tools of the trade replaceable-i nsert Router Tired of sharpening or throwing away router bits when they Amana’s new line offers an innovative solution to an old problem. ,.
Amana’s In-Tech line of router bits includes nine common profiles. There aren’t many projects in my shop that don’t get some treatment from a router.
Whether it’s adding an edge profile or cutting a mortise, the router is a go-to tool.
The problem is router bits have a limited lifespan.
Don’t get me wrong, modern, tungsten-carbide edges hold up pretty well.
But when they start to dull, you need to sharpen or replace them.
And both options have a downside.
Replacing bits gets expensive.
But sharpening carbide is difficult and can change the diameter as the carbide is honed.
This isn’t as big a concern for certain profile bits (like an ogee).
But for a flush-trim bit it can mean the bit and bearing are no longer the exact same size and the quality of the cut will be affected.
The new In-Tech line of router bits from Amana solves the problem by making the individual carbide cutters on the bit removable.
So when the edge is dull, you simply turn the cutter to a fresh edge or replace it with a new, inexpensive insert. 3/ 8″ %”-rad. rabbet GOOD SElECTION.
A quick scan of the bits in the photo below shows that Amana chose nine of the most commonly used profiles for woodworkers.
These are the workhorses of most home shops.
So the cost savings is significant when averaged over the life of these new bits.
Sources on page 51 has the information on where to find them.
A NOT-50-NEW IDEA.
This isn’t a new concept in router bit design, however.
Amana has produced replaceable insert bits for CNC (computer numerically controlled) industrial machines for many years (see box on opposite page).
These designs have proven themselves in production environments.
But bringing this technology to the home woodworker might change the way you think about router bits. 10 Woodsmith No. 181 — , 1purposely removed more material than 1 normally would in a single pass to put some strain on the bits.
You can see the results in the photos at right.
The cuts were smooth in each of the different materials. 1continued the test alternating between plywood, MDF, and oak and ended up routing over 100 linear feet without seeing any degradation in performance.
In fact, 1 routed just about everything 1 could get my hands on for a couple of days (including melamine-covered particle board, a notorious bit killer).
But the bits showed no sign of slowing down or losing their edge.
On one occasion, however, 1 did manage to break a cutter.
While using a flush-trim bit to level some glued-on edging, the cutter shattered.
A glob of dried glue squeezeout was to blame.
And it turns out the carbide used in these bits has something to do with it. SUB-MICRO GRADE CARBIDE. ..
To protect your fingers, it’s a good idea to wear a leather glove while rotating or replacing the carbide cutters. The unique thing about these bits is that they’re made of a harder grade of tungsten carbide than conventional bits.
This “sub-micro grade” carbide can’t be brazed onto the body of a bit.
So these bits are the perfect application for the harder metal.
However, the hardness of the carbide also means that the inserts tend to be a little more brittle.
The most surprising thing about the In-Tech bits is the price.
Overall, they’re comparable to other high-quality bits.
For example, the straight plunge bit runs about $17 and a new insert is $4.
The price for both bits and inserts goes up as the complexity of the bit’s profile increases.
The ogee fillet, for instance, is $52 and $16 for the pair of replacement cutters.
As 1 said earlier, this technology has been used on CNC router bits for years.
So it should be no surprise that the bits performed well in the workshop.
In spite of their unconventional appearance, the In-Tech bits ran smooth and were free of vibration.
The cutting performance consistently matched or exceeded what you’d expect from a high-quality conventional bit.
Coupling their performance with the low cost of replacing the insert cutters instead of buying new bits, they’re sure to be a welcome addition to any shop. ~ The In-Tech bits cut smooth edges in plywood (top), MDF (middle), and white oak (bottom). Stepping Up: Heavy-Duty Bits After looking over Amana’s new In-Tech bits, you might wonder why they didn’t include %” shanks in the lineup.
As it happens, they’re already available and in greater numbers than the In-Tech line.
Dozens of common profiles are in use every day in industrial applications.
The problem is, they’re often priced beyond the reach of most woodworkers.
For example, the %” shank rabbet bit shown in the margin photo retails for $110.
The smaller In-Tech bit below it is only $29.
Of course there are advantages beyond just the shank size with the more expensive bit.
The carbide inserts are available in different grades, allowing you to tailor the cutter to the specific type of material.
Www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith offer the convenience of replaceable inserts but with heavier-duty construction. 11 tips for creating a Mitered Bridle Joint A table saw and a simple, shop-made jig are all you need to make strong, tight-fitting miter joints. Miter joints look great on a project.
But a weakness of miter joints is that they rely on end grain for gluing strength, And end grain joints are pretty weak.
There are several ways to strengthen a miter joint.
But a traditional method that I like to use is a mitered bridle joint.
A mitered bridle joint is similar to an open mortise and tenon joint.
One piece has a through slot and the other a matching tenon.
But the shoulders of both pieces are mitered.
The benefit of this joint is that it offers plenty of glue surface for a strong joint (main photo). — Fine-tune tenon thickness with a sanding block (Figure 6).
If the tenon is a little too thick, a shoulder plane or chisel will remove more material.
But be careful.
It’s best to remove small amounts of material from both faces and keep checking until you have a perfect fit that’s centered.
Once the tenon fits in the slot, you can add the glue.
Although you can use bar or pipe clamps, I prefer to use a band clamp for assembling mitered joints.
This way, all the comers will be pulled together at once for a good fit.
Add clamping blocks and additional clamps to apply pressure to each joint (photo at right).
Adding a tenon always makes a stronger joint.
But the tenon doesn’t have to be in the center, as xou can see in the box below.
M , Clamping blocks and a clamp at each Worth ALook: Double Bridle Miter oint A variation of the joint shown above is the double bridle miter joint.
The first thing you’ll notice about this joint is that each piece has a slot and a tenon.
This makes the joint a good alternative if you want a similar look along both edges.
One of the interesting features of this joint is that both halves are identical.
When you flip one side of the frame, the offset tenon meets the slot, and the joint goes together (first photo at right).
This makes laying out and cutting the joint a little easier.
This type of joint is most commonly used on frames for artist’s canvases, but can be used on other types of frames as well.
