Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….

posted in: Uncategorized | 0

Insect Repellent - For the Horse Horses-store.comWarming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….

2.2.3 Procedure Approval for the project was sought from the University of Southern Queensland Animal Ethics and Human Ethics Research Committees (Appendices E and F, respectively).

Permission was also sought from the Chairman of Eventing Queensland to conduct this research during competitions in south east Queensland.

Permission to use heart rate monitors in official competitions was sought from Eventing Queensland.

The Eventing Queensland Committee gave approval.organisers of competitions where research might be conducted were contacted by telephone.

Subsequently, the event organisers were notified of each rider involved, so consideration could be given to scheduling competition times to allow for fitting of heart rate monitors on both horse and rider.

The organisers were cooperative with understanding in time allocation for the competitors in the research program.

Once approval was granted from the Ethics Committees and Eventing Queensland, participants were sought by advertising through the EFA Queensland eventing magazine, newsletters of local eventing clubs in South East Queensland and by personal contacts of the researcher and supervisor in competitive eventing.

The researcher interviewed each rider who expressed interest in the study.

Each requirement and procedure of the project was explained to the prospective participant.

They were informed that they would be asked to complete surveys concerning 75 general information about themselves and their horses, their thoughts and feelings about their performance and their horse in training and competition environments.

They were advised they would be video recorded during their training regime and the cross-country phase of a competition.

The use and purpose of the heart rate monitors was also explained.

After this induction each rider willing to participate was asked to sign a consent form (Appendix F) to confirm their acknowledgement of the requirements and procedures in this research.

They were advised that they could cease participation at any stage in the project if they so chose. 2.2.3.1 Training environment Data collection began during the week prior to the competition nominated by the rider.

The researcher met with the rider at their training site.

Each rider was given the survey instrument and asked to read each section carefully.

They were reminded to answer the statements in relation to how they felt (right now) at the time.

Riders completed the initial demographic section of the survey after tacking up the horse and they then completed the CSAI-2 and EMCA-Q inventories.

As they filled out the CSAI-2 and EMCA-Q inventories, the researcher fitted the heart rate monitor on the horse.

The heart rate transmitter was fitted on the D ring on the front of the saddle on the nearside, and the receiver was fitted to the D ring on the offside.

The positive electrode was fitted under the girth on the near side and the negative electrode was fitted under the saddle flap on the opposite side of the horse.

After the riders completed the CSAI-2 and EMCA-Q inventories, they were then asked to fit their own heart rate monitor.

The riders were asked to fit the heart rate transmitter around their chest.

Female riders were asked to place the transmitter under their bra strap below the breast to hold the transmitter in place.

The receiver was placed on the wrist.

The rider was asked to stand about 3 – 4 metres away from the horse when they started their heart 76 rate monitor and began recording heart rate data.

The researcher started the heart rate monitor on the horse simultaneously.

This allowed each heart rate monitor and transmitter to be set to a coded frequency to stop cross talk between monitors operating in close proximity of each other.

The rider then proceeded to warm up the horse according to their normal routine.

Once the rider had ridden and warmed up the horse, they completed the HTI-R and the WRIR.

Immediately after completing the survey, they rode the fences of the cross-country course or showjumping fences used in training environment.

The training session was videotaped for later assessment.

The researcher and an assistant used the BCL to rate the horse behaviours before the warm up period.

They also rated the horse behaviours using the BCL with the rider during the warm-up period, before the training session.

The observers further rated the horse’s temperament with rider mounted and without the rider, using the HTI-O.

The riders also reported their perceptions of the horse’s characteristics using HTI-R.

For the purposes of hygiene, the heart rate monitors were cleaned between riders and horses, using chlorhexidine and distilled water mixture in 10 percent solution. 2.2.3.2 Competition environment The competition environment procedure was slightly different from the procedure at the training environment, as some riders competed at a number of different competition levels on different horses during the same day.

The researcher liaised with the competition organisers so riders would not be penalised if they were late to compete due to delays caused by data collection.

A research assistant managed the equipment changeover from rider to rider and completion of the survey.

All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior to 77 the cross-country phase, so they completed the whole survey before warming up for the cross-country course.

The riders also reported the importance of the competition result to them, and how they thought they would perform.

At the end of the competition riders rated how they thought they performed in the competition, and how well the horses performed in competition, their scores and their placing.

The observers rated the working relationship between horse and rider, using the WRI-O.

They used the BCL to rate the horse behaviours when the horse was tied to the float without the rider and during the warm up period with the rider. 2.3 Results 2.3.1 Data preparation and analysis procedures All survey data from riders and observers was entered into an Excel spreadsheet.

Heart rate data for horse and rider were downloaded using the Polar software, transferred to Microsoft Excel and added to the rider and observer data.

Due to the small sample size inferential statistics are unable to be used.

Thus, a Cohan’s d analysis was calculated to address hypotheses regarding differences in measures due to environment.

