Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….

posted in: Uncategorized | 0

Guardian Pine shaving Pellets Horses-store.comZebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….

1.1 Aetiology AHS is caused by a virus in the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae, which also contains bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses.

There are nine known serotypes of AHS virus.

Serotypes 1–8 are all highly pathogenic for horses and cause 90–95% of mortality but serotype 9 is slightly less pathogenic resulting in mortality rates of about 70% (Coetzer and Erasmus 1994). 1.2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family (Equidae: horses, mules, donkeys, zebras) are susceptible, with horses generally experiencing severest disease and highest mortality rates.

Zebras become infected but generally have mild or subclinical disease.

Dogs are also susceptible.

The disease does not affect humans.

The domestic horse should be considered an accidental or indicator host and does not remain a long-term carrier of the virus.

In Africa indigenous wild Equidae populations used to be plentiful enough to maintain the virus.

Zebra in Kruger National park maintain the virus through the year-round presence of the vector and susceptible zebra foals (Barnard 1994).

Little evidence of antibody to AHS virus has been detected in ruminants, with the possible exception of camels.

Serological surveys in Africa apparently showed AHS antibodies in elephant sera, but this is now thought to have been due to the elephant sera reacting nonspecifically in the complement fixation test used. 1.3 World distribution and occurrence in Australia AHS occurs endemically in all parts of Africa south of the Sahara, with periodic spread further north.

It has occurred in Egypt and the Middle East, extending to Pakistan and India in the early 1960s.

Spread also occasionally occurs from north Africa to the Iberian peninsula.

This distribution is primarily dictated by the presence of the principal insect vector, Culicoides imicola.

The most recent outbreaks were in Spain and Portugal (1987– 90), Algeria (1989) and Morocco (1989–91).

There has been no occurrence of AHS in Australia. 1.4 Diagnostic criteria [See Glossary for any terms not defined in the text] AHS can be suspected on the basis of clinical history but laboratory tests are required to confirm diagnosis and identify the virus serotype. 1 Electronic Version 2.0 — 43 Electronic Version 2.0 AUSVETPLAN African horse sickness REFERENCES ACIL Australia Pty Ltd (1992a).

The contribution of the racing industry to the economy of Australia.

ACIL Australia Pty Ltd (1992b).

The contribution of the racing industry to the economy of Victoria.

Barnard , B.J.H. (1994).

Epidemiology of African horse sickness: zebra virus reservoir.

In Foot and Mouth Disease, African Horse Sickness and Contagious Pleuropneumonia, Summaries and Conclusions from the OIE Scientific Conference, Gaborone, April 1994, OIE, Paris, France.

Burrage, T.G.

And Laegreid, W.W. (1994).

African horse sickness: pathogenesis and immunity.comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17:275-285.

Coetzer, J.A.W.

And Erasmus, B.J. (1994).

African horsesickness.

In Infectious Diseases of Livestock (eds J.A.W., Coetzer, G.R.

Thomson and R.C.

Tustin), Oxford University Press, pp 460–475.

Dubourget, P., Pread, J.M., Detraz, N., Lacoste, F., Fabry, A.C., Erasmus, B.J.

And Lombard, M. (1992).

Development, production and quality control of an industrial inactivated vaccine against African horse sickness virus serotype 4.

In Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness and Related Orbiviruses.

Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium (eds T.E.

Walton and B.I.

Osburn), CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, pp 874-886.

Geering, W.A.

And Forman, A.J.

And Nunn, M.J. (1995).

Exotic Diseases of Animals: A Field Guide for Australian Veterinarians, Bureau of Resource Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

MacDiarmid, S.

C. (1991).

The Importation into New Zealand of Meat and Meat Products – A review of the risks to animal health, MAF Policy NASS Pub 91-2, pp 71-72.

Pilkington, M.

And Wilson, G. (1993).

Australian Horses as a Primary Industry .

Bureau of Resource Sciences, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Rawlings, P.

And Mellor, P. (1994).

Foot and Mouth disease, African horse sickness and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia – Summaries and Conclusions, OIE Scientific Conference Gaborone, pp 41–42 Walton, T.E. (1992).

Attenuated and inactivated orbiviral vaccines.

In Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness and Related Orbiviruses (eds T.E.

Walton and B.I.

Osburn), CRC Press.

Pp 851– 855. Further reading Binepal, V.S., Wariru, B.N., Davies, F.G., Soi, R.

And Olubayo, R. (1992).