Www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith Each piece is identical and has both a tenon and slot on each end. 13 jigs & fixtures bench grinder Tool Rests’ .Add some precision to your sharpening tasks by upgrading your tool rest. A bench grinder is an indispensable tool for maintaining an edge on chisels, turning tools, and plane irons.
For many woodworkers, it’s the first step in the tool sharpening process.
But most bench grinders come with inadequate t~ol rests that make it difficult or impossible to get consistent results.
Fortunately, there are a few after-market tool rests that can improve your ability to grind tools accurately and safely.
I recently tried out a couple of these.
Before looking at each of the different models, it’s worth taking a minute to focus on what’s important in a tool rest.
First, it needs to provide a stable platform.
That is, it should be able to hold the tool firmly at a predetermined angle without excessive vibration.
And this is where most of the stock rests fall short.
They’re oft e n undersized , The Veritas Grinding Set makes grinding accurate bevels on chisels and plane irons a simple task. — The first tool rest I looked at was the Veritas Basic Grinding Set.
As the name implies, this is more than just a tool rest.
It’s a complete sharpening system with a grinding jig and an angle-setting gauge.
At the heart of the sys: tern is the anodized aluminum tool rest that mounts to a board along with your grinder.
The rest features a large platform that includes a slot for the grinding jig.
The main photo above shows the tool rest and jig in action.
Position adjustments are made easy with the two No. 181 14 spring-loaded handles that allow you to move the platform to just about any grinding angle: THE ANGLE-SEnING GAUGE.
Zeroing in on a specific angle can be a hassle in any sharpening setup, but the plastic gauge included with the Veritas set makes it a breeze.
The gauge includes the most commonly used bevel angles of 20°,25°, 30°, and 35°.
While holding the gauge against the wheel, you simply lock the platform to the matching angle, as shown in the photo below.
THE GRINDING JIG.
With the tool rest locked in place, the next step is to mount your tool in the grinding jig.
A pair of thumbscrews tightens down a clamping bar, securely holding the tool in place.
A brass pin registers the blade at 90° for most common tasks.
The main photo and inset on the opposite page show this pin.
To sharpen skew chisels, simply move the pin to change the angle to 30°.
Overall, the Veritas jig provides a solid and easy-to-use grinding system for a very reasonable price ($69).
For sources on where you can purchase the Veritas system, take a look at page 51. WOLVERINE tube arms slide in well-machined channels on the base and lock in place with oversized handles.
For ease of use and holding power, these locks just can’t be beat.
And the all-steel construction ensures a lifetime of reliable service.
A STABLE PLATFORM.
The Wolverine’s tool rest takes full advantage of the steel construction by providing a rock-solid surface.
This platform is for grinding chisels and other flat beveled tools.
It’s great for free-hand grinding, but jigs are available to hold chisels and plane irons as well.
Or you could easily build a couple of shop-made jigs for your other tools.
But the Wolverine really shines at sharpening turning tools.
For example, rather than trying to set a platform to the proper grinding angle for a roughing gouge, the Wolverine handles the task with a pocket on the sliding arm to hold the end of the tool.
By sliding the arm toward or away from the wheel, you can set the grinding angle to match the gouge’s bevel.
Once in place, you just rotate the gouge against the wheel to sharpen it across the full face of the cutting edge.
This is a great method for grinding and maintaining consistent bevels.
And since turning tools need very frequent touch-up sharpening, this design is a winner.
All in all, you can’t go wrong with either of these wellmade systems.
Which one is right for you depends on the kind of woodworking you do.
Ill • Wolverine’s adjustable arm allows you to grind a perfect bevel on round gouges. The second tool rest I tried was the Wolverine from Oneway.
Since Oneway makes some of the finest lathes on the market, it’s no surprise that this tool rest is geared toward sharpening turning tools.
The photo above shows how the Wolverine works.
A base mounted beneath each grinding wheel supports a %”-square steel tube arm.
The adjustable arms hold a tool rest on one wheel and • Setting the angle on the Veritas tool a unique design for rest’ is a breeze.
Just align the correct sharpening longer tools on the other.
The square face of the angle gauge to the wheel. Replacement Grinding Wheels To get the most out of your bench grinder as a tool sharpening system, you’ll probably want to replace the wheel.
Most grinders are sold with a gray, all-purpose wheel that’s not well-suited for grinding tool steel.
The white, aluminum-oxide whee1 in the photo at right will help you get better results.
This wheel has a softer bonding agent holding the abrasive particles.
The soft bond allows the abrasives to break away as they lose their cutting edge.
This exposes fresh abrasives and prevents the wheel from loading up with metal filings, keeping it running cooler and making it less likely to burn your tools.
See Sources on page 51 to find out where to buy these replacement wheels.
Www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 15 Weekend Project classic Mantel Clock This is a chance to give your skills a workout and use a few of those leftover pieces of wood you’ve been hanging on to. The art of making clocks was once limited to a very small group of highly specialized artisans.
Cutting and assembling intricate gears and movements from exotic woods and metals was an activity left to only the most experienced craftsmen.
Fortunately, woodworkers today have some significant advantages.
With the click of a mouse we can order clockworks, hands, and faces in dozens of different styles.
The clock shown above is an excellent example.
Its inexpensive quartz movement is far more accurate than most of its antique predecessors and far easier to install.
Sources on page 51 has the details on where to find a movement you like and all the supplies you’ll need to get started on your clock.
But the best thing about making a clock is that it gives you a chance to work on small details.
I find that this type of project is a great way to hone your woodworking skills.
For instance, the shop-made, mitered molding at the bottom and the elegant chamfered curve on the door’s top rail give you a great opportunity to work on the skills you’ll often use on larger projects.
And by perfecting your attention to detail on a smaller piece, you’ll be able to tackle larger projects with confidence. Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram A Case Sides (2) B Case Top (1) C Case Bottom (1) o Mount Board (1) E Back Panel (1) F Back Panel Cleat (1 ) G Base Trim Backer (1) H Base Trim (1) 1 /2 X 3, 81’s 112 x 21’s – 6 ~s lb x3-6 ~s I Cap (1) % x4-7% ~s hdbd . – 6~s x J Clock Face Trim (1) ~s hdbd. – 6 ~s x 6% ~s hdbd. – 6 ~s x 6% 112 x 1 12 – 5% 112 x 1112 – 6% lbx 2 – 18 rgh. — lzzz~zz~ 16 Woodsmith Also needed: One 12″x 24″sheet of VB” hardboard No. 181 building the CASE A simple case houses the clockwork and components.