This study used the test of mA Vs mB for independent means calculating the effect size index using the formula of A B (Cohen, 1992).

The interpretation of the effect size resulting from this formula is as recommended by Cohen (1992) that a value of .20 = small effect, .50 = moderate effect, .80 = large effect.

To determine if a physiological relationship existed between the horse and rider’s heart rate, a Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the Heart Rate Synchronisation (HRS) between horse and rider.

The accuracy of the heart rate synchronisation data taken was +/- 2 bpm between horse and rider when data were combined for the Pearson analysis.

These 78 HRS data were also analysed using the Cohen d test of effect size to determine if there were any differences in heart rate synchronisation between environments. 2.3.2 Analysis of the measures A primary purpose of this study was to develop and test measures of the WRI-R and WRI-O to rate the working relationship between horse and rider, the HRS to score heart rate synchronisation between horse and rider, horse behaviour observation using the BCL, and the HTI-R and HTI-O to rate horse temperament.

Due to the small n of this study the psychometric properties of these measures could not be tested.

However, the sensitivity, functionality and methodology for using these measures appear to be good.

The rider’s ratings on the WRI-R showed no missing items and the methodology of its administration during training and competition appears to be sound.

The observers’ ratings on the WRI-O had missing items and there appears to be little agreement in the ratings between the observers.

This lack of consensus between observers is cause for doubt about the clarity of items for observers (Appendix H, Table A.1).

Thus, the observers working relationship data was removed from further data analysis.

The coded s610 Polar monitors proved to be an effective and reliable tool to collect data from horse and rider simultaneously, even over obstacles at the gallop.

The use of the Pearson statistic proved a suitable analysis to determine the relationship between heart rate of the horse and rider, which became the HRS indicator.

The participant numbers did not allow for the analysis of the psychometric properties of the HTI-R or the HTI-O.

However, riders and observers reported no problems identifying the behaviours on the inventory, and as presented in Table 2.4 the measure was sensitive to differences in environments.

The data collection for the HTI-R had no difficulties in the 79 training and competition environments.

There was missing data for the second observer rating on the HTI-O (Appendix H, Table A.2) and this data was removed from further analysis in this study. — 3.2.2.5 Physiological assessment of the horse The heart rate of the horse was monitored using a Polar s610 coded receiver (Figure 2.1) and a T52H coded transmitter (Figure 2.3).

This monitor has been shown to be an accurate non-invasive measure of heart rate in the horse as it is ridden (Holopherne, Hodson & Rose, 1999).

It was retained in this study because of its sensitivity and reliabiity in collecting data from the horse on the cross-country course in the previous eventing study.

The heart rate data were downloaded to a computer using Polar Horse Trainer SW 3.0 and were then transferred to an Excel file for analysis. 3.2.3 Procedure Participants were sought by advertising through the EFA Queensland Dressage magazine Salute, newsletters of local dressage clubs in South East Queensland, and by personal contacts of the researcher and supervisor in competitive dressage.

The researcher and an assistant interviewed each rider who expressed interest in the study.

Each requirement and procedure of the project was explained to the prospective participant.

They were 112 informed that they would be asked to complete surveys concerning general information about themselves and their horse, their thoughts and feelings about their performance and their horse in a training and competition environment.

It was explained that they would be videoed as they rode the dressage test in the training and competition environments, and that this videotape would be judged by an A level dressage judge.

The use of the heart rate monitors was also explained.

After this induction each participant who indicated interest was asked to sign a consent form (Appendix K) to confirm their acknowledgement of the requirements and procedures in this research.

They were advised that they could cease participation at any stage in the project if they so chose.

Permission to use heart rate monitors in official dressage competitions was obtained from the National Dressage Committee of the EFA (Appendix L).

Permission to conduct this study was also received from the USQ Animal Ethics Committee and Human Ethics Committee. 3.2.3.1 Training environment Data collection began during the week prior to the competition nominated by the rider.

The researcher met with the rider at their training site.

Each rider was asked to read each section carefully and reminded to answer the statements in relation to how they felt (right now) at the time.

Riders completed the initial demographic section of the survey after tacking up the horse and they then finished the CSAI-2 inventory.

As they completed the CSAI-2 and the EMCA-Q the researcher fitted the heart rate monitor on the horse.

The heart rate transmitter was fitted on the D ring on the front of the saddle on the nearside, and the receiver was fitted to the D ring on the offside.

The positive electrode was fitted under the girth on the left side and the negative electrode was fitted under the saddle flap on the right side of the horse. 113 After the riders completed the CSAI-2 and the EMCA-Q they were then asked to fit their own heart rate monitor.

The riders were asked to fit the heart rate transmitter around their chest, with female riders asked to place it under their bra below the breast, to hold the transmitter in place.

The receiver was placed on the wrist.

The rider was asked to stand about 3 – 4 metres away from the horse when they started their heart rate monitor and began recording heart rate data.

