced with the permission of the publisher, Dawson’s Book Shop; originals in t h e S t a t e L i b r a r y of Czechoslovakia, P r a g u e , catalogue n u m b e r X V I B 18. 8.

F r o m J.

Hefter, “Cronica del t r a j e m i l i t a r en Mexico . . .,” Artes de Mexico (Mexico C i t y ) , number 102 (1968), p a g e 5 1 ; original in the Archives of t h e Indies, Seville. 9.

F r o m Donald C.

Cutter, Malaspina in California ( S a n Francisco, 1960), opposite page 34; r e p r o duced with the permission of the a u t h o r ; original in El Museo N a v a l , Madrid, catalogue number A XXIV. 10.

F r o m Weiditz, Das Trachtenbuch [see credit for Figure 4]. 11.

F r o m Chavero, ” T l a x c a l l a , ” Antiqiiedades, plates 74, 59 [see credit for F i g u r e 3 ] . 12.

F r o m Jose Alvarez del Villar, Historia de la Charreria (Mexico City, 1941), pages 26, 33. 13.

F r o m Chavero, ” T l a x c a l a , ” Antiqiiedades, p l a t e 13 [see credit for F i g u r e 3 ] . 14.

F r o m Antonio Galvao A n d r a d e , Arte de cavallaria de gineta e estardiota (Lisbon: J o a n de Costa, 1678). 15.

F r o m Galvao, Arte de cavallaria [see credit for Figure 14]. 16.

F r o m Chavero, ” T l a x c a l a , ” Antiqiiedades, p l a t e s 75, 60 [see credit for F i g u r e 3 ] . 17.

Courtesy of David de la B.

Argiiedas, p h o t o g r a p h e r . 18.

Courtesy of El Museo de la C h a r r e r i a , E l D e p a r t a mento de Museos y Monumentos del Gobierno del E s t a d o de Mexico, a n d L a Oficina del T u r i s m o del E s t a d o de Mexico, all in Toluca, Mexico ( 7 6 – 1 2 8 4 5 ) . 19.

Courtesy of A r g u e d a s [see credit for F i g u r e 1 7 ] . 20.

Courtesy of A r g u e d a s [see credit for F i g u r e 1 7 ] . 21.

Courtesy of Argiiedas [see credit for F i g u r e 1 7 ] . 22.

Courtesy of Argiiedas [see credit for F i g u r e 1 7 ] . 23.

Courtesy of the T h o m a s Gil crease I n s t i t u t e of American H i s t o r y a n d A r t , Tulsa. 24.

F r o m J e a n Roemer, Cavalry: Its History, Management, and Uses in War ( N e w Y o r k : D.

V a n Nost r a n d , 1863), p a g e 494. 25.

F r o m A System of Tactics . . .

For the Cavalry and Light Infantry and Riflemen of the United States; By Authority of the Department of War ( W a s h i n g t o n : F r a n c i s P r e s t o n Blair, 1834), p l a t e 2. 26.

Courtesy of the N o r t h e r n N a t u r a l Gas Company Collection, Joslyn A r t Museum, O m a h a . 27.

F r o m Richard E d w a r d s a n d M e n r a Hopewell, Edward’s Great West and . . .

History of St.

Louis . . . ( S a i n t L o u i s : Published a t t h e office of ” E d w a r d s ‘ s Monthly,” 1860), p a g e 107. 28.

Courtesy of t h e Joslyn A r t Museum [see credit for Figure 26]. 29.

N M N H ( 2 8 5 6 – 3 3 ) . 30.

N a t i o n a l Archives, W a s h i n g t o n . 31.

National Archives, W a s h i n g t o n : U .

S .

Signal Corps photo 11 l – B – 4 2 7 ( B r a d y Collection). 32.

L a n d i s a n d Sickles ads courtesy of t h e Missouri Historical Society, S a i n t L o u i s ; T h o m a s & Miller ad courtesy of S a i n t Louis Mercantile L i b r a r y A s sociation. 33.

F r o m William E .

Connelley, Doniphan’s Expedition and the Conquest of New Mexico and California ( T o p e k a : Published by t h e a u t h o r , 1907), p a g e 471. 34.

Courtesy of the U.S.

A r m y Q u a r t e r m a s t e r Museum, F o r t Lee, Virginia. 35.

Courtesy of the Museum of t h e Confederacy, Richmond. 36.

Courtesy of the Missouri Historical Society, S a i n t Louis.

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