And building the case is pretty straightforward.
Dadoes and rabbets in the sides hold the top and bottom, while a saw kerf secures the clock mount board.
Finally, a rabbet on the back edge holds the back panel.
The sides contain most of the joinery cuts for this case, so that’s the place to start.
After cutting both sides to final size, I labeled them ‘right’ and ‘left’ and marked the location of the joinery cuts.
The goal is to make them mirror images of each other.
The layout marks and labels help avoid mistakes while making the cuts.
You can start with a dado blade in the table saw to cut the dado for the bottom.
Next, attach an auxiliary rip fence and cut the rabbets on both pieces.
Detail’c’ and the box below will give you more information.
Now you’re ready to cut the grooves for the clock mount board.
Detail ‘a’ shows the placement and depth for this cut.
A standard (Ys”) blade is all you need.
TOP & BOTTOM.
With the sides complete, you can move on to the top and bottom.
Note that the top is slightly narrower than the bottom NOTE: Case top, bottom, and sides are made from ‘1/’-thick stock b SIDE • SECTION VIEW @ @ CASE SIDE BACK PANEL E @ CASE SIDE 81’8 — 6’18 and sides (detail ‘h’).
All you need to do to these pieces is cut a kerf to hold the clock mount board.
CLOCK MOUNT BOARD &BACK PANEL.
The clock movement attaches to a piece of Va”-thick hardboard that fits into the kerfs you cut earlier.
You’ll need to drill a hole for the movement as shown in the illustration.
The back panel is held in the rabbet with brass turnbuttons you’ll add later.
For now, just cut it to size and drill the fingerhole as shown above.
Then attach the hardwood cleat to the case bottom with glue.
The dadoes and rabbets make the assembly a breeze.
And the clock mount board helps keep everything square.
All you need to do is add glue to the joints and clamp the assembly.
Next, you’re ready to work on the molding. How-To: Dadoes, Rabbets, and Kerfs Dadoes.
Set the dado blade to match the thickness of the bottom and use a zeroclearance insert to minimize tea rout. Cutting Rabbets.
Attach an auxiliary fence to the rip fence of your saw and expose a portion of the blade to cut the rabbet. Add a Groove.
A standard rip blade cuts a perfect groove for the 1fs”-thick hardboard clock mount board. www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 17 adding the a. TRIM & DOOR With the case assembled, the next step is to add the decorative details that give this clock its classic look.
I chose a simple, shop-made trim for the base and a hardwood cap with a matching routed profile.
To add depth to the clock face, I a1se installed a painted hardboard panel to surround the face and hands.
Making the base trim is pretty straightforward.
But before you begin, you’ll need to attach a backer board to the front.
This board frames the opening for the door and makes attaching the trim easier.
Now you can move on to cutting the trim.
I started with an oversized blank (long enough for all three pieces), and cut it to final width.
This longer workpiece made routing the profile safer and easier than working with smaller pieces.
At the router ta,ble, I used a classical cove bit to rout the profile.
The left drawing below shows how I did this using a featherboard for a more consistent cut.
After you’re done at the router table, you’re ready to cut the miters.
For these cuts, I turned to the table saw and a miter gauge as shown in the right drawing below.
I find it works best to fit the NOTE: Cap and trim are attached to the case with glue only NOTE: Cap is 3/4″thick hardwood.
All other parts are l!2″-thick hardwood BASE TRIM H G BASE TRIM BACKER NOTE: Refer to page 27 for cutting curve front piece first, then cut the sides to fit.
This way, you can focus on getting a tight miter.
Then just cut the back ends to length, flush with the back edge of the case.
The front base trim piece also has a decorative cutout.
I waited until after completing the miters to make this cut so I could keep it centered on the workpiece.
You can find tips for making this cut in Shop Notebook on page 26. ATTACH THE TRIM.
Now it’s just a matter of attaching the trim with glue and clamps.
Make sure to put glue on the ends of the miters, as well, before adding clamps.
The cap is made from %”thick stock.
After cutting it to final size, I headed back to the router table.
Using the same setup as you did for the base, rout the matching profile on the front and side edges of the top.
Then, glue it in place. How-To: Make the Trim Routing the Cove Profile.
A featherboard holds the workpiece flat against the router table for a smooth, consistent cut. Cutting Miters.
Use an auxiliary fence on the miter gauge to back up the cut and prevent tearing out the ends. • Clamp the workpiece to the drill press table and use a wing cutter to cut out the circle in the clock face trim board. 18 Woodsmith No. 181 CLOCK FACE TRIM.
To create a frame NOTE: Door rails and stiles are made from W’-thick hardwood TOP (1,C.LhOdCbKdFA6~E.
TRS”J! “) 18 .’8 X 18 around the clock face, I cut a hardboard panel to fit the case opening.
Then I cut out a circle slightly smaller in diameter than the face (photo on the opposite page).
The trick to cutting this circle is to tape two pieces together.
This way, you’ll have enough thickness for the bearing of a router bit to ride against when you rout the chamfer.
After chamfering the circle, I finished the piece by painting it black.
You can set it aside until after installing the clock movement and hands. DOOR 6% THE DOOR A simple frame and glass panel door protects the clock face and hands.
It also adds to the traditional look of the clock.
Half-lap joinery makes it a snap to build.
RAILS & STILES.
You can begin by cutting the rails and stiles to final size (note the wider top rail).
You’ll notice that the top rail has a gentle curve on the lower edge (detail ‘a’).
I used a band saw to make this cut (left drawing below).
CHAMFER THE EDGES.
The stopped chamfer on the inside edges of the rails and stiles provides an interesting detail.
To chamfer the curved and straight edges, all you need to do is mark start and stop points on the workpieces.