An attempt to define the host range for African horse sickness virus (Orbivirus, Reoviridae) in East Africa, by a serological survey in some Equidae, Camelidae, Loxodontidae and Carnivore.

Veterinary Microbiology, 31:19-23.

Blackburn, N.K.

And Swanpoel, R. (1988).

Observations on antibody levels associated with active and passive immunity to African horse sickness.

Tropical Animal Health and Production 20:203-210. Electronic Version 2.0 44 AUSVETPLAN African horse sickness Boorman, J., Mellor, P.S., Penn, M.

And Jennings, M. (1975).

The growth of African horsesickness virus in embryonated hen eggs and the transmission of virus by Culicoides variipennis Coquillet (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

Archives of Virology, 47:343-349.

Bourdin, P., Monnier-Cambod, J., Rioche, M.

And Laurent, A. (1970).

Vaccination against African horse sickness in tropical Africa: evaluation of an inactivated vaccine.

In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Equine Infectious Disease (eds J.T.

Bryans and H.

Gerber), Karger, New York, pp 202-206.

Brown, C.C.

And Cardiri, A.H. (1990).

African horse sickness: a continuing menace.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 196:2019-2021.

Du Toit, R.M. (1944).

The transmission of bluetongue and horse-sickness by Culicoides.

Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry, 19:7-16.

Erasmus, B.J. (1973).

The pathogenesis of African horse sickness.

In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Equine Infectious Diseases (eds J.T.

Bryans and H.

Gerber), Karger, New York, pp 1-11.

Hess, W R. (1988).

African horse sickness.

In The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, Volume II, ( eds T.P.

Monath), CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, pp 1-18.

Hooghuis, H., Rubio, C., Cubillo, M.A.

And Anadon, E. (1992).

Antibody titers in horses after vaccination with African horse sickness virus serotype 4.

In Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness and Related Orbiviruses.

Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium (eds T.E.

Walton and B.I.

Osburn), CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, pp 887-890.

House, J.A., Lombard, M., House, C., Dubourget, P.

And Mebus, C.A. (1992).

Efficacy of an inactivated vaccine for African horse sickness virus serotype 4.

In Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness and Related Orbiviruses.

Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium (eds T.E.

Walton and B.I.

Osburn), CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, pp 891-895.

Mellor, P.S., Boorman, J.

And Jennings M. (1975).

The multiplication of African horse sickness virus in two species of culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

Archives of Virology, 47:351356.

Mellor, P.S.; Boned, J.; Hamblin, C.

And Graham, S. (1990).

Isolations of African horse sickness virus from vector insects made during the 1988 epizootic in Spain.

Epidemiology and Infection, 105:447-454.

Mirchamsy, H., Hazrati, A., Bahrami, S., Shafyi, A.

And Nazari, P. (1973).

Development of new African horse sickness cell culture killed vaccines.

In Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference of Equine Infectious Diseases (eds J.T.

Bryans and H.

Gerber), Karger, New York, pp 81-87.

Mirchamsy, H.

And Taslimi, H. (1964).

Immunization against African horse sickness with tissue culture adapted neurotropic virus.

British Veterinary Journal, 120:481-486.

Mirchamsy, H.

And Taslimi, H. (1968).

Inactivated African horse sickness virus cell culture vaccine.

Immunology, 14:81-88.

Mirchamsy, H., Taslimi, H., and Bahrami, S. (1973).

Recent advances in immunization of horses against African horse sickness.

In Proceedings 2nd Conference of Equine Infectious Diseases (eds J.T.

Byrans and H.

Gerber), Karger, New York, pp 212-221.

Murray, M.D. (1970).

The spread of ephemeral fever of cattle during the 1967-68 epizootic in Australia.

Australian Veterinary Journal, 46:77-82.

Murray, M.D. (1987).

Akabane epizootics in New South Wales: evidence for long distance dispersal of the biting midge Culicoides brevitarsis .

Australian Veterinary Journal, 64:305308. 45

Read more about Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….:

Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra

Other Sources:

  • Horses, Horse Pictures, Horse Facts – National Geographic
  • Leyland Cypress & Arborvitae New York. Stables Garden Center …
  • Equine.com: Horses for Sale | Horse Classifieds, Pictures, Horse …
  • Equestrian Products – Guardian Horse Bedding, Equiderma Skin Products, Equilinn Sports Bra, Learn more about Guardian Pine shaving Pellets Horses-store.com HERE:

    Horses-Store.com and Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….
    Horses-Store.com - Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….
    Horses-Store.com and Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….
    Horses-Store.com - Zebra : 2 Susceptible species All members of the horse family Equidae….