The researcher started the heart rate monitor on the horse simultaneously.

The rider then proceeded to warm up the horse in their normal routine.

Once the riders had ridden and warmed up the horse, they completed the HTI-R and WRI-R.

Immediately after completing the survey the riders rode the same test as they would later ride in the competition.

This was videotaped for later assessment by the EFA accredited A level judges.

For the purposes of hygiene the heart rate monitors were cleaned between riders and horses, using chlorhexidine and distilled water mixture in 10 percent solution. 3.2.3.2 Competition environment The competition environment procedure was slightly different from the procedure at the training environment.

Some riders competed in a number of different tests on the same horse as well as on different horses during the same day.

The researcher liaised with the competition organisers, so riders would not be penalised if they were late to compete due to delays caused by data collection.

A research assistant managed the equipment changeover from rider to rider and completion of the survey.

If some riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior to the research test, they completed the whole survey before warming up for the research test.

If they had not competed earlier the same procedure was used as in the training environment. 114 3.3 Results The analysis of the working relationship and the individual psychological and physiological characteristics of horse and rider teams in training and competition environments are presented next.

This begins with a description of how the data were prepared for analysis to address each research hypothesis.

The descriptive statistics of demographic information and dependent variables are given for horses and riders at training and competition environments.

This is followed by analyses to address the research hypotheses and the research question. 3.3.1 Preparation and descriptive analysis of data A total sample of 30 horse and rider teams participated in the study.

However, there are some cases which have incomplete data, resulting in some analyses using a reduced sample.

However, this does not exceed the ten percent inclusion rule, and no evidence of a non-random pattern in the incomplete data exists.

Hence, these cases were not deleted (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007).

The videotape of the dressage tests for each of the training and competition environments were dubbed to a single tape, so that the same judge evaluated the training and competition performance.

Each video was evaluated by an EFA accredited A level dressage judge.

Each judge was asked to review the dressage test and score each dressage movement using standard test sheets.

No estimates were made of missing data, as there were insufficient participants to calculate such estimations.

Examples of missing data include the omission of an item on a survey, omission by the video judges of some scores for some movements in the dressage test. 115 Heart rate data from horse and rider were downloaded using the Polar software, and then were transferred to Microsoft Excel.

The data were edited for this study, to include only the duration of the dressage test at the training and competition environment.

No estimates were made for the missing data, as there were insufficient participants to calculate such estimations.

An example of missing heart rate data is the loss of data due to electrodes accidentally dislodging from the horse or rider at the training or competition environments.

The survey data were scanned into Microsoft Excel and prepared to an appropriate format for analysis in SPSS analysis program.

The data were analysed using SPSS (V10.0) for windows computer software package.

Means and standard deviations for all dependant variables are displayed in Table 3.3.

The specific management of the data during analysis is discussed in detail in the appropriate section of the results.

Each dependant variable was assessed for skewness and kurtosis (see Appendix M, Table A.1), which revealed that the variables did not exceed acceptable ± 3.0 limit (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). 116 Table 3.3: Means and standard deviations of all variables Variable Working relationship Rider assessed Judge assessed Rider CSAI-2 Cognitive anxiety Somatic anxiety Self confidence CSAI-2R Cognitive anxiety Somatic anxiety Self confidence EMCA-Q Emotion component Mood component Heart rate mean Heart rate at test entry Horse Horse temperament Heart rate mean Heart rate at test entry 57.93 104.12 106.41 7.49 15.19 20.08 55.89 108.16 109.59 8.61 16.15 14.58 8.37 8.73 151.26 153.36 2.72 3.13 14.90 19.41 10.53 9.27 166.15 167.88 3.35 3.21 12.12 12.17 11.27 10.03 17.53 4.91 3.61 4.08 12.90 13.93 13.60 5.36 5.46 3.89 19.4 14.5 30.4 7.06 4.75 7.29 21.8 19.7 24.9 8.19 7.02 7.19 39.52 22.00 5.51 5.06 38.07 22.72 7.39 2.79 Training environment Competition environment Mean SD Mean SD Note.

Heart rate mean = mean of the heart rate during the complete dressage test. 3.3.1.1 Variability of horse and rider demographics As evident in Table 3.1 there is considerable variability in the characteristics of horses and riders participating in this study.

The heterogeneity of horse and rider demographics is representative of any sample of riders competing in any competition.

For example, there are young riders competing on horses with which they have little experience,

Read more about Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….:

Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra

Other Sources:

  • Equestrian Equipment | eBay
  • Typing Games: Horse Racing Typing
  • Horse Games – Free online Horse Games for Girls – GGG.com
  • Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra, Learn more about Insect Repellent – For the Horse Horses-store.com HERE:

    Horses-Store.com and Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….
    Horses-Store.com - Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….
    Horses-Store.com and Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….
    Horses-Store.com - Warming : All riders had ridden their horses in dressage tests prior….