Then just rout to the layout line as shown in the center drawing below. NOTE: Glass is held in place with silicone sealer a. FRONT VIEW b. TOP SECTION VIEW ® We in door and case Then it’s back to the table saw to cut the rabbet on the inside edge of all four pieces (detail ‘h’).
The rabbet on the top rail is liz” wide, but the others are all %”.
Next, you can cut the rabbets for the half laps on both rails.
Assemble the door and install the glass panel using a small bead of silicone sealer.
PUTTING IT AU TOGETHER.
Final assembly begins by installing the door. You can make the hinge mortises with a palm router (right drawing below).
Then, drill a hole for a rareearth magnet and glue it in place with epoxy.
Now install the door pull and a screw for the magnet.
After applying a finish to the body of the clock, add the movement, hands, and face.
Finally, attach the face trim using just a dab of glue to avoid squeezeout.
Is! Complete the Door Cutting the Curved Top Rail.
Keep the blade on the outside of the layout line when cutting the curve.
Then sand to the line. Routing Stopped Chamfers.
Accurate layout marks on the rails and stiles make routing the stopped chamfer a snap. Hinge Mortises.
A backer board in the vise helps hold the palm router level while routing the hinge mortises. www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 19 This stylish bookrack can be at home in any room of the house.
But it’s the woodworking challenges that make it a great project. A sturdy bookrack with shelves above and below offers convenient storage when placed in a hallway or just about any room.
And this bookrack not only helps out with your storage needs, but provides an attractive accent piece to the room as well.
But for a woodworker, the greatest thing about this bookrack is building it.
The curved front legs that give the piece such a unique profile also feature mortise and tenon joinery on both the faces and edges to hold the rails on the sides and the stretchers.
Woodsmith But the most notable feature is the trough-style shelf that holds the books at an angle for easy viewing of the titles.
This shelf rests on steel pins at the front edge and a stretcher at the back.
I chose to use oak, but this bookrack will look great in just about any wood. — Slats add strength to the sides and provide a decorative detail Bottom shelf is held in place with tabletop fasteners set in grooves on cleats Gentle curve is cut on upper and lower front stretchers \ Simple curves on the inside edges of the leg bottoms mirror each other Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram A Front Legs (2) % x 8 – 38 B Back Legs (2) % x 2 – 38 C Top Side Rail (2) %x 2 – 6 o Side Rails (6) % x 2 – 12 E Slats (6) 112 x 114 – 11 F Stretchers (5) 3/4 x 2 – 35 G Long Shelf Cleats (2) 3 4 x % – 34 H Short Shelf Cleats (2) % x % – 10 I Top (1) % x 8% – 37 J Bottom Shelf (1) % x 121/4 – 33 7/8 K Trough Front (1) % x 8 112 – 34 l Trough Back (1) 34 x 10 1 4 – 34 • (10) Tabletop Fasteners • (10) #8 x %” Ph Woodscrews • (2) 1 /4″-dia.
X 1″ Steel Pins 3,4″ x 7″ – 96″ Red Oak (4.7 Bd.
Ft.) [ZZ22Z222222ZZ:2’Z22ZZ22Z2Z22~~ 3,4″x 5″- 72″ Red Oak (2.5 Bd.
Ft.) G H Iii iii iii iii i i 34″ x 7″ – 96″ Red Oak (4.7 Bd.
Ft.) i~ — 2 NOTE: All pieces are made from 314″-thick stock FRONT LEG A If you take a look at the boo krack, you’ll notice that the sides really define the style and overall look of the project.
They feature a curved front leg, slatted panels, and slightly tapered feet.
It all starts with the front legs.
The front legs are glued up out of two pieces.
A long, narrow blank is used for the lower part of the leg.
Then a short, wider blank is added to make the curved upper section.
But before you glue up the blank, you’ll need to cut the mortises for the rails on the lower blank.
The upper mortise will be too difficult to get at after gluing on the top section, so it’s easier to cut them all now.
After you complete the mortises on the long blank, you can glue up the top section and cut the mortises for the top rail and stretcher (details ‘a’ and ‘b’).
You’ll find it’s easier to do this now, while the stock is square.
The box below shows the technique I used to drill the mortises.
Then just drill the holes for the steel pins.
Now you’re ready to cut the leg to final shape using a band saw.
You can use the pattern above to make a template to layout the curves.
After cutting the leg, I used a router and a pattern bit to trim the legs flush with the template. How-To: Drill Front Le Mortises 1;4″-dia. .~~,…….c~…..c:::.+—;, Forstner bit -.:;:;…::…..:-….;;;..,.;;:……:……::~;,..:”.:….:…..:…~..:;;;…:….:..~..:::…..:;:;.JB-~;….:…..:;:.,.~:..:..=-….:=-.:~———1 a.1;4″-dia. Forstner bit a, END SECTION VIEW ~ — SLAT NOTE: Shoulder of tenon on rail should fit against knee of front leg d. END VIEW NOTE: For easy assembly, lay the workpieces flat on the bench and attach the rails to the front leg first.
Then fit the tenons in the back leg and add clamps BACK LEGS.
With the front legs complete, the straight, back legs are a breeze.
Begin by cutting them to final size, then cut the mortises to match the front legs using the same technique as before.
Finally, cut the curved taper at the bottom of the legs at the band saw and sand them smooth. RAILS.
Each side has four rails with tenons that fit into the mortises on the legs.
As you can see in the drawing above, the three lower rails are all the same size.
The two center rails also need mortises to hold the slats.
I found it best to cut all the rails to size, and then cut all the tenons on the ends (detail ‘a’).
This way, you Cut Tenons a. SLAT Cut Cheeks and Shoulders.
With a dado blade on the table saw and an auxiliary rip fence in place to limit the length of cut, simply set the bit height and cut the cheeks and shoulders to form the tenon. can dry fit each side to make sure the assembly will fit together properly and that the joints are square.
When you’ve completed the tenons, layout and cut the mortises in the two center rails for the slats as shown in detail ‘c.’ You can use the same technique as before.
Three thin slats fit between each of the center rails.
They’re made from %”-thick stock and have a W’-long tenon on each end.
After cutting them all to final _ size, simply cut the short tenons at the table saw.
Then you can round over the edges of the slats at the router table (detail ‘d’).
The first step in assembling the sides is to glue up the slats and the center rails.
Then, glue the rails and assembled slatted panel into the front leg first.
Finally, fit the back leg on the tenons, using a clamp at each joint for a tight assembly.
With the sides complete, you’re ready to move on to adding the trough and shelves.
Just turn the page to get started. www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 23 a. END VIEW • NOTE: All front stretchers have a gentle curve, see detail ‘e. ‘ ~34~ ~35 c. — F FRONT STRETCHERS F FRONT VIEW STRETCHERS &SHELVES STRETCHER NOTE: For information on laying out and cutting the curve, see the box below With the sides complete, you’re ready to move on to completing the bookrack.
You’ll start with stretchers that span the sides, then add a top and bottom shelf.
Finally, you’ll assemble and fit a trough-style bookshelf.
Three stretchers on the back and two on the front connect the sides and provide a stable frame for the bookcase.
And although each will get a slightly different treatment, you can begin by cutting them all to final size.
The next step is to move to the table saw and cut tenons on the stretchers.
At this point, it’s a good idea to label them and mark the individual layouts for each one.
The front stretchers will each need a gentle curve.
The box below shows an easy way to cut this curve. The top two stretchers also need a saw kerf to hold the tabletop fasteners that attach the top.
This is a simple cut using a standard blade on the table saw (detail ‘a’).
The center back stretcher has a chamfered edge to support the trough.
You can cut this chamfer at the table saw by tilting the blade to 45° and cutting off the comer.
ASSEMBLE THE FRAML With the stretchers complete, it’s time to assemble How-To: Cut the Curved Stretchers Layout.
Layout the curve by using a string and a thin strip of hardboard to form a bow.
Then draw the gently curved line. 24 Cut the Curve.
At the band saw, cut the curve.
Keep the blade slightly outside (on the waste side) of the layout line. Sand the Edge.
Use a sanding drum on a drill press or a spindle sander to smooth the curved edge. No.181 Woodsmith — Make aSto ed Groove Fence ( Drill & Chop.
Using a Forstner bit, drill overlapping holes at each end of the trough front to form the notches for the steel pins.
Then clean up the ridges in the sides with paring cuts, using a sharp chisel.
Www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith Grooves in the cleats hold the tabletop fasteners used to attach the shelf.
After cutting the cleats and the groove, just glue them in place.
Now you can turn your attention to the trough bookshelf.
MAKING THE TROUGH.
The trough shelf consists of two parts: a front and back that are assembled using a tongue and groove joint.
I used this joint because it provides plenty of glue surface for a strong assembly.
After cutting the two pieces to }inal size, install a l;4″-wide dado blade on the table saw.
Start by cutting the groove in the front piece using the measurements in detail’ c.’ Then cut a rabbet in the back piece to form the matching tongue.
After cutting the notches for the steel pins, as shown in the drawing at left, you can glue the two pieces together.
With steel pins in the front legs, you can fit the trough in position, resting against the back stretcher.
Now all that remains is to give the entire piece a final sanding and add a finish. ~ 25 tips from our shop Custom Saw Holders The saw till on page 38 features some custom-fitted holders for storing dovetail saws and back saws.
As you can see in the draw- ~ ing at right, the saw is supported at each end by a couple of blocks.
The handle block is custom fit to the saw handle and features a simpIe turnbutton to hold the saw in place.
The toe block has a groove and a lip on the top edge to cradle the end of the saw blade.
To make the handle block, I glued up a I”-thick blank and simply traced the outline of the inside of the handle.
Then I cut and sanded the block to shape.
A thin piece of wood is then screwed to the block to serve as a turnbutton.
Making the toe block is even easier.
You start by cutting a groove along the edge of the blank (detail ‘a’).
Next, trim off the front edge of the block to create a lip (detail b’).
A small chamfer completes the bk)ck.
Finally, both blocks are screwed in place to the back of the saw till. Toe block ,/ /’ / Size groove to match spine of back saw a. ” Trim off front edge of block — \ – \ FIRST: Plane blank to 9h6″thick SECOND: Rout rabbet on end of blank Cutting a Stopped Arc A band saw is great for cutting curves or arcs.
So naturally, this is the tool I turned to when it came time to cut the arc on the base of the mantel clock.
But if you take a look at the photo at right, you’ll notice that there is a shoulder at each end of the arc.
This makes cutting !he arc a little bit more challenging.
To do this, I start by cutting the shoulders of the arc on the table saw.
Raise the blade just high enough to establish the shoulder.
You can use the fence as a stop, as shown in Figure 1. ·Then just flip the workpiece around to cut the opposite shoulder.
The arc is cut in two separate passes.
This allows you to cut cleanly into both corners of the shoulders.
As you can see in Figure 2, the first pass removes most of the waste.
Then come back and make a second cut in the opposite direction to remove the remaining waste (Figure 3).
Finally, a little sanding will smooth out the edge of the arc profile. m , The front base trim of the mantel clock features a stopped arc that terminates in a shoulder at each end. Auxiliary fence Establish Shoulders.
Using the rip fence as a stop, raise the blade just high enough to cut the shoulders at the ends of the arc. www.Woodsmith.com Cut into Shoulder.
To remove the bulk of the waste, start near one end of the arc and stop the cut at the corner of the shoulder. Clean Up.
To remove the remammg waste, turn the workpiece around so you’re cutting into the opposite corner. 27 Woodsmith slide-out Trestle Table This twist on a traditional design makes room for extra seating.
And with a few simple techniques, you’ll have the table done quickly. The inspiration for this table comes from traditional trestle table design.
It features a large, breadboard top on a sturdy base.
But it has an interesting twist – each breadboard end slides out to accept a leaf.
H’s not often you find a trestle table that expands.
And if you do, the top splits in the middle for the drop-in leaves.
But with the leaves on the ends, there’s no need to build an elaborate expanding base.
Just pull the ends out and add the leaves.
The table is built around a sturdy base that includes a stretcher to keep it stable.
Simple, straightforward joinery keeps the stretcher in place.
And a simple system of guides and rails underneath the top allow the ends to slide out smoothly and effortlessly.
But the best part is, the top is made from plywood, so you don’t have to fuss with a complicated glueup.
The leaves are also cut from the same sheet of plywood, so matching them to the top is a piece of cake. No. 181 28 Woodsmith OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 72″L (90″ Extended) x 36″W x 30″H Leaves at end of table create room for extra seating Breadboard ends pull out to accommodate leaves Brackets offer extra support to tracks NOTE: Table seats six or eight when fully extended 1\ Patterns for cutting legs and arms are shown on page 31 Bullnose profile softens edges of stretcher and legs Bolts attach top to base Ends of stretcher are notched to fit between legs NOTE: Base is made from poplar Two legs wrap around stretcher to create rocksolid base NOTE: Feet and arms are glued up _ _–, from two layers Through mortises are created by cutting dadoes in both halves of feet before glueup Extension stop ~ Breadboard ends on the table pull out to make room for drop-in leaves, creating extra seating space. Locks on table and leaves keep extended top in place www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith Stepped dadoes create a pocket fOlrr_<::::::::::::~:::::::::=;l"""'~ extension rails _ ~ -- NOTE: Blanks for arms and feet are glued up out of two layers of 1" -thick stock TOP VIEW 2 You'll find more about this in the How-To box below.
Once the glue is dry, you can start work on shaping the four separate workpieces.
TABLE SAW WORK.
The first step in shaping the arms and feet is to spend some time at the table saw cutting the straight shoulder notches on these workpieces.
You can start by transferring the patterns on the opposite page to the faces of the arms and feet.
Then cut How-To: Glue Up Feet and Arms ~—-111i4 – – – – – .
I Cutting Dadoes.
Alignment marks on the auxiliary fence and the workpiece allow you to cut the dadoes in the arms and legs accurately 30 Glue Up_ Waxed keys in the dadoes keep the two workpieces aligned during the glueup. Shoulder Cut.
Use a dado blade to cut a smooth shoulder in the bottom of the arms and in the feet. Woodsmith No.
LSI the shoulders at the top of the feet and the bottom of the arms (HowTo box on opposite page).
After these shoulders were cut, I turned my attention to shaping the details on the arms.
The arms support the top, but they serve a second purpose, too.
The sliding extension rails that you’ll add later pass through notches in the arms.
It’s important to position these notches accurately so that the extension rails will slide freely through the notch.
To make sure these notches were cut correctly, I used a pair of stop blocks and a long auxiliary fence attached to the miter gauge.
You’ll find more information about cutting these notches in the box below.
SHAPING THE FEET & ARMS.
Once the notches are cut, you can cut the remaining shoulders and profile on the four workpieces.
Just cut to the waste side of the marked lines using a band saw.
Then smooth the curves with a sanding drum on the drill press.
Finally, you can clean up the shoulders on the four pieces with a chisel.
DRILL FOR ASSSEMBLY BOLTS.
The final step for the arms is to locate and drill the counterbored holes for the mounting bolts (Figure 1).
These holes are for the assembly bolts, which will be added later.
They also act as guides in the next part of the assembly, so you’ll want to take extra care to position them properly I drilled these holes using the drill press. a I9 r 5 ARM PATTERN I.. 1\ty–:.1Vz” t- radius I i — —- Cut the Arm Notches END VIEW Remove waste in several passes a. END VIEW Arm Notches.
Attach a stop block to each end of an auxiliary fence to establish the shoulders.
After cutting the inside shoulder, cut away the rest of the waste in multiple passes, until you reach the opposite stop block.
Then flip the workpiece around to cut the other notch. Remove Waste.
To complete the notch, lower the dado blade and nibble away the remaining waste. www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 31 NOTE: Legs and stretcher are made from 13M” -thick poplar Leg notches wrap around stretcher for a solid joint END VIEW Set position of fence flush with bearing — add the LEGS & STRETCHER With the arms and feet completed, the next step is to make the legs and the stretcher.
Each pair of legs wrap around the stretcher to form a solid Shop Tip: Third Arm Stretcher.
By clamping a board to a sawhorse and adjusting the height to match the router table, you’ll have plenty of support for the stretcher while you rout the ends. joint that locks the base together.
Both the legs and stretcher are finished at the router table with matching roundovers on the edges.
The four legs are identical, so making them is pretty simple.
After I cut the legs to size, I set up the table saw to cut tenons to fit the dadoes in the feet and arms.
It’s a good idea to start with the blade a bit low.
This way, you can sneak up on the height so the tenons fit the mortises snugly.
Next, I cut the notches on the legs that will wrap around the stretcher.
Just layout the location of the notches, as shown the drawing above and detail ‘b,’ and cut to the lines, using the rip fence as a stop.
The final step is to rout the profiles on the outside edges of the legs.
I used a I “-rad.
Roundover bit in the router table.
Detail ‘a’ shows the setup.
Test the cut on a scrap piece first.
This will let you make sure you have the profile just right.
Adding the stretcher that connects the two trestle Woodsmith ends is pretty straightforward.
It’s just a long piece that’s notched to create a narrow “waist” near each end.
The key to laying out these cuts is to pay close attention to the distance between the two notches.
This distance determines the spacing of the legs on the top during the final assembly, so it needs to measure exactly 50W’.
After cutting away the waste, you can rout the edges and the ends with a l”-rad.
Roundover bit, using a fence for the edges and a miter gauge and backer board for the ends.
The Shop TIp at left shows the setup I used to rout the ends.
It’s a good idea to spend a little time dry-fitting the base before you add the glue.
You can clamp the stretcher between the notches in the legs and then add the feet and arms to the assembly.
This way, you’ll know that everything fits well and is square.
Once you’re sure that the base fits, just add glue and you’re ready to start working on the top.
LSI 32 NOTE: Edge and end supports are made from %” plywood TABLE SIDE SUPPORT F a. . ~~ SIDE SECTION VIEW -1~V8 — END EDGING starting the Top I wanted this table to be a traditional trestle table, but one that was easy to build, so I chose plywood to make the tabletop.
The single layer of %” plywood is strengthened with supports glued to the underside that double as guides for the extension rails.
CUT TO SIZE.
To ensure I had a continuous grain match when the leaves are in place, I cut the top and the two leaves from a single sheet of plywood.
I started by ripping the plywood to final width, then cut a leaf off of each end.
It’s a good idea to mark the leaves before setting them aside to complete the top. LOCATE THE T-NUTS.
In order to attach the top to the base, I installed Tnuts in the underside of the top.
Locating these T-nuts is a little tricky, but I found a way to make sure they’re right on the money.
The first step is to cut the table side and end supports to size, but don’t glue them on yet.
With the tabletop face down on your workbench, position the supports on the outside edges and clamp them in place.
Place the inverted base on the tabletop and center it, matching the notches in the arms to the table side supports on both sides (HowTo box below and detail ‘a’).
Now use the counterbored holes in the arms to drill pilot holes through the side supports (detail ‘b’).
Remove the side supports and use the pilot holes to drill the counterbore for the T-nut.
To finish up, install the T-nuts and glue the supports to the top.
Next, I made edging for the plywood ends by cutting l,ig”thick strips from 1%”-thick hardwood.
It’s a good idea to cut some extra strips now – you’ll need them later for the leaves.
After the edging is glued to the tabletop, you’ll need to make a small opening for the extension rails.
I used a handsaw and chisel to make the opening (detail’c’). How-To: T-Nut Details Pilot Hole.
After positioning the supports and base, use the shank hole in the arm to drill a pilot hole in the side support for the T-nut Counterbore.
Center a Forstner bit over the pilot hole and drill out the counterbore for the T-nut. Glue Up.
Once the T-nut is installed, the side and end supports can be glued in place on the tabletop. www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 33 — 36 Woodsmith No. 181 If you don’t need the extra seating space that the table leaves provide, then you can permanently attach the breadboard ends to the top.
To do this, you’ll first need to lengthen the end supports to fit between the side supports.
And you can leave off the end edging.
The breadboard ends are attached with dowels.
I drilled five corresponding holes in the table top and breadboard ends.
Using a doweling jig will ensure the holes are aligned.
After you’ve added some glue, drive in the dowels and push the breadboard ends over the dowels. Glue breadboard end to tabletop Locate holes for dowels using dowel centers or brads V2″ x 3″ hardwood dowels Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram A B C 0 E F G H I J K L 1″ Arms (2) 2 x 5 – 34 2 x 9 – 34 Feet (2) Legs (4) 1% x 5 1 1 2 – 19 1 4 131 4 x 5 – 57 Stretcher (1) Tabletop (1) % ply. – 35 x 61 % Table Side Supports (2) % ply. – 4 x 61 314 Table End Supports (2) % ply. – 3% x 23 lis x 1/12 – 35 End Edging (6) lh x1 1 h -96rgh.
Bullnose Edging (2) 1112 X5-36 Breadboard Ends (2) 1 x 2 – 34 Extension Rails (4) 14x 1/12 -1112 Rail Stops (4) M N 0 p — c. SIDE SECTION VIEW T” 1 1_ adding the SHELVES & BACK At this point, a lot of the hard work is done.
Adding the three shelves and then the back is much less involved and goes quickly.
I started by cutting the top, middle, and bottom shelves to finished size.
All the shelves are sized to stand 1;4″ proud at the front of the case with the tenons extending liz” beyond the sides.
The next step is to form tenons on the ends of the shelves.
This is done by simply cutting a large notch through the middle, leaving a tenon at each edge (details ‘a’ and ‘h’).
The technique I used to accurately size the tenons is shown in the box at left.
A wide dado blade and a tall miter gauge fence are the key.
The tall fence allows you to hold the shelf upright as it’s passed over the dado blade.
The goal is to create a snug fit by matching the space between the tenons to the width of the notch in the sides.
The fact that the tenons at the front and back of each shelf are identical in size simplifies this.
With the rip fence set as a rough stop, I started cutting in the middle and worked toward the edges.
To perfect the joint, I made minor adjustments to the fence between test fits directly to the side.
The same rip fence setting can be used for the two lower shelves.
You’ll have to reset it for the top shelf.
RABBETS AND ANOTCH.
Once the joints are completed, the next step is to cut the joinery that will accommodate the back boards.
The top and bottom shelf have a stopped No.
LSI How-To: Tenons &Long Notch Matching Tenons.
Set the rip fence as a stop and Multiple Cuts.
The quickest way to cut the remove the waste with multiple cuts.
Flip the workpiece side-far-side to create matching tenons. 42 long notch in the middle shelf is to make multiple passes over a wide dado blade. Woodsmith — A Simple Chamfer.
A small chamfer in the back boards align, reference the inside face of each piece against the fence. routed on the edges of the back boards disguises the splined joint. The left side of the case is reserved for larger handsaws.
First, I made a handle kick to fit between the sides and glued it to the middle shelf, as shown in detail ‘d’ on the opposite page.
Then I screwed a slotted blade keeper to the back (detail’ c,’ at right).
The right side of the till is arranged to hold large and small back saws.
Three simple slotted racks positio~ed near the top cradle the smaller saws (detail ‘a’).
This leaves space below for a couple of larger saws.
The large back saws hang on fitted handle blocks with tumbuttons, as in detail’ d: And the toe of each saw rests in a grooved block below (detail ‘b’).
You’ll find details on making the handle and toe blocks on page 26.
Once all these details were taken care of and a finish applied, I mounted the till in a prominent place using black lag screws and washers.
If you’re like me, admiring your tools is almost as enjoyable as using them.
LW %” x 9″- 96″ Fir (6.0 Bd.
Ft.) Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram A B C D E F % x 71/;> x46 Sides (2) Top Shelf (1) % x 3 13116 – 26 1 /;> Middle/Bottom Shelf (2) %x7% -26 1 /;> I/;> x 3 1 /;> – 39 1 /;> Back Boards (7) 118 X % -39 1 /;> Splines (6) 3;’4 x 1% x 24 Handle Kick (1) 11 /;> x 21/;> – 8 1 12 G Handsaw Blade Keeper (1) H Back Saw Racks (3) % x 1% -6 1 x 1118 – 3 1 18 I Back Saw Handle Blocks (2) 5 116 x 3;’4 – 2% J Turnbuttons (2) K Back Saw Toe Blocks (2) 1 x 1% – 31 /;> • (16) #8 x 1″ Fh Woodscrews • (2) #8 x 1″ Rh Brass Woodscrews • (4) 1/,/’ x 2W’ Sq.
Lag Screws w/Washers • (46) 4d Finish Nails I, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,~ ,”,,,,e’ “‘3,1 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;,,,,,””mum 34″ x 8″ – 96” Fir (5.3 Bd.
Ft.) E I c I c — www.Woodsmith.com Woodsmith 43 hand-cut A few basic hand tools and an easy-to-master technique are all you need to cut clean, accurate dadoes the quiet way. For me, the attraction of cutting dadoes by hand is the slow, quiet pace and the chance to do a machine-quality job with a few basic hand tools.
To be honest, it’s not a woodworking skill that’s essential to master, but it is one that comes with a good dose of satisfaction.
And as anyone who has ever tried this basic technique can tell you, it really isn’t difficult.
You’ll only need a small assortment of tools for the job.
Take a look at the photo above and you’ll see the full complement: a combination square, a marking knife, a good-quality back saw, and a sharp chisel or two.
With your tools gathered on the bench, the first step is to lay out the dado.
The drawings along the bottom of the page show how to proceed with this.
I score all of the layout lines with a sharp marking knife, as shown in Figure 1.
A scored line is much more distinct and easier to follow than a pencil line.
And the bonus is that it can serve as a “starting line” for your saw and chisel cuts.
The mating workpiece is used to size the width of the dado (Figure 2).
And since the layout will guide all of your cuts, it needs to be thorough.
So along with the top shoulders, mark the edge shoulders and the baseline (Figure 3).
SAW THE SHOULDERS.
Once the layout is complete, you’re ready to establish the long shoulders of the dado with a couple of shallow saw cuts.
This is best accomplished with help from a guide fence clamped firmly to the workpiece, as shown in the photo above. square Workpiece to fit dado First Shoulder.
Measure and mark the location of one shoulder.
Use a square and marking knife to score a sharp line. 44 Custom Size.
Next, use the mating workpiece to mark the width of the dado.
Then score a line with the knife and square. Mark the Baseline.
Set the square to extend the shoulder lines onto the edge and mark the baseline of the dado. — Case side Case bottom NOTE: Sliding dovetail can also be used to join dividers to case side Sliding Dovetail.
A recessed bottom or dividers can be joined to the sides with a sliding dovetail. Dovetail Layout The drawings at right contrast the layout of drawer dovetails and case dovetails.
The pins and tails of drawer dovetails are generally more uniform, as in Figure l.
Case dovetails can be made with proportionally wider tails – 21 1z to 3 times the width of the pins (Figure 2).
Cutting fewer tails means less work without sacrificing any strength.
And for more holding power, you can layout the tails with a greater slope, up to 15°.
Www.Woodsmith.com Pins and tails are uniform in size and spacing Case top Case side a. Slope of drawer is lOto 10° 1–,—, dovetails Dovetails are 2V2 to 3 times the width of pins Slope of dovetail is 12°to 15° NOTE: Cutting wide tails reduces the amount of work Woodsmith 49 in the mailbox Questions & Answers Dust Collector vs.” Air ‘C leaner a , A dust collector is hooked up directly to a tool to remove dust at the source. considering installing either a dust collector or an air cleaner in my basement workshop.
My budget only allows for one.
Which do you recommend? — TRESTLE TABLE Much of the hardware you’ll need to build the trestle table can be found at a hardware store.
But you’ll have to order a couple of items.
The tabie leaf fasteners (00510.21) and the table alignment pins (00510.04) can be purchased from Lee Valley. MAIL ORDER SOURCES Project supplies may be ordered from the following companies: Wood smith Store 800-444-7527 INSERT ROUTER BITS Replaceable insert router bits, like Amana’s new In-Tech line, might be the wave of the future.
To be on the cutting edge, so to speak, go to Amana’s web site to locate a dealer near you.
Or take a look in the margin at right. PROJECT FINISHES On two of the projects in this issue, I let the wood do the talking.
The saw till and the oak bookcase are finished “naturally” with several coats of wiping varnish.
This simple finish gives the wood a pleasing amber glow.
The finish on the trestle table requires two stains.
The dark poplar base is stained with General Finishes Java Gel Stain.
The cherry top was stained with our favorite custom mix – 3 parts Zar Cherry Stain to 1 part Jel’d Cherry Stain.
I used this same mix to give the desk clock its warm, aged look. Grinding Wheels, In-Tech Router Bits, Special-Purpose Glues, Wolverine Grinding Jig Adria Tools 604-710-5748 MANTEL CLOCK Before starting on the mantel clock on page 16, I ordered the movement and a few other necessary items from Klockit.
Here’s what you’ll need: a six-melody quartz chime movement (12161), a white Roman numeral clock face (26618), a set of hands (66992), a package of turn buttons (39957), a %”-dia.
Brass knob (39051), a pair of brass hinges (39212), and a magnetic catch (39011).
You’ll find contact information at right. adriatools.com Back Saws Amana Tools 800-445-0077 amanatools.com GRINDER TOOL RESTS If you’re sold on the benefits of upgrading the tool rest on your bench grinder, you can’t go wrong with either option shown in the article on page 14.
The Wolverine Grinding Jig is available from either Woodcraft (125676) or RockIer (24707).
The Veritas Grinding Jig (05D13.02) comes from Lee Valley.
Another way to get better results from your bench grinder is to install a fast-cutting aluminumoxide grinding wheel.
You can purchase 6″- or 8″-dia.
Wheels in several grits from RockIer.
The contact information is at right. In-Tech Router Bits Klockit 800-556-2548 klockit.com Clock Hardware, Clock Movements Lee VaHey 800-871-8158 leevaHey.com OAK BOOKRACK You only need a couple of special hardware items to build the bookrack.
The bottom shelf is attached with tabletop fasteners from RockIer (34215).
I bought a section of steel rod at the hardware store to make the trough supports.
Read more about Whether it’s adding an edge profile or cutting a mortise, the router is a go-to